• unlimited access with print and download
    $ 37 00
  • read full document, no print or download, expires after 72 hours
    $ 4 99
More info
Unlimited access including download and printing, plus availability for reading and annotating in your in your Udini library.
  • Access to this article in your Udini library for 72 hours from purchase.
  • The article will not be available for download or print.
  • Upgrade to the full version of this document at a reduced price.
  • Your trial access payment is credited when purchasing the full version.
Buy
Continue searching

The Texas Professional Development and Appraisal System: Links to student achievement

Dissertation
Author: Glynna Y. Pate
Abstract:
The following study investigated the relationship between teacher effectiveness, as defined by the teacher's proficiency score on Domain VIII of the Texas Professional Development and Appraisal System (PDAS), and student achievement on the fourth- and fifth-grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading and mathematics tests. This study used quantitative correlational research with data gathered from two intermediate campuses, with only fourth- and fifth-grade students, during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 school years. Each hypothesis was tested using two regression models whereby teacher effectiveness was the independent variable and student performance was the dependent variable. The results indicate that there is not a positive relationship between a teacher's effectiveness, as assessed by PDAS, and student performance, as assessed by TAKS.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments iv   List of Tables viii   List of Figures ix   CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1   Introduction to the Problem 1   Background of the Study 3   Statement of the Problem 5   Purpose of the Study 5   Research Questions and Hypotheses 6   Significance of the Study 8   Definition of Terms 9   Assumptions 10   Limitations 11   Nature of the Study 11   Organization of the Remainder of the Study 12   CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 14   Introduction 14   Basis of Teacher Evaluation and Teacher Effectiveness 14   Danielson’s Domains of Professional Practice 19   Relationship between Quality Teaching and Student Achievement 29   No Child Left Behind 33   Professional Development and Appraisal System 34  

vi

Summary 39   CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY 42   Introduction 42   Statement of the Problem 42   Research Questions and Hypotheses 42   Research Methodology 45   Research Design 45   Population and Sampling Procedure 47   Instrumentation 50   Validity 57   Reliability 58   Data Collection Procedures 60   Data Analysis Procedures 61   Ethical Considerations 64   Summary 65   CHAPTER 4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 66   Introduction 66   Descriptive Data 67   Results 76   Summary 88   CHAPTER 5. RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 90   Introduction 90   Summary of the Study 90  

vii

Summary of Findings and Conclusion 91   Recommendations 95   Implications 98   REFERENCES 100   APPENDIX A. SCHOOL DISTRICT CONSENT 104   APPENDIX B. PRINCIPAL CONSENT 105   APPENDIX C. TEACHER CONSENT 106  

viii

List of Tables Table 1. Descriptive Information Relating to Each Hypothesis Presented Including Criterion Variable, Predictor Variable, and Associated Statistical Strategy 61  

Table 2. Means and Standard Deviations for Student Reading Achievement 67  

Table 3. Means and Standard Deviations for Student Mathematics Achievement 69  

Table 4. Means and Standard Deviations for Teacher Effectiveness in Reading 70  

Table 5. Means and Standard Deviations for Teacher Effectiveness in Mathematics 71  

Table 6. Summary of Teacher Effectiveness for Fourth-Grade Reading 73  

Table 7. Summary of Teacher Effectiveness for Fifth-Grade Reading 73  

Table 8. Summary of Teacher Effectiveness for Fourth-Grade Mathematics 74  

Table 9. Summary of Teacher Effectiveness for Fifth-Grade Mathematics 74  

Table 10. Regression Model Results Predicting Fourth-Grade Mathematics Performance 78  

Table 11. Regression Coefficient Results Predicting Fourth-Grade Mathematics Performance 79  

Table 12. Regression Model Results Predicting Fourth-Grade Reading Performance 81  

Table 13. Regression Coefficient Results Predicting Fourth-Grade Reading Performance 81  

Table 14. Regression Model Results Predicting Fifth-Grade Mathematics Performance 84  

Table 15. Regression Coefficient Results Predicting Fifth-Grade Mathematics Performance 84  

