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The Use of Motivational Interviewing within School Counseling Programs with Academically Unmotivated Eighth Grade Students

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Heather D Hadraba
Abstract:
School counselors are challenged with creating a wide range of programs to address three developmental domains: personal/social, career, and academic, with an increasing requirement to provide accurate and sufficient data substantiating their professional contributions to students' academic achievement. At the same time, the professional literature reports that during adolescence there is a documented decline in academic motivation for an alarming percent of students. As a result, at-risk students are often referred to school counselors with a brief comment, capable but unmotivated . Such referrals leave school counselors in want of strategies to enhance students' motivation for academic success. Finding a strategy that is effective with a diverse student caseload, enhances a counselor's efficiency and overall impact on students' achievement and successful school completion, which ultimately benefits students and society. Such a strategy, Motivational Interviewing (MI) was developed as a client-centered method for therapeutic work with addictive behaviors. Motivational Interviewing attempts to promote behavior change by building intrinsic motivation, through amplifying and clarifying discrepancies between a client's behaviors and values or goals. Literature from counseling and education suggests that MI may have applications over a variety of counseling settings. A literature review discusses concerns related to student achievement, describes motivation as a primary component of academic achievement, documents a need for interventions that improve the academic motivation of adolescents, provides information on the new vision for school counseling programs, emphasizes the challenges faced by counselors working with academically unmotivated students, describes MI as an intervention strategy, and suggests that MI may be appropriately used with adolescents in academic settings. A multiple baseline research study attempted to identify if capable, yet underachieving students could enhance their academic motivation and academic success by participating in Motivational Interviewing sessions. Results of this study documented that for two of the three participants, work production increased after MI sessions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Chapter 1: General Introduction……………………………………………… … 1

Dissertation Overview …………………………………………………...1

Thematic Introduction …………………………………………………...2

Rationale ………………………………………………………………....5

Glossary of Terms …………… … ……………………………………......9

Chapter 2: A Review of the Literature: The Use of Motivational Intervi e wing

within School Counseling Programs for Academically Unmotivated

Eighth Grade Students…………………………………………………………… 10

Abstract ………………………………………………………………… .. 11

Introduction ……………………………………… ………………………12

Overview of Academic Achievement Concerns …………………………14

Motivation as a Primary Component of Academic Achievement ………..16

Intervention is Critical During Middle - School Years …………………….18

The New Role for School Counselors …………………………………….20

Schoo l Counselors’ Need for Intervention Strategies ……………………..22

Motivational Interviewing as a Promising Intervention …………………...24

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………29

Chapter 2 References ………………………………………………………32

Chapter 3: Determining the Success of Motivati onal Interviewing with Academically

Unmotivate d Eighth Grade Students in a School Counseling setting ……………… 42

Abstract …… ……………………………………………………………….. . 43

Introduction ………………………………………………………………….44

Review of the Literature ……………………………………………………..45

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Page

Academic Achievement Concerns ……………………………………45

Motivation as a Primary Component of Aca d emic Achievement …….4 5

Intervention During Middle School …………………………………...47

The New Role for School Counselors ………………………………....47

School Counseling and Intervention Strategies ……………………….. 49

Motivational Interviewing ……………………………………………...50

Motivational Interviewing Strategies and Principles …………………………...52

MI Therapist Skills ……………………………………………………...53

Materials and Methodology ……………………………………………………..55

Research Design …………………………………………………………55

Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………….56

Participants ………………………………………………………………57

Participant Criteria ……………………………………………………….57

Informed Consent ………………………………………………………...58

Data Collection ………………………………………………………......58

Treatment ………………………………………………………………...59

Treatment Fidelity ………………………………………………………..59

Procedures ………………………………………………………………..59

Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………….60

Discussion ……………………………………………………………………… ..68

Limitations of the Study ………………………………………………………….69

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Page

Implications for Researchers …………………………………………………. 71

Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………. 72

Chapter 3 References ………………………………………………………….74

Chapter 4: General Conclusion … ……………………………………………………..78

Recommendations for Future Research ……………………………………….79

Multicultural Considerations …………………………………………………..81

Future Uses of Results from this Research …………………………………….81

Summary ……………………………………………………………………….82

Bibliography ……………………………… ……………………………………………83

Appendix …… …………………………………………………………………………..93

Appendix A: Informed Consent ………………………………………………..94

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

3.1 Bar Chart - Average B aseline Percentages……………………………62

3.2 Participant (LW) - 5 Day Baseline ……………………………………63

3.3 Participant (JA) - 10 Day Baseline…………………………………….64

3.4 Participant (BM) - 1 5 Day Baseline…………………………………...65

3.5 Bar Chart - Average Foll ow - up Work Production…………………….66

3.6 Bar Chart - Baselin e Vs. Fol low - up LW………………………………66

3.7 Bar Chart - Baseline Vs. Follow - up JA………………………………..67

3.8 Bart Chart - Baseline Vs. Follow - up BM……………………………...67

Appendix

Page

A Informed Consent…………………………………………………………94

The Use of Motivational Interviewing within School Counseling Program s for Academically Unmotivated Eighth Grade Students

