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Video self-modeling: A job skills intervention with individuals with intellectual disabilities in employment settings

Dissertation
Author: Ailsa E. Goh
Abstract:
A large majority of adults with intellectual disabilities are unemployed. Unemployment of adults with intellectual disabilities is a complex multidimensional issue. Some barriers to employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities are the lack of job experience and skills training. In recent years, video-based interventions, such as video self-modeling (VSM) and video modeling, have been receiving substantial attention as viable methods to teach skills to individuals with intellectual disabilities. Initial empirical evaluations have demonstrated that VSM and video modeling, when used in combination with in-vivo instructional strategies, are effective methods to teach chained task to individuals with intellectual disabilities. However, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of VSM or video modeling as stand-alone interventions, without the addition of in-vivo instructional strategies, for teaching chained tasks. While research utilizing video-based interventions to teach independent daily living skills is gaining momentum, the use of video-based interventions in the area of job skills training is still lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of VSM to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities in employment settings. The purposes of this study were to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of VSM to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities, (b) explore the effectiveness and feasibility of VSM alone or in combination with feedback and practice, and (c) evaluate the social validity of VSM in employment settings. Particularly in this study, the VSM intervention (i.e., VSM alone or in combination with feedback and practice) did not include an in-vivo instructional component in order to evaluate if the VSM intervention can lead to generalization of the job tasks to the actual job setting. Three adults with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. A within participant multiple probe design across targeted job tasks, replicated across the three participants, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of VSM in this study. All of the participants demonstrated increased task acquisition with the VSM intervention; however, the effectiveness of VSM alone, or in combination with feedback and practice, varied across participants and job tasks. In terms of social validity, the participants, their job coaches, and the supervisors of the supported employment program, reported overall positive perceptions of the videotaping procedure and VSM intervention. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.

Table of Contents

Title Page

Copyright Page ii

Signature Page iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of Contents vi