Table 16. Regression Model Results Predicting Fifth-Grade Reading Performance 87  

Table 17. Regression Coefficient Results Predicting Fifth-Grade Reading Performance 87  

ix

List of Figures

Figure 1. Distribution of reading scores based on the Texas assessment of knowledge and skills test for fourth-grade and fifth-grade students. 68  

Figure 2. Distribution of mathematics scores based on the Texas assessment of knowledge and skills test for fourth-grade and fifth-grade students. 69  

Figure 3. Distribution of teacher effectiveness scores for reading based on the professional development and appraisal system. 71  

Figure 4. Distribution of teacher effectiveness scores for mathematics based on the professional development and appraisal system. 72  

Figure 5. Scatter plot testing the statistical assumptions of linearity, homoscedasticity, and normally distributed errors when predicting fourth- grade mathematics performance. 77  

Figure 6. Scatter plot testing the statistical assumptions of linearity, homoscedasticity, and normally distributed errors when predicting fourth- grade reading performance. 80  

Figure 7. Scatter plot testing the statistical assumptions of linearity, homoscedasticity, and normally distributed errors when predicting fifth- grade mathematics performance. 83  

Figure 8. Scatter plot testing the statistical assumptions of linearity, homoscedasticity, and normally distributed errors when predicting fifth- grade reading performance. 86  

1

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Problem In the 1954 landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education, the U. S. Supreme Court stated that education was vitally significant to a child’s future. However, in spite of this acknowledgment of importance, millions of students fail to meet national standards in their respective grade levels (Reichbach, 2004). In answer to these stunning statistics on the number of students that are not achieving academically, education reform became a huge political issue during the 2000 Presidential election. In an effort to improve the quality of education for all students, President George W. Bush introduced No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in January 2001 as a bipartisan education reform voicing a concern that in spite of the billions of federal dollars spent on education, many students are not performing on grade level (United States Department of Education, 2002, Introduction Section). Signed into law in January 2002, the intent behind NCLB was to improve the academic achievement of all students while closing the achievement gap for students of color or who are economically disadvantaged (Peterson, 2005). Since the passage of NCLB, states around the country are working to comply with the requirements of the Act. Several significant issues have unfolded including the requirement for “highly qualified” teachers during a time of critical teacher shortages in many states. According to the provisions of NCLB, as of the 2005-2006 school year, all teachers in core academic subject areas, such as English, reading and language arts, mathematics, science, and foreign languages, must be “highly qualified.” The new law states a highly qualified

2

teacher must hold a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution, a state teaching certification, and be proficient in the content area being taught (Berry, Hoke, & Hirsch, 2004). Under this provision, states must also report how they are attempting to improve teacher quality and how this improvement is progressing. In addition, states are required to identify “highly qualified” teachers and distribute them evenly throughout low- and high- poverty schools (Berry, Hoke, & Hirsch, 2004). Finally, NCLB requires each state to report on how they hire, maintain, and enhance the quality of educators in the state (Oliva, 2005). The intentions behind the NCLB “highly qualified” teacher provision is to ensure that every student has the opportunity to learn from a knowledgeable teacher, as research shows that the largest influence on student achievement is the effectiveness of the teacher. However, before the link between teacher effectiveness and student achievement can be established, teacher effectiveness must be defined and measured. In Texas, the Texas Education Agency created an instrument, known as the Professional Development and Appraisal System (PDAS), which Texas school districts can utilize to evaluate teacher performance and subsequently measure teacher effectiveness. The scores on this appraisal instrument should identify effective teachers and ultimately link the effectiveness of the teacher to student achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), the state-mandated test used to identify a student’s achievement of academic skills for his grade level. The purpose of this study is to determine if a correlation exists between teacher scores on the PDAS and student achievement on the TAKS test. The research from this study could establish a link between the teacher’s evaluation score from the PDAS Domain VIII, which evaluates the

3

academic performance of all students on the campus (TEA, 2005, Scoring Criteria Guide Section), and the percentage of fourth- and fifth-grade students passing the reading and mathematics TAKS test from his/her classroom. This information will allow school administrators to work with underperforming teachers, providing the teachers with additional professional development in order to help the teacher be more effective in the classroom and therefore increasing student achievement.