Chapter 1

General Introduction:

Linking the Manuscripts Thematically

Dissertation Overview

The purpose of this doctoral study is to demonstrate scholarly work by using the manuscript document dissertation format as outlined by the Oregon State University Graduate School.

Chapter 1 provides an

explanation as to how two journal - formatted manuscripts found in C hapters 2 and 3 are thematically tied and build toward research conclusions pe rtinent to school counseling and the academic achievement of students.

Chapter 2 is a literature review entitled, A Review of the Literature:

The Use of Motivational Interviewing within Sc hool Counseling Programs for Academically Unmotivated Eighth Grade

Students, and C hapter 3 presents quantitative research in a manuscript entitled, Determining the Success of Motivational Interviewing with Academically Unmotivated Eighth G rade Students in a School Counseling Setting. Chapter 4 provides a short ,

thematic summary and suggests directions for future research .

The se manuscripts thematically converge on the importance of academic intervention in the form of Motivational Interviewing (MI) with adolescents , and its usefulness in the field of school counseling. The first manuscript of this dissertation is a review of current literature related to:

academic achievement concerns, motivation as a primary component of academic achievement, i ntervention during a dolescence , a new role for scho ol counselors, need for relevant intervention strategies, and Motivational I nterviewing. The second manuscript presents research from a multiple - baseline study of

2

motivational interviewing , administered by this researcher in a school setting with three

academically unmotivated adolescent students.

Thematic Introduction

Declines in academic motivation and student success have been widely observed in the United St ates (Wang & Pomerantz, 2009). Academic success is dependent on

motivation (Klose, 2008).

The author of this dissertation is a PhD student in a Counselor

E ducation and Supervision program; the author

is a lso a Na tionally Certified Counselor with a MS in Counseling and six - years experience working in a school with a s tudent body of 800 adolescents, who are enrolled as either six th ,

seventh or eight graders . In the author’s experience , a common discussion among teach ers, counselors, and parents regards strategies to improve academic motivation.

Research s hows that one of the main factor s causing students to withdraw from

school ing in lieu of high school completion is lack of motivation (Cordo r, 1999). Nationally, there is a concern regarding the level of underachievement by students , with lack of work production and gra des as indicators of underachievement (Chukwu - etu, 2009). Dropping out of school is a significant problem that has serious personal and societal repercussions (Scheel, Madabhushi, & Backhaus, 2009).

Students who drop out are more likely to face challenge s such as being unemplo yed , living in poverty, being incarcerated , and becoming a single parent (Glass & Rose, 2008).

On the other hand, motivation is a factor associated with school success. Another variable related to school success is intelligence; how ever, intelligence only explains about 25% of the varianc e in academic achievement , whereas motivation is thought to be one of the main factors impacting performanc e (Steinmayr & Spinath, 2009). A higher

3

level of academic motivation is associated with hig her score s on standardized tests and increased academic performance (Alfaro, Umana - Taylor, Gonzales - Backen, Bamaca, & Zeiders, 2009 ;

Wang & Pomerantz, 2009 ; Hoang, 200 7). Enhancing students’

academic motivation im proves their school engagement which is co rrelated with increased academic work production and achievement ( Wang & Pomerantz, 2009; Hoang, 2007).

Students who drop out of school are most often acade mically unmotivated (Scheel et al. 2009; Cordo r, 1999). Literature reports that the onset of decl ined academic motivation becomes evident about the time students are middle - school age (Roeser & Eccles, 1998 ). Research documents that as some students enter into adolescence and transition to middle school, there is a lack of value for academics and school engagement, as demonstrated by such indicators as lower work production, grades and achievement scores (Wang & Pomerantz, 2009; Schmakel, 2008; Roeser & Eccles, 1998). These problems that typically present themselves in middle school may result in students exiting school prior to graduation (Glass & Rose, 2008).