List of Tables xiii

List of Figures xiv

Abstract 1

Chapter 1: Statement of the Problem 3

Background 3

Job Skills Training 4

Video-based Interventions 5

Video Self-Modeling 7

Video Self-Modeling for Teaching Chained Job Tasks 10

Summary and Purpose of the Study 12

Research Questions and Hypotheses 13

Chapter 2: Review of Literature 15

Video Prompting 16

Computer-based Video Instruction 19

Video Modeling 20

Video Self-Modeling 24

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History of self-modeling 24

Theoretical foundations of VSM 25

What is VSM? 26

VSM procedures 27

Assessment 27

Task analysis 27

Videotaping 27

Editing 28

Viewing schedule 28

Evaluation 29

Applications of VSM with the general population 29

Communication skills 29

Selective mutism 30

Physical skills 30

Applications of VSM with individuals with disabilities 31

Physical skills 31

Academic skills 32

Reduction of problem behaviors 33

Increasing pro-social skills 34

Chained tasks 35

Summary 40

Chapter 3: Methodology 42

Participants 42

viii

Settings 45

Instructional settings 45

Performance observation settings 46

Videotaping settings 46

Target Behaviors and Response Definitions 47

Dependent Measure and Recording Procedures 48

Percentage of steps completed correctly 48

Performance observations 49

Observer and Observer Training 49

Interobserver Agreement 50

Procedural Fidelity 51

Procedural fidelity during VSM sessions 51

Procedural fidelity during performance observations 52

Instructor 52

Experimental Design 52

Experimental Conditions 53

Baseline 1 53

Creation of video 54

Videotaping 55

Video editing 56

Edited videos 56

Baseline 2 57

VSM alone 57

ix

VSM plus feedback (VSM 2) 59

VSM plus feedback and practice (VSM 3) 61

Maintenance 62

Social Validity 63

Data Analysis 64

Chapter 4: Results 65

Interobserver Agreement 65

Procedural Fidelity 65

Procedural fidelity during VSM sessions 66

Procedural fidelity during performance observations 66

Percentage of Steps Completed Correctly 67

Daniel 67

Shoe Cleaning 67

Book Room 68

Jonathan 68

Fitting Room 68

Shoe Storing 69

Computer 69

Maria 70

Conference Packet 70

Paper Shredder 71

Photocopier 72

Social Validity 72

x

Social validity of videotaping session 73

Social validity of VSM intervention 74

Summary of Results 74

Chapter 5: Discussion 77

Evaluation of Outcomes 78

VSM alone 78

VSM intervention package 79

VSM plus feedback (VSM 2) 79

VSM plus feedback and practice (VSM 3) 80

Social validity 81

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of VSM 82

Contributions to the Literature 86

General Limitations 88

Implications for Future Research 93

Implications for Practice 95

Conclusion 96

Tables 97

Figures 118

References 121

Appendices 138

Appendix A: Procedure to Evaluate Modeling Skills 138

Appendix B1: Daniel – Shoe Cleaning: Operational Definitions 140

Appendix B2: Daniel – Book Room: Operational Definitions 142

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Appendix C1: Jonathan – Fitting Room: Operational Definitions 144

Appendix C2: Jonathan – Shoe Storing: Operational Definitions 146

Appendix C3: Jonathan – Computer: Operational Definitions 148

Appendix D1: Maria – Conference Packet: Operational Definitions 149

Appendix D2: Maria – Paper Shredder: Operational Definitions 151

Appendix D3: Maria – Photocopier: Operational Definitions 153

Appendix E1: Daniel – Shoe Cleaning: Data Sheet 154

Appendix E2: Daniel – Book Room: Data Sheet 155

Appendix F1: Jonathan – Fitting Room: Data Sheet 156

Appendix F2: Jonathan – Shoe Storing: Data Sheet 157

Appendix F3: Jonathan – Computer: Data Sheet 158

Appendix G1: Maria – Conference Packet: Data Sheet 159

Appendix G2: Maria – Paper Shredder: Data Sheet 160

Appendix G3: Maria – Photocopier: Data Sheet 161

Appendix H1: Daniel – Shoe Cleaning: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 162

Appendix H2: Daniel – Book Room: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 163

Appendix I1: Jonathan – Fitting Room: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 164

Appendix I2: Jonathan – Shoe Storing: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 165

Appendix I3: Jonathan – Computer: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 166

Appendix J1: Maria – Conference Packet: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 167

Appendix J2: Maria – Paper Shredder: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 168

Appendix J3: Maria – Photocopier: IOA & Procedural Fidelity form 169

xii

Appendix K1: Procedural Fidelity Form: VSM alone 170

Appendix K2: Procedural Fidelity Form: VSM plus Feedback 171

Appendix K3: Procedural Fidelity Form: VSM plus Feedback & Practice

172

Appendix L: Social Validity Form – Videotaping Session: Supervisor/Job Coach 173

Appendix M: Social Validity Form – Videotaping Session: Participant 175

Appendix N: Social Validity Form – VSM Intervention: Supervisor/Job Coach 176

Appendix O: Social Validity Form – VSM Intervention: Participant 179

Curriculum Vita 180

xiii

List of Tables Table 1: Description of Participant and Employment Characteristics Table 2: Description of Job Tasks Table 3: Task Analyses for Daniel Table 4: Task Analyses for Jonathan Table 5: Task Analyses for Maria Table 6: Mean Percent and Range of Interobserver Agreement on Dependent Measures Table 7: Mean Percent and Range of Steps Adhered to by Instructor during VSM Sessions Table 8: Mean Percent and Range of Steps Adhered to by Job Coaches during Performance Observations Table 9: Mean Social Validity Responses of Participants for Videotaping Session Table 10: Mean Social Validity Responses of Job Coaches and Supervisors for Videotaping Session Table 11: Mean Social Validity Responses of Participants for VSM Intervention Table 12: Mean Social Validity Responses of Job Coaches and Supervisors for VSM Intervention

xiv

List of Figures Figure 1: Percentage of Steps Completed Correctly Across Two Job Tasks for Daniel Figure 2: Percentage of Steps Completed Correctly Across Three Job Tasks for Jonathan Figure 3: Percentage of Steps Completed Correctly Across Three Job Tasks for Maria