Background of the Study Research indicates that student achievement on standardized tests may be linked to the effectiveness of the classroom teacher (Danielson, 2007; Sanders, 1998). Furthermore, Sanders (1998) suggested that a student being taught by highly effective teachers for three consecutive years scored higher on Tennessee’s state standardized mathematics assessments than those students not receiving instruction from a highly effective teacher. Many state education agencies and school districts have developed teacher appraisal systems that measure or evaluate the effectiveness of teachers in the classroom. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) created the PDAS as a teacher evaluation and professional development instrument in accordance with statutory requirements of the Texas Education Code (TEC). According to Dr. Shirley Neeley (as cited in TEA, 2005), former Texas Education Commissioner, all domains of the PDAS address the student performance link required by law and increase student learning through the professional development of Texas educators (TEA, 2005). Texas school boards are given the option to use the PDAS instrument or create a similar instrument to evaluate the

4

effectiveness of teachers in their district. Since 1998, only a few Texas school districts do not utilize PDAS to evaluate teachers (TASB, 2009). Utilizing the PDAS, school district administrators, those faculty members who are trained to evaluate teachers using PDAS, measure the classroom teacher’s effectiveness by rating the teacher on eight domains using performance level standards. Domain VIII of the PDAS offers administrators the opportunity to rate the classroom teacher on the “Improvement of Academic Performance for All Students on the Campus” (TEA, 2005, Scoring Criteria Guide Section, p. 111). The administrator assesses the teacher’s effectiveness by observing nine critical attributes within the domain. These critical attributes include alignment of instruction to appropriate Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) objectives, analyzing students’ prior TAKS performance data, and appropriate sequencing of instruction. Administrators also look at the teacher’s ability to: adapt instructional materials to fit the needs of all students; provide suitable, timely feedback regarding the learning process; monitor student attendance; identify the needs of at-risk students; create appropriate plans for intervention for students failing or in-danger of failing; and modify and adapt materials and instruction to meet the needs of all students. To meet the student performance link required by law, the Texas Education Agency created the PDAS system. Based on the 52 evaluation criteria of PDAS, a link will be established between teacher evaluation scores and student achievement on the TAKS test. Although the state requires teacher evaluation, whether by PDAS or another instrument similar to PDAS, the state does not require school districts to submit copies of these evaluations. Therefore, verification that a link truly exists between PDAS and

5

TAKS cannot be substantiated.

Statement of the Problem It is not known to what extent a relationship exists between student achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the Professional Development and Appraisal System (PDAS) Domain VIII as used by many Texas school districts. Research indicates a direct link between student achievement on standardized tests and teacher effectiveness should exist. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased State, school district, and campus accountability of student achievement. If Texas’ schools are held accountable for student scores on the TAKS tests, then schools must be able to determine if teachers are effective in the classroom and more specifically if that effectiveness translates into a higher number of students passing the TAKS test.

Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between fourth- and fifth-grade students’ achievement on the reading and mathematics TAKS tests and an individual teacher’s proficiency score for Domain VIII on his/her PDAS evaluation. The study focuses on establishing a connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement based on the claim by the Texas Education Agency that PDAS was created to incorporate the student performance link required by law. PDAS Domain VIII specifically states that teachers should align instruction with the TEKS and TAKS objectives and that instruction should be based on prior TAKS performance data. Therefore, if a teacher scores exceeds expectations or proficient on Domain VIII, then it

6

could be hypothesized that the percentage of students passing the TAKS tests would be high. However, if the administrator does not follow the prescribed criteria outlined by the Texas Education Agency, the teacher may receive a rating of “exceeds expectations” or “proficient,” yet the percentage of students passing the TAKS test may remain low. These type incidents could suggest possible discrepancies for further study.

Research Questions and Hypotheses The following four research questions will guide this study. Each research question is presented with its associated null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.

R 1 : What is the relationship, if any, between fourth-grade mathematics teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fourth-grade student academic mathematics performance (as assessed by TAKS)?

H1 0 : There is no positive relationship between fourth-grade mathematics teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fourth-grade student academic mathematics performance (as assessed by TAKS).

H1 1 : There is a positive relationship between fourth-grade mathematics teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fourth-grade student academic mathematics performance (as assessed by TAKS).