In order to address issues related to declines in academic motivation and performance, the A merican School Counseling Association has adopted a national model , which is to promote the learni ng process

through three domains: (a) personal/social, (b) career, and (c) academic (Scheel, 2007). In summary, the core purpose of school counseling programs is to facilitate the learning process and academic progress (Otwell & Mullis, 1997).

According to Scheel and Gonzalez (2007), “the effectiveness of counselors is increasingly judged by the degree to which they contribute to learning” (p.2).

4

In addition, the National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC) has committed to a vision, such t hat school counseling programs foster equitable environments where all students access opportunities for academic success. In support, NCTSC s chool counseling programs are now focused on creating data - driven interventions that increase academic success, w ith counselors as a resource to support students’ motivation, engagement, and performance (The Education Trust, 2003).

While

s uccessful school counseling programs must include academic interventions (Otwell & Mullis, 1997; Wa lz & Bleuer, 1997), research has repeatedly demonstrated that academic progress is dependent upon motivation and motivation intervention has been identified as the primary issue in counseling for many students (Klose, 2008). Based on this author’ s experience, a significant component of a school counselor’s work is finding interventions that effectively enhance academic motivation for a diverse population of students. In spite of the apparent need for evidence - based motivational strategies that school counselors could employ with aca demically struggling students , Wh iston ( 2002 ) reported there are few strategies identified that have the prerequisite efficacy.

Motivational Interviewing (MI) , a client - centered, therapeutic technique ,

develope d for use in the addictions field; however, may also have efficacy in the academic arena (Miller & Rollnick, 2002). Motivational Interviewing

builds a collaborative relationship between a counselor and the client, and illuminates

discrepa ncy between the client’s values, goals, and behavio r s (Miller & Rollnick, 2002). Until recently MI was solely used for issues of substance abuse and health - related behaviors.

Motivational Interviewing has been widely used with adolescents in a variety of settings

5

and shown ben eficial results in addressin g behaviors such as smoking, marijua na use and dependence, dental care avoidance, and dietary adherence (Flaherty, 2006). I nitial case study research has supported the use of MI in educational environments (Kittles & Atkinson, 2009).

While MI done by a s chool counselor is new practice in educational settings, it has shown promise in reducing school truancy (Enea & Dafinoiu, 2009), and promoting college success in freshman students who were at - risk for academic failure

through motivating them to become mor e engaged in their coursework which in turn improv ed their perfo rmance on standardized quizzes (Daugherty, 2008 ). From a theoretical perspective

MI may also be hypothesized to have a positive impact on academic achievement

in working with adolescents as this counseling approach values one’s autonomy, which is critical when working with adolescents, and may potentially strengthen an adolescent’s ability to make decisions (Sindelar, Abrantes, Hart, Lewander, & Spririto, 2006).

Rationale

Identification of counseling interventions that have been demonstrated to enhance student engagement for academic succe ss is imperative.

The United States Department of Education reported t hat in 2007 - 08 the average drop out rate was 4.1% ( U.S . Depar tment of Education, 2008 ). Furthermore, r esearch estimates an increase in students exiting schooling without high school completion (Scheel & Gonzalez, 2007). A subsequent statistic was that only seven in ten students successfully finished high sc hool (Swanson ,

2008).

Whether a student who is at risk for school failure self r efers or is referred by a teacher or parents, a school counselor is usually the professional given responsibility for

6

intervention with students who lack motivation for academi c success. These referrals come with a high expectation that school counselors can solve the issues concerning lack of motivation (Bleuer & Walz, 2002). Based on this author’s professional experience,

school counselors are in a unique position to plan, i mplement, and monitor strategic interventions that involve the administration, other staff, groups of students, and individuals. In addition, school counselors have professional background including knowledge about aspects of motivation, and enables them to assist students with school engagement, definition of individual goals, and skill development for academic achievement (Pedrotti, Edwards , & Lopez, 2008) , as is consistent with the Motivational Interviewing approach .

Nevertheless, m otivating students t o be academically s uccessful is a challenging task, and school counselors feel pressure d to create plans that effectively a ddress student motivation . If plans fail, p arents and teachers question that counselor’s abili ty in the role (Bleuer, 1987). However, t raditional counseling strategies are often ineffective in p roducing long - term behavioral cha nge (Bleuer, 1987). In addition, Bleuer and Walz (2002) found that “school counselors identify underachievers as the most difficult students to work with ” (p.1). Furthermore, Lambie (2004) asserted , “contributing to the complexity of working with adolescents has been school counselors’ lack of specific supervised training in counseling approaches with this population” (p.268). Therefore, effective, resea rch - b ased strategies are essential in equipping school counselors to intervene with academically unmotivated and underachieving students (Bleuer & Walz, 2002).