1

Abstract A large majority of adults with intellectual disabilities are unemployed. Unemployment of adults with intellectual disabilities is a complex multidimensional issue. Some barriers to employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities are the lack of job experience and skills training. In recent years, video-based interventions, such as video self- modeling (VSM) and video modeling, have been receiving substantial attention as viable methods to teach skills to individuals with intellectual disabilities. Initial empirical evaluations have demonstrated that VSM and video modeling, when used in combination with in-vivo instructional strategies, are effective methods to teach chained task to individuals with intellectual disabilities. However, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of VSM or video modeling as stand-alone interventions, without the addition of in-vivo instructional strategies, for teaching chained tasks. While research utilizing video-based interventions to teach independent daily living skills is gaining momentum, the use of video-based interventions in the area of job skills training is still lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of VSM to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities in employment settings. The purposes of this study were to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of VSM to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities, (b) explore the effectiveness and feasibility of VSM alone or in combination with feedback and practice, and (c) evaluate the social validity of VSM in employment settings. Particularly in this study, the VSM intervention (i.e., VSM alone or in combination with feedback and practice) did not include an in-vivo instructional component in order to evaluate if the VSM intervention can lead to generalization of the job tasks to the actual job setting. Three adults with intellectual

2

disabilities participated in this study. A within participant multiple probe design across targeted job tasks, replicated across the three participants, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of VSM in this study. All of the participants demonstrated increased task acquisition with the VSM intervention; however, the effectiveness of VSM alone, or in combination with feedback and practice, varied across participants and job tasks. In terms of social validity, the participants, their job coaches, and the supervisors of the supported employment program, reported overall positive perceptions of the videotaping procedure and VSM intervention. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.

3

Chapter 1 Statement of the Problem Background Unemployment affects a large majority of adults with disabilities. The unemployment rate of adults with disabilities has remained relatively unchanged at 60- 70% since the 1990s (Harris, 1994, 2004; Stapleton & Burkhauser, 2003). According to the President’s Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities (PCPID, 2004), around 90% of adults with intellectual disabilities are unemployed. Even though many positive changes in legislature, Social Security Administration work incentives, advances in rehabilitation technology, and supported employment should have expanded and maintained work opportunities, adults with disabilities are still unable to consistently gain good quality employment. Unemployment of individuals with disabilities is a complicated multidimensional issue that affects human services program, business, society, family and most importantly, the individual (Wehman, Brooke, & Revell, 2007). Meaningful employment is an element of quality of life for adults with disabilities (Rusch & Millar, 1998). Employment improves quality of life in terms of economic well being, self-sufficiency, opportunities to form friendships, and meaningful inclusion in society. Individuals with disabilities, who participate in supported employment programs where they work within the community with support from job coaches, also experienced a higher level of inclusion in their community than individuals in sheltered employment situations (Murphy & Rogan, 1995; Wehman, Inge, Revell, & Brooke, 2007). Furthermore, employment is an influential factor in the development of various adaptive

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skills such as physical abilities, cognitive abilities, and social skills for individuals with developmental disabilities (Stephens, Collins, & Dodder, 2005). There are several factors leading to unemployment or lack of job tenure for adults with disabilities. Kregel (2001) noted that some causes of chronic unemployment of individuals with disabilities are system-wide issues, such as (a) ongoing myths and misconceptions that lead to employment discrimination, (b) antiquated and ineffective service delivery systems, (c) irrational disincentives to employment found in the Social Security disability programs, (d) lack of access to employment programs funded through the Department of Labor, and (e) failure of school-to-work transition programs. Research has shown that other factors that affect job tenure are low work productivity and lack of social skills in the workplace (Greenspan & Shoultz, 1981; Hanley-Maxwell, Rusch, Chadsey-Rusch, & Renzaglia, 1986; Salzberg, Agran, & Lignugaris/Kraft, 1986). However, work productivity remains the primary concern of employers (Salzberg et al.). Thus, there is a need for research in the area of job skills training for adults with intellectual disabilities in employment settings. Job Skills Training Most job tasks or routines are chained tasks that consist of multiple steps. For individuals with intellectual disabilities, chained tasks are typically tasks analyzed into smaller steps and then taught using prompting procedures (Snell & Brown, 2006). Prompting procedures, such as system of least prompts (Simmons & Flexer, 1992; Test, Grossi, & Keul, 1988), simultaneous prompting (Fetko, Schuster, Harley, & Collins, 1999; Maciag, Schuster, Collins, & Cooper, 2000), and constant time delay (CTD;