R 2 : What is the relationship, if any, between fourth-grade reading teachers’ teaching

7

effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fourth-grade student academic reading performance (as assessed by TAKS)?

H2 0 : There is no positive relationship between fourth-grade reading teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fourth-grade student academic reading performance (as assessed by TAKS).

H2 1 : There is a positive relationship between fourth-grade reading teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fourth-grade student academic reading performance (as assessed by TAKS).

R 3 : What is the relationship, if any, between fifth-grade mathematics teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fifth-grade student academic mathematics performance (as assessed by TAKS)?

H3 0 : There is no positive relationship between fifth-grade mathematics teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fifth-grade student academic mathematics performance (as assessed by TAKS).

H3 1 : There is a positive relationship between fifth-grade mathematics teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fifth-grade student academic mathematics performance (as assessed by TAKS).

8

R 4 : What is the relationship, if any, between fifth-grade reading teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fifth-grade student academic reading performance (as assessed by TAKS)?

H4 0 : There is no positive relationship between fifth-grade reading teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fifth-grade student academic reading performance (as assessed by TAKS).

H4 1 : There is a positive relationship between fifth-grade reading teachers’ teaching effectiveness (as assessed by the PDAS) and fifth-grade student academic reading performance (as assessed by TAKS).

Significance of the Study This study will examine the relationship between teacher effectiveness and student achievement, more specifically, the correlation between teacher evaluation scores on Domain VIII of the PDAS and student achievement on the TAKS fourth- and fifth- grade reading and mathematics tests. If this study ascertains that a relationship exists, the information would begin to provide data to better enlighten school leaders about possible discrepancies. Therefore, the administrator can offer additional professional development activities based on the PDAS observation.

9

Definition of Terms The following terms are used operationally in this study: Administrator. A campus faculty member, generally the principal or assistant principal, who has received the necessary training to evaluate teachers using the Professional Development and Appraisal System. Appraisal. Used synonymously with observation and evaluation, an instrument used by a school district to determine the effectiveness of a teacher in a classroom. Appraiser. Used synonymously with administrator and observer, a school administrator responsible for completing the appraisal of a classroom teacher. Evaluation. Used synonymously with observation and appraisal, an instrument used by a school district to determine the effectiveness of a teacher in a classroom. Observation. Used synonymously with appraisal and evaluation, an instrument used by a school district to determine the effectiveness of a teacher in the classroom. Observer. Used synonymously with administrator or appraiser, a school administrator responsible for completing the appraisal of a classroom teacher. Professional Development and Appraisal System. The adopted teacher appraisal system in the State of Texas, designed by the Texas Education Agency, to assess the Texas classroom teacher (TEA, 2005). Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. A test given to Texas public school students, third grade and higher, in specified subjects, to measure the extent to which the student has mastered the required knowledge and skills for that grade level (TEA, Student Assessment, n.d.). Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). Defined by Texas educators, the

10

knowledge and skills necessary by grade level that a student should know at the end of a given school year (TEA, Student Assessment, n.d.). Assumptions The following assumptions are present in this study: 1. All subjects who participate in this study volunteer the use of their PDAS Domain VIII evaluation standard score, as these are confidential employee records. 2. All administrators receive PDAS training from a Texas Education Agency approved Education Service Center or school district that provides their own training utilizing TEA materials. 3. Although fifth-grade students who do not meet the state standard on the first administration of TAKS have the ability to take the test again, for this study, student TAKS scores are from only the first administration of the test for both fourth- and fifth-grade students. 4. The environmental conditions of all student-testing areas are the same: all rooms are kept at a comfortable temperature, all students remain quiet until all testing is complete, and teachers monitor for testing distractions. 5. All students receive adequate preparation for the TAKS test. 6. The TAKS test is a valid instrument and is assumed reliable. 7. The PDAS is a valid instrument and is assumed reliable. 8. All participants and the school district willingly consented to the use of all data used in this study.