7

Use of a strategy shown to effectively improve students’ academic motivation would be consistent with t he vision of the National Center for Transf orming School Counseling (NCTSC) , which promotes school counselors as advocate s for educational equity. The vis ion is to transform school cou nselors into powerful change agents and help close gaps in oppor tunities and achievement for all students, including those from low - income home s and students of color . This approach reframes the focus of school counselors from

crisis response to pro - active and preventative strategies, which aligns with the NCTSC visio n (The Education Trust, 2003).

Counseling literature contains limited research with definitive data supporting the fact that school counselors have a positive impact on students’ academic achievement (Otwell & Mullis, 1997). However,

r es earch has shown that underachieving students will not attain school success without strategic interventions by counselors (Chukwu - etu, 2009) . Therefore, a dditional studies need to be conducted by school counselors to show the impact of counseling interven tions on academic achievement (Otwell & Mullis, 1997).

In addition, t here is

a lack of empirical research in educ ational settings that utilizes the specific approach, Motivational I nterviewing , as an intervention. Academic literature fails to prov ide a de scription of the MI process within an educational setting (Atkinson & Woods, 2003). Most of the academic literature on MI describes only case - study interventions (Atkinson & Amesu, 2007), although it has supported use of MI in educational environments (Ki ttles & Atkinson, 2009).

This earlier re search has reported improvement in attendance, self - confidence, and academic self - concept (Kittles &

8

Atkinson, 2009; Atkinson & Woods, 2003). Educational research has yet to provide an experimental study that imple ments MI in work with adolescents and analyzes results.

Included in this dissertation study is the first manuscript which

provides an overview of academic achievement concer ns for American adolescents, discusses

motivation as a primary component in acade mic achievement, describes the necessity of academic motivation intervention during middle - school years, summarizes the new role for school counselors, delivers a statement of the need for relevant interve ntion strategies, and proposes that Motivational In terviewing could be promising intervention.

The second manuscript describes a multiple - ba seline study that was conducted documenting the use of Motivational Interviewing with three academically underachieving, yet capable students and provides subsequent data on the work production of these students during a baseline period, a treatment period, and a follow - up period.

9

Glossary of terms

Adolescence:

children ranging in age from 10 to 14 years old (Hudley, Daoud, Hershber g, Wright - Castro, Polanco, 2002; Eccles, Wigfield, Midgley, Reuman, Iver, & Feldlaufer, 1993).

Ambivalence:

feeling two ways about something or someone and inability to make a choice (Miller & Rollnick , 2002).

Autonomy:

psychological need that is crucial for learning and achievem ent, independence of one’s actions (Shih , 2009).

Empathy:

process of gaining access to another psychological state by feeling oneself in to the other’s experience (Rogers, 1977 ).

Intrinsic

Motivation:

engagement in activities for the sole purpose of satisf action from participating (Karsenti & Thibert , 1995).

Motivation: the process of initiating and maintaining goal directed behaviors (McCoach ,

2002).

Underachievers: students with a discrepancy between observed and expected academic performance (Bleuer, 1 987).

10

A REVIEW OF THE LITERAT URE: THE USE OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING WITHIN SCHOOL COUNSELING PROGRAMS

FOR ACADEMICALLY UNMOTIVATED EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS.

Heather D. Hadraba M.S.

Oregon State University

Gene Eakin, Ph.D.

11

Chapter 2

A Review of Literature Reporting School Counseling Program s

Use of Motivational Interviewing for Academically Unmotivated

Eighth Grade Student s

Abstract

School counselors are challenged with creating a wide range of programs to address three developmental domains: personal/social, career, and academic, with an increasing requirement to provide accurat e and sufficient data substantiating their professional contributions to students’ academic achievement . At the same time, the professional literature reports that during adolescence there is a documented decline in academic motivation for an alarming per cent of students. As a result, at - risk students are often referred to sc hool counselors with a brief comment, capable but unmotivated . Such referra ls leave sch ool counselors in want of strategies to enhance students’ motivation for academic success. Finding a strategy that is effective with a diverse student caseload, enhance s a counselor’s efficiency and overall impact on students’ achievement and successful school completion, which ultimately benefits students and society. Su ch a strategy, Motivational Interviewing (MI) was developed as a client - centered method for therapeutic wor k with addictive behaviors. Motivational Interviewing attempts to promote behavior change by building intrinsic motivation, through amplifying and clarifying discrepancies between a client’s behaviors and values or goals. Literature from counseling and education suggests that MI may have applications over a variety of counseling settings.