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Chandler, Schuster, & Stevens, 1993), have been successful in teaching multi-step job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities. Individuals with intellectual disabilities may become dependent on the prompts provided by their instructors. In order to minimize instructor prompt dependency and increase independence, researchers have examined the effectiveness antecedent prompts, such as picture books and audiotape recordings (Bambara & Cole, 1997). These antecedent prompts allow for the transfer of stimulus control away from the instructor to the individual. For job skills training, researchers have successfully incorporated antecedent prompts, such as picture prompts (Steed & Lutzker, 1997; Wacker & Berg, 1983; Wacker, Berg, Berrie, & Swatta, 1985; Wilson, Schepis, & Mason-Main, 1987), auditory prompts (Alberto, Sharpton, Briggs, & Stright, 1986; Mitchell, Schuster, Collins, & Gassaway, 2000), and combinations of picture and auditory prompts (Cihak, Kessler, & Alberto, 2007; Riffel et al., 2005). Video-Based Interventions With the recent increases in the use of video technology in special education (Mechling, 2005), video prompting has also been studied with chained tasks. Although video prompting has not been utilized for the instruction of job tasks, it has been effective for the instruction of daily living skills to individuals with intellectual disabilities (Graves, Collins, Schuster, & Kleinert, 2005; Sigafoos, et al., 2005; Sigafoos, et al., 2007). For example, in a study by Sigafoos and colleagues (2005), they utilized a portable computer to present the video clips of the steps required to make popcorn using a microwave oven. A video clip of a step of the task would be presented to the participant, and after viewing the video clip, the participant was given 30 seconds to

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complete the step. The participant was video prompted through all the steps of the task analysis. Two of the three participants acquired the task when video prompting was introduced and performed at 80-100% correct when video prompting was withdrawn. During video prompting, the instructor usually controls the presentation of the video prompts while the participant is passively observing the video clips. But another video strategy, computer-based video instruction (CBVI), allows the participant to interact with the computer program as s/he views the video clips of the task analysis. Mechling and Ortega-Hurndon (2007) demonstrated the effectiveness of CBVI to teach job skills to three adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. The instructors taught the participants to select the correct photographs of each step of the task analysis on the computer touch screen. The correct photographs were hyperlinked to digital video clips that automatically played the step of the task analysis corresponding to the photograph. All the participants learned to perform the job tasks in actual job sites. Another relatively new video-based strategy is video modeling. Video modeling is the procedure where a participant watches a video demonstration of a skill and is then required to perform the skill at a later time (Mechling, 2005). The video model is usually a same-age peer or a familiar instructor; however, subjective viewpoint videos, where the video recordings are made from the participant’s point of view or eye level, have also been used. The effectiveness of video modeling has been demonstrated with daily living skills (Bidwell & Rehfeldt, 2004; Branham, Collins, Schuster, & Kleinert, 1999). For instance, Bidwell and Rehfeldt investigated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach three adults with severe intellectual disabilities a daily living skill (i.e., making coffee) with an embedded social initiation (i.e., serving coffee to and sitting down beside a peer).

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All three participants mastered the task and demonstrated generalization across settings, stimuli, and people. Video Self-Modeling One video strategy that has yet to be explored for chained job tasks training in employment settings is video self-modeling (VSM). Instead of observing a model perform a task on video, as in video modeling, VSM involves the process of repeated observation of oneself on edited videotapes that depict only appropriate or desired behaviors (Dowrick, 1991). The strongest theoretical basis for VSM is the social learning theory (Bandura, 1969) that suggests that learning can occur simply by observing the behavior of others and the consequences they experience. In addition, according to social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), the closer the model resembles the observer, the greater the effect it will have on the target behavior. In self-modeling, since the observer is also the model, the anticipated effect on the target behavior should be the greatest. Bandura (1986, 1997) asserted that with VSM the individual views himself or herself on video performing a task successfully; therefore, VSM provides not only clear information on how the skill is performed but it may potentially strengthen self-belief, thus increasing self-efficacy. However, there has yet to be any empirical evaluations that demonstrated the increase of self-belief and self-efficacy with VSM. VSM has great potential for job skills training in employment settings. First, VSM research studies have shown good generalization effects across novel tasks (McGraw-Hunter, Faw, & Davis, 2006) and across settings (Bray & Kehle, 1996; Buggey, 2005; Lonnecker, Brady, McPherson, & Hawkins, 1994; Wert & Neisworth, 2003). For example, Wert and Neisworth demonstrated the effectiveness of VSM to