11

Limitations The following limitations are present in this study: 1. Students are considered healthy and emotionally stable during the administration of the TAKS test. Test scores may not be an accurate reflection of the student’s ability or knowledge if the student is sick or has emotional disturbances that disrupt normal routines. 2. Teachers are considered healthy and emotionally sound during his/her PDAS evaluation. Physical or emotional illness may skew the accuracy of the evaluation. 3. Administrators are considered healthy and emotionally stable during the PDAS evaluation. Outside interference, such as illness or other distractions, may impede the administrator ability to objectively appraise the teacher. 4. The administrator does not have any outside bias (positive or negative) that influences the observation.

Nature of the Study This study focuses on examining the correlation between the Texas Professional Development and Appraisal System (PDAS) Domain VIII and student achievement on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills fourth- and fifth-grade reading and mathematics tests. Based on the research of Creswell (2005), the best method for determining if a link exists between teacher effectiveness and student achievement is a quantitative study utilizing a correlational design. This research includes teachers employed by an independent school district in the

12

State of Texas. The teacher’s evaluation score on PDAS Domain VIII and the percentage of students passing the TAKS test in their classroom for the same year as the evaluation were utilized as data. The PDAS data was collected from the campus principal at each school with the permission of the teachers. The percentage of students passing on TAKS will be obtained from the school district based on information gathered from the Texas Education Agency.

Organization of the Remainder of the Study Chapter 1 of this study states that an effective classroom teacher directly impacts student achievement. The chapter further provides background information regarding research to support the claim that effective classroom teaching can be measured by teacher evaluation and therefore determine student achievement. For this study, the researcher presented the problem along with background information and the purpose of the study. Four research questions will be utilized to guide the study and determine if a link exists between Domain VIII of the PDAS and student achievement scores on the reading and mathematics TAKS tests. The chapter also identifies the significance of the study and lists the assumptions and limitation of the study. Chapter 2 will present a literature review regarding what attributes determine that a teacher is being effective in the classroom. Best practices for evaluating teacher effectiveness by Charlotte Danielson will be discussed along with how teacher effectiveness impacts student achievement. The current state standardized student assessment in Texas, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) will be defined along with the state adopted teacher evaluation system, the Professional

13

Development and Appraisal System (PDAS). Chapter 3 will present the methodology utilized in the study including the research design; the method of data collection; the validity of the data collection instrument; reliability data collection instrument; and ethical considerations. Chapter 4 will present the results and overall findings of the study. The research questions will be used to determine if a positive relationship exists between teacher effectiveness, as assessed by the PDAS, and student achievement on the TAKS tests. Chapter 5 will summarize the findings of the study; make recommendations for future research and current practice; and implications of the research. The estimated timeline for this project will be six months from the approval date of the dissertation proposal.

14

CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction A growing body of research has indicated that quality teaching and teacher effectiveness are directly related to student achievement. There have also been significant enhancements to the National standards for student learning including the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act requiring schools to hire “highly qualified” teachers. These enhancements have placed greater attention on how the role of teacher effectiveness relates to student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000). This study will discuss the components of quality teaching and the relationship between quality teaching and student achievement. Finally, the State of Texas has created an appraisal system that evaluates both student performance and teacher pedagogy. This system supports how the teacher responds to student needs and provides a link between teacher evaluation (on the Professional Development and Appraisal System) and student achievement (on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills).

Basis of Teacher Evaluation and Teacher Effectiveness For decades, parents have sent their children to school with the fundamental belief that their children are being educated or taught the basic skills needed to function in society. Parents believe teachers will teach the children the information required to advance from grade level to grade level regardless of the child’s background knowledge. In order to accomplish this goal, a teacher must be more than someone standing in front of a class telling what he/she knows. Teaching is a difficult job and is not for just anyone.