A literature review that discusses concerns related to stud ent achievement, describes motivation as a primary component of acade mic achievement, documents a need for interventions that improve the academic motivation of adolescents , provides

12

information on the new vision for school counseling programs, emphasizes the challenges faced by counselors working with academically unmotivated students, describes MI as an intervention strategy, and suggests that MI may be appropriately used with adolescents in academic settings .

Introduction

Researc h reports that c oncerns r elated to declines in adolescents academic achi evement is exacerbated throughout middle school years. Achievement can be understood in terms of academic motivation. As students transition to middle school there is a documented decline in motivation for a cademics, which results in low work production (Wang & Pomerantz, 2009; Hudley, Daoud, Hershberg, Wright - Castro , & Polanco, 2002; Roeser & Eccles, 1998; Eccles, Wigfield, Midgley, Reuman, Iver , & Feldlaufer, 1993).

In general, the term motivation refers to process es of initiating and maintaining goal directed behaviors (McCoach, 2002).

It consists of the biological, physiological, social, and cognitive influences that lead to behavior s (Fulmer & Frijters, 2009). As specific to achievement of adolescents , a cademic motivation has a powerful impact

serving to direct, energize , and regulate academic behavior s (Fisher, Marshall, & Nanayakkara, 2009).

Academic m otivation is best described as a continuum ranging from intrinsic to extrinsic.

Research suggests a focus on fostering intrinsic motivation, which refers to engagement in activities for the sole purpose of personal satisfaction (Karsenti & Thibert, 1995). Intrinsic motivation for learning is related to high er levels of conceptual understandin g , improved memory, and cognitive flexib ility (Hudley et al. , 2002 ). An

13

example of intrinsic motivation related to school learning would be a student re ading for sheer enjoyment, or attendin g school for pleasure (Karsenti & Thibert, 1995).

In educational settings, intrinsic motivation can be summarized as a student’s personal desire to participat e in the learning process (Cordo r, 1999). It has been demonstrated that s tudents who are intrinsically motivated for school learning have more academic success ( Fisher, Marshall, & Nanayakkara, 2009; Karsenti & Thibert, 1995; Keith, Wetherbee, & Kindzia, 1995).

In light of the documented decline in academic success, the American School Counseling Association (ASCA) ,

the Education Trust, and the National Center fo r Transforming Sc hool Counseling (NCTSC), have all recognized the importance of focusing on students’ school success. The new vision charges school counselors with examining the academic achievement of their students, intervening with students who struggl e academically before they become disengaged, and supporting school engagement of diverse student groups. T he literature review for this doctoral research has focused on the school counselor’s role in relation to these three areas for improving student mo tivation and academic success.

Improving student achievement presents school counselors with a significant challenge related to finding effective interventions for students struggling with academic motivation (Klose, 2008; Bleuer & Walz, 2002). One such i ntervention strategy that has recently been recognized for possible application in educational settings is Motivational Interviewing (MI), which has demonstrated success reducing and correcting addictive and other health - risk behaviors among adolescents (Brody, 2009; Adams & Madison, 2006; Miller & Rollnick, 2002). Research has demo nstrated that MI improves the

14

academic performance of college students with low academic progress (Daugherty, 2008 ), and suggests that MI is likely to be an effective intervention for younger students with school motivation issues (Kittles & Atkinson, 2009 ; Scheel & Gonzalez, 2007; McNamara, 1992). Nevertheless, at this time there is need for additional research with quantitative findings on the impact of MI in educational settings (Kittles & Atkinson, 2009; Atkinson & Woods, 2003; Otwell & Mullis, 1997).

The following litera ture review will consist of six key areas: current academic achievement concerns for American adolescents, the motivation al component in academi c achievement, academic motivation intervention during middle - school years, the new role fo r sc hool counselors, the need for relevant intervention strategies, and Motivational Interviewing as a promising intervention.

Overview of a cademic achievement concerns

The Department of Education reported in 2 007 - 08 the current average drop out rate was 4 .1%. ( U.S. Department of Educatio n, 20 08). Emerging statistics document that only seven in ten students are successfully finishing high school (Swanson , 2008). Given this information, there is great concern in education regarding the underachievement of students and the negative impact on work production, grades, and achievement scores (Chukwu - etu, 2009). Therefore, educators are examining the behaviors that promote academic success as well as the indicators of underachievement.