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increase spontaneous requesting in preschool children with autism. Although the VSM videos were shot in the children’s home and the children viewed the videos at home, the spontaneous requesting behavior generalized to school settings. Similarly, McGraw- Hunter and colleagues found that VSM was effective in teaching stovetop meal preparation to adults with traumatic brain injury. The participants learned to prepare a boxed stovetop rice meal but they also generalized the skill to stovetop noodles, which required different steps and different cooking times. Second, besides good generalization effects, VSM studies also reported strong maintenance effects (Bray & Kehle, 1996; Buggey, 2005; Dowrick & Ward, 1997; Wert & Neisworth, 2003). For instance, Buggey demonstrated the effectiveness of VSM to increase social initiations in children with autism. The children made immediate and substantial gains in the frequency of their social initiations, plus the frequency of social initiations maintained at high levels when the VSM intervention was withdrawn. Likewise, Clare, Jenson, Kehle, and Bray (2000) also found that VSM was effective in increasing appropriate classroom behaviors (e.g., engagement) of elementary students with learning and behavior problems. The students’ on-task behavior increased to a level similar to their peers. For two of the students, the effects maintained after a 4-week summer vacation. Once a VSM video has been produced, it could easily be used to program for maintenance. Thus, in employment settings, when an employee has not performed a certain job task for some time, s/he could easily review the VSM video of that particular job task before performing the job task. Third, VSM interventions are not intrusive in inclusive employment settings. Except for time used to capture the videos, the VSM intervention itself only requires

9

viewing a 2-5 minute video outside of actual work situation (Dowrick, 1991). Thus, if effective, the employee can learn new job skills without direct prompting from the instructor or job coach. This has the potential of reducing stigma and time needed for training on the job. Lastly, in studies where social validity assessment was conducted, participants evaluated the intervention positively (Bray & Kehle, 1996; Buggey, 2005; Clare et al., 2000). For example, the teachers in the study by Buggey gave “extremely positive” reports about the VSM procedure. The parents of the students also reported positive changes seen in the home. Furthermore, the teachers reported that everyone involved in the videotaping had enjoyed the videotaping session and that the students seemed to enjoy their videos. Similarly, in the study by Clare and colleagues, the students reported positive reactions to VSM in the consumer satisfaction questionnaires that were administered to them at the end of the intervention. The students indicated that they enjoyed watching their respective videotapes and judged the intervention effective in increasing their on-task behavior. However, because VSM has yet to be evaluated in employment settings, it is not known if employers and employees would have similar positive reports about VSM. Although VSM has not been evaluated in employment settings with individuals with intellectual disabilities, VSM has been examined and found to be effective for a variety of training and therapeutic applications with diverse populations (such as children and adults with or without disabilities) and settings (including home, school and community settings) (Dowrick, 1999; Hitchcock, Dowrick, & Prater, 2003; Meharg & Woltersdorf, 1990). Research studies examining VSM have demonstrated its

10

effectiveness with the following target behaviors: improving physical skills (Dowrick & Dove, 1980; Dowrick & Raeburn, 1995), teaching academic skills (Dowrick, Kim- Rupnow, & Power, 2006; Schunk & Hanson, 1989; Woltersdorf, 1992), reducing problem behaviors (Buggey, 2005; Davis, 1979; Kehle, Clark, Jenson, & Wampold, 1986; Woltersdorf, 1992), and increasing prosocial skills (Buggey, 2005; Clare et al., 2000; Lonnecker et al., 1994; Wert & Neisworth 2003). Video Self-Modeling for Teaching Chained Job Tasks Use of VSM for training chained job tasks has yet to be evaluated. Additionally, only three studies have evaluated VSM with chained tasks (Lasater & Brady, 1995; McGraw-Hunter, et al., 2006; Van Laarhoven, Zurita, Johnson, Grider, & Grider, 2009). Lasater and Brady demonstrated the effectiveness of an instructional package that included self-assessment, behavior rehearsal and VSM to improve task fluency of self- help skills of two adolescents with developmental disabilities and behavioral disorders. During an instructional session, the instructor implemented a 20-minute instructional package including (a) the participant viewing a series of vignettes of himself performing the training tasks, (b) the instructor questioning the participant about the behaviors seen in each vignette, (c) discrimination training in which the instructor asked the participant to point out specific correct and incorrect behaviors on the video, (d) behavioral rehearsal in which the instructor and the participant role-played and rehearsed the correct behavior, and (e) the instructor reminding the participant of "trouble spots" and to practice correct steps. During performance observations, whenever the participant performed a step incorrectly, the trainer also provided a verbal prompt to the participant. Performance observation data indicated that the participants' task fluency increased and task interfering