15

During the past decades, many theorists have called for education reform to focus not only on a teacher’s content knowledge, but also on a teacher’s instructional capabilities (Danielson, 2007; Marzano, 2003; Stronge, Tucker, & Hindman, 2004). Today’s teacher must know the content and have pedagogical skills to be effective in the classroom. The historical progression of teacher training and development establishes the foundation of today’s significance in school reform and the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) initiative (Danielson & McGreal, 2000). Reviewing this progression reveals that many classrooms were staffed with teachers that lacked adequate knowledge of subject matter and pedagogical skills. Over time, these inadequacies were corrected for future educators through a more formalized education and certification process. However, even as late as the 1980s, classrooms were still filled with teachers that lacked the appropriate skill set to effectively teach all students in the classroom (Darling-Hammond, 2000). Brown v. Board of Education was the first step towards correcting the issues related with low achievement among students. Following closely behind was the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 and in 1983, the publication A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform by the National Commission on Excellence in Education, which called for educational reform in the United States. During this time period, the United State’s Legislature created education committees that spotlighted the education system. States around the country would begin to address the concerns raised in A Nation at Risk and place added focus on the quality of teaching in the nation’s schools. In 1985, the president of the American Federation of Teachers called for the establishment of national standards for teachers (NBPTS, n.d.). Based on this call, the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy’s Task Force on Teaching

16

as a Profession set out to “define what teachers should know and be able to do and support the creation of rigorous, valid assessments to see that certified teachers do meet those standards” (NBPTS, n.d.), which ultimately led to the creation of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in 1987. The NBPTS were developed to increase student achievement by creating certifications within teaching fields, practices that measure the standards in each field, and professional development surrounding these standards and practices. The National Board of Professional Teaching Standards is supported by many states and is considered the basis for what teachers should know to be effective. Further reform was enacted in 2002 with the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. With millions of United States children continuing to fall further and further behind their peers, President Bush’s signature education reform bill, NCLB, was passed with the intention of raising academic achievement for all students. One of the principle components of NCLB was to increase accountability for States, school districts, and schools in an effort to close the achievement gap between low-income, non- Caucasian, and/or special education students and their peers. In an effort to ensure that all students receive a high quality, equal education, a provision was added to NCLB that all teachers of core academic content areas would be considered “highly qualified” by the 2005-2006 school year. When implemented, this “highly qualified” status was intended to guarantee that a quality teacher would be in every classroom across the nation. While the NCLB “highly qualified” teacher provision was easily surmounted for teachers new to the education system, many school districts struggled to determine if some veteran teachers would meet the new qualifications. As a result, the High,

17

Objective, Uniform State Standard of Evaluation (HOUSSE) provision was put into place. States must develop a HOUSSE rubric to help teachers determine if they met the “highly qualified” status. Although these teachers are required to hold at least a bachelor’s degree and state teaching certification in the content area in which they teach, the HOUSSE rubric allows teachers to utilize such things as prior experience and continual coursework to gain the “highly qualified” status (Maryland State Department of Education Division of Certification and Accreditation, HOUSSE Provision, 2004). In the twenty-first century, teachers are now responsible for teaching students critical thinking and problem-solving skills. No longer will rote learning apply in the classroom, students must be able to synthesize and evaluate information in order to be competitive in today’s work force (Danielson & McGreal, 2000). In order to succeed at teaching today’s students, the “highly qualified” teacher must be knowledgeable in both subject matter and how to teach it (Kaplan & Owings, 2003; Stronge, 2002). “Today this means knowing how to manage classrooms, develop standards-based lessons, assess student work fairly and appropriately, work with special-needs students and English-language learners, and use technology to bring curriculum to life for the many students who lack motivation” (Berry, Hoke, & Hirsch, 2004, p. 686). “A knowledge-and-skills compensation system supported by a teacher evaluation system that judges a teachers’ performance against a set of standards defining good teaching can play a critical role in improving teacher quality” (Oliva, 2005, p.18). Teacher evaluation systems must be built on factors of quality teaching and subsequent influences on student achievement (Goldrick, 2002). If school districts are to retain “highly qualified” teachers, then the district’s teacher evaluation system must define

Full document contains 117 pages
Abstract: The following study investigated the relationship between teacher effectiveness, as defined by the teacher's proficiency score on Domain VIII of the Texas Professional Development and Appraisal System (PDAS), and student achievement on the fourth- and fifth-grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading and mathematics tests. This study used quantitative correlational research with data gathered from two intermediate campuses, with only fourth- and fifth-grade students, during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 school years. Each hypothesis was tested using two regression models whereby teacher effectiveness was the independent variable and student performance was the dependent variable. The results indicate that there is not a positive relationship between a teacher's effectiveness, as assessed by PDAS, and student performance, as assessed by TAKS.