As defined by a survey o f public school educators , academically motivated and engaged student s

demonstrate school engagement by the following indicators, they believe school is important, work hard in school, love school and learning, have p ositive attitudes about schoolwork , and have high educational aspirations (Keith, Wetherbee , &

15

Kindzia, 1995). On the other hand, academically capable students who are at - risk for underachievement fail to display these motivational indicators, which, has led m any edu cational experts to identify lack of motivation as a major cause of underachievement and school drop

out rates (Scheel, Madabhushi , & Backhaus, 2009; Cordo r, 1999).

Given the alarming information that a pproximately o ne - third of all high school students wi thdraw from school in lieu of graduation (Gl ass & Rose, 2008; Scheel, 2007), there is an emphasis for understanding the personal and societal repercussions of school failure (Scheel et al. , 2009). Students who drop out are more likely to face challenges s uch as being unemplo yed , living in poverty, becoming incarcerated , and becoming a single parent (Glass & Rose, 2008). Therefore, completion of high school is positively correlated to future life success (Glass & Rose, 2008).

In addit ion to the concern f or the drop out rate, adolescents experiencing disengagement in school are more likely to be truant, academically unsuccessful, and disruptive to the educatio nal environment of their peers (Kittles & Atkinson, 2009).

A lack of school motivation may develop into later e mergence of behavioral problems

which can impact academic success and future life goals (Roeser & Eccles, 1998). These concerns create a need to determine why students are deciding to leave school early.

In a survey conducted by th e Bill and Melinda G ates Foundation, students documented the ir reasons for leaving school prior to graduation. A majo rity of students stated that they were unmotivated to work hard ( Glass & Rose, 2008 ;

Azzam, 2007). Seventy percent of students believed t hat they could have graduated if they had tried harder to complete schoolwork (Azzam, 2007). L ow motivation and lack of engagement combine d with negative perceptions of the school environment , and a limited hope for

16

academic success increases the risk for students to consider dropping out of school ( Hudley et al. , 2002).

Underachievement can lead to students distancing themselves from the significant adults in their life ( Bleuer & Walz, 2002; Bleuer, 1987). In addition, l ow

self - esteem ,

and school becoming a difficult place to be, only serves to reinforce feel ings of failure (Bleuer, 1987). The se experience s of failure can be emotionally destructive for a student and can lead to learned helplessness and feelings of inability which negatively impacts future life success (Bempechat, Boulay, Piergross , & Wenk, 2008). Given this information, determining why these students are academically underachieving is of crucial importance.

Resear ch shows that students who drop out are les s academ ically motivated than graduates ( Deschamps, 1992). Disengagement or underachievement includes a) low self - concept, (b) negative attitude towards school, (c) negative peer influence, and (d) low self - motivation and se lf - regulation. ( Hufton, Elliott , & Illushin, 2002 ; McCoach, 2002) .

Full document contains 112 pages
Abstract: School counselors are challenged with creating a wide range of programs to address three developmental domains: personal/social, career, and academic, with an increasing requirement to provide accurate and sufficient data substantiating their professional contributions to students' academic achievement. At the same time, the professional literature reports that during adolescence there is a documented decline in academic motivation for an alarming percent of students. As a result, at-risk students are often referred to school counselors with a brief comment, capable but unmotivated . Such referrals leave school counselors in want of strategies to enhance students' motivation for academic success. Finding a strategy that is effective with a diverse student caseload, enhances a counselor's efficiency and overall impact on students' achievement and successful school completion, which ultimately benefits students and society. Such a strategy, Motivational Interviewing (MI) was developed as a client-centered method for therapeutic work with addictive behaviors. Motivational Interviewing attempts to promote behavior change by building intrinsic motivation, through amplifying and clarifying discrepancies between a client's behaviors and values or goals. Literature from counseling and education suggests that MI may have applications over a variety of counseling settings. A literature review discusses concerns related to student achievement, describes motivation as a primary component of academic achievement, documents a need for interventions that improve the academic motivation of adolescents, provides information on the new vision for school counseling programs, emphasizes the challenges faced by counselors working with academically unmotivated students, describes MI as an intervention strategy, and suggests that MI may be appropriately used with adolescents in academic settings. A multiple baseline research study attempted to identify if capable, yet underachieving students could enhance their academic motivation and academic success by participating in Motivational Interviewing sessions. Results of this study documented that for two of the three participants, work production increased after MI sessions.