11

behavior decreased during training phase and maintenance phase when the video training was discontinued. Another study that evaluated VSM with a chained task (McGraw-Hunter et al., 2006) also demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of VSM and system of least prompts to teach a stovetop cooking skill to individuals with traumatic brain injury. The participants first watched the VSM video, and then, during performance observations, the instructor implemented a system of least prompts to teach the cooking skill. Three of the four participants achieved criterion performance within four intervention sessions and their performances maintained at above 80% correct during the 2-week and 4-week follow-up sessions. In addition, all three participants performed at above 90% of the steps in the generalization task (i.e., preparing stovetop noodles) that required different cooking steps and different cooking times. The most recent study that evaluated VSM with chained tasks was conducted to compare the effectiveness of self-, other-, and subjective video models on teaching daily living skills to three individuals with intellectual disabilities (Van Laarhoven et al., 2009). The participants were taught a different skill within each video condition and the skills were counter-balanced across conditions and participants to control for task difficulty. In addition, during performance observations, the instructor implemented a system of least prompts to teach the skills. The results indicated that all three video conditions were effective in promoting task acquisition in both instructional and generalizational settings. Although the studies (Lasater & Brady, 1995; McGraw-Hunter, et al., 2006; Van Laarhoven et al., 2009) demonstrated the effectiveness of instructional packages that

12

included VSM and other components, they did not assess the effectiveness of VSM alone to teach chained tasks. Thus, in addition to exploring the application of VSM to employment settings, there is a need to systematically evaluate the components of VSM instructional packages to determine the effects of VSM alone and/or in combination with other instructional strategies. Summary and Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was threefold. The first purpose was to investigate the effectiveness of VSM to teach job skills to adults with intellectual disabilities in employment settings. Although not a new strategy, VSM has only gained momentum recently due to the advancement of user-friendly technologies. VSM has many potential advantages, such as good generalization and maintenance effects and non-intrusiveness, which make VSM a good fit with job skills training. Thus far, there has not been a research study published on the use of VSM to teach job skills in an employment setting. The second purpose was (a) to evaluate the use of VSM to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities, and (b) to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of using VSM alone or in combination with other strategies to enhance effectiveness. Only three studies have evaluated the effectiveness of VSM with chained tasks (Lasater & Brady, 1995; McGraw-Hunter et al., 2006; Van Laarhoven et al., 2009). The studies utilized a VSM instructional package that included other components, such as behavioral rehearsal and instructor prompting. Therefore, it was not known if VSM alone would be sufficient to teach the tasks. In addition, if VSM alone was not sufficient to increase acquisition of a chained task, this study was designed to systematically explore the effectiveness of adding other instructional strategies to VSM.

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The third purpose was to evaluate the social validity, such as consumer satisfaction and treatment acceptability, of VSM in employment settings. Through questionnaires and anecdotal reports, several research studies have shown that the procedures and the VSM videos have good social validity. However, these studies were conducted in either school or home settings, and not in employment settings. Because of the nature of employment settings, where work productivity was important and this often led to a tight work schedule, the supervisors’ and job coaches’ opinions of the feasibility of VSM were important. In addition, the participants’ satisfaction with the VSM procedures and videos was vital in the sustainability of this intervention. Research Questions and Hypotheses The following research questions were addressed in this study: 1. What are the effects of VSM alone on the acquisition of chained job tasks by individuals with intellectual disabilities in employment settings? It was hypothesized that with the implementation of VSM alone, the participants’ percentage of steps completed correctly would be greater during intervention and maintenance phases than during baseline. 2. And if VSM alone does not increase the acquisition of chained job tasks, what are the effects of a VSM intervention package (i.e., VSM and instructor feedback alone or in combination with practice) on the acquisition of chained job tasks by individuals with intellectual disabilities in employment settings? It was hypothesized that with the implementation of a VSM intervention package, the participants’ percentage of steps completed correctly would be greater during intervention and maintenance phases than during baseline.

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3. What are the perceptions of the participants, job coaches, and supervisors of the supported employment program regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of the VSM intervention? It was hypothesized that participants, job coaches, and supervisors would have positive perceptions of the procedures and the effectiveness of VSM intervention. More specifically, (a) the participants would like watching their own VSM videos and would perceive the VSM intervention as being helpful in learning job tasks, and (b) the job coaches and supervisors would perceive the VSM procedures as being acceptable and the VSM intervention effective in teaching job tasks.

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Chapter 2 Review of the Literature Employment is an important factor to the quality of life of an adult with intellectual disabilities (Rusch & Millar, 1998). In addition, employment is an influential factor in the development of various adaptive skills such as physical abilities, cognitive abilities, and social skills for individuals with intellectual disabilities (Stephens et al., 2005). At a minimum, in order to obtain and maintain employment, adults with intellectual disabilities must be able to demonstrate their ability to acquire and maintain job skills with a certain level of proficiency and job independence. Therefore, one of the emphases of secondary school transition programs and supported employment programs should be job skills training. A substantial body of research has focused on strategies for teaching employment skills to individuals with intellectual disabilities (Berg, Wacker, & Flynn, 1990; Inge & Moon, 2006). Many job skills (e.g., photocopying, food preparation, cleaning) are chained tasks that require an individual to perform a series of steps to complete the whole task or routine. Historically, systematic instruction has been commonly used to teach chained job tasks to adults with intellectual disabilities (Snell & Brown, 2006; Westling & Fox, 2000). With systematic instruction, a task analysis is first carried out to analyze and break the job task into multiple individual steps, then a prompting procedure (CTD, system of least prompts, simultaneous prompting) is used to teach the individual steps (Chandler et al., 1993; Maciag et al., 2000; Simmons & Flexer, 1992). In addition, antecedent prompts (e.g., picture, audio prompts) have been used to facilitate the acquisition of a complex job task by providing employees with prompts for each step of

Full document contains 204 pages
Abstract: A large majority of adults with intellectual disabilities are unemployed. Unemployment of adults with intellectual disabilities is a complex multidimensional issue. Some barriers to employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities are the lack of job experience and skills training. In recent years, video-based interventions, such as video self-modeling (VSM) and video modeling, have been receiving substantial attention as viable methods to teach skills to individuals with intellectual disabilities. Initial empirical evaluations have demonstrated that VSM and video modeling, when used in combination with in-vivo instructional strategies, are effective methods to teach chained task to individuals with intellectual disabilities. However, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of VSM or video modeling as stand-alone interventions, without the addition of in-vivo instructional strategies, for teaching chained tasks. While research utilizing video-based interventions to teach independent daily living skills is gaining momentum, the use of video-based interventions in the area of job skills training is still lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of VSM to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities in employment settings. The purposes of this study were to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of VSM to teach chained job tasks to individuals with intellectual disabilities, (b) explore the effectiveness and feasibility of VSM alone or in combination with feedback and practice, and (c) evaluate the social validity of VSM in employment settings. Particularly in this study, the VSM intervention (i.e., VSM alone or in combination with feedback and practice) did not include an in-vivo instructional component in order to evaluate if the VSM intervention can lead to generalization of the job tasks to the actual job setting. Three adults with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. A within participant multiple probe design across targeted job tasks, replicated across the three participants, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of VSM in this study. All of the participants demonstrated increased task acquisition with the VSM intervention; however, the effectiveness of VSM alone, or in combination with feedback and practice, varied across participants and job tasks. In terms of social validity, the participants, their job coaches, and the supervisors of the supported employment program, reported overall positive perceptions of the videotaping procedure and VSM intervention. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.