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The relationship between dimensions of principal personality type and selected school characteristics

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Shawne Cummings Holder
Abstract:
The characteristics of effective school principals and the impact of the school principal on the organization have been the target of investigation for numerous research studies. Included, but not limited to what researchers have documented, is the effect that characteristics of the principal have on the climate and culture of the school, communication, order and discipline, and the creation of a sense of community. Critical to each of these is the development of the relationship between the principal, teachers, students, parents, and community. According to the theory of psychodynamic leadership, leaders must have an understanding of the characteristics of their personality, as well as the characteristics of the personality of other members of the organization. Knowledge and respect of these characteristics and the associated responses elicited by certain situations promote positive relationships. While the personality of an effective leader has been examined in research, very few studies have investigated the personality of effective school principals. Due to the limited research on the personality of school principals, the researcher sought to provide further information on principal personality. This study investigated the relationship between dimensions of principal personality type, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, and gender, level of school (elementary, middle, high), and student achievement, as measured by the math scores on either the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) or the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to perform descriptive and correlational statistics. Pearson r was utilized to analyze the relationship between the predictor and criterion variables, and crosstabulation was the method of analysis of the descriptive statistics. Results indicate that the majority of participants in this study were extroverted, sensing, feeling, and judging. Due to the limited number of participants there was only one statistically significant relationship discovered. Female principals were more likely to possess the intuitive dimension of personality than male principals. Replication of this study with a larger number of participants is recommended to further test the hypotheses.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v LIST OF TABLES x ABSTRACT xi CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 Statement of the Problem 4 Research Questions 6 Purpose of the Study 6 Conceptual Framework 7 Significance of the Study 7 Procedures 9 Delimitations and Limitations 11 Definition of Terms 11 Summary 14 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 15 Principals and Leadership 17 Skills and Behaviors 20 Climate and Culture 22 Affirmation 27 Communication 28 Order, Visibility, and Discipline 29 Monitors and Evaluates 30 Intellectual Stimulation and Resources 31 Optimizer and Change Agent 32 Leadership Traits 33 Personality 35 Leadership and Personality 36 Principal Personality 39 Principal Leadership and Student Achievement 44 vn

CHAPTER Page Principal Personality and Student Achievement 46 3. METHODOLOGY 49 Instrumentation 49 Keirsey Temperament Theory 50 The 16 Personality Temperaments 52 Artisans 52 The Artisan Promoter 53 The Artisan Crafter 53 The Artisan Performer 53 The Artisan Composer 53 Guardians 54 The Guardian Supervisor 54 The Guardian Inspector 54 The Guardian Provider 55 The Guardian Protector 55 Idealists 55 The Idealist Teacher 56 The Idealist Counselor 56 The Idealist Champion 56 The Idealist Healer 57 Rationals 57 The Rational Fieldmarshal 57 The Rational Mastermind 57 The Rational Inventor 58 The Rational Architect 58 Reliability of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II 59 Validity of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II 59 Research Design 60 Data 61 Response Rate 64 Data Analysis 64 Reporting the Data 66 Summary 67 4. RESULTS OF DATA ANALYSIS 68 Organization of Data Analysis 69 Demographic Characteristics of the Sample 69 Findings 75 viii

CHAPTER Page Summary 84 5. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 86 Summary of the Study 86 Discussion of Major Findings 89 Conclusions 90 Implications 90 Recommendations for Further Study 92 Summary 93 APPENDICES A MERCER IRB APPROVAL 94 B LETTER TO SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS REQUESTING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH 97 C LETTER TO PRINCIPALS INTRODUCING THE RESEARCH PROJECT 99 D INFORMED CONSENT 101 E DIRECTIONS FOR PARTICIPATION 104 F DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 106 REFERENCES 108 IX

LIST OF TABLES Page KEIRSEY'S DICHOTOMOUS PREFERENCES 51 KEIRSEY TEMPERAMENT SORTER II PERSONALITY TYPES 51 NUMBER OF EACH LEVEL OF PARTICIPANTS' SCHOOLS 70 PARTICIPANTS'DEMOGRAPHIC DATA 71 CROSSTABULATION OF EXTROVERTED VS. INTROVERTED PREFERENCE AND AYP 73 CROSSTABULATION OF SENSING VS. INTUITIVE PREFERENCE AND AYP 73 CROSSTABULATION OF THINKING VS. FEELING PREFERENCE AND AYP 74 CROSSTABULATION OF JUDGING VS. PERCEIVING PREFERENCE AND AYP 74 CORRELATION OF DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY AND GENDER 77 CORRELATION OF DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY AND LEVEL OF SCHOOL OF THE PRINCIPAL 79 SPSS OUTPUT FOR BIVARIATE CORRELATION OF DIMENSIONS OF PRINCIPAL PERSONALITY AND ADEQUATE YEARLY PROGRESS 82 x

ABSTRACT SHAWNE CUMMINGS HOLDER THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIMENSIONS OF PRINCIPAL PERSONALITY TYPE AND SELECTED SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS Under the direction of CARL E. DAVIS, ED.D., and PAIGE L. TOMPKINS, PH.D. The characteristics of effective school principals and the impact of the school principal on the organization have been the target of investigation for numerous research studies. Included, but not limited to what researchers have documented, is the effect that characteristics of the principal have on the climate and culture of the school, communication, order and discipline, and the creation of a sense of community. Critical to each of these is the development of the relationship between the principal, teachers, students, parents, and community. According to the theory of psychodynamic leadership, leaders must have an understanding of the characteristics of their personality, as well as the characteristics of the personality of other members of the organization. Knowledge and respect of these characteristics and the associated responses elicited by certain situations promote positive relationships. While the personality of an effective leader has been examined in research, very few studies have investigated the personality of effective school principals. Due to the limited research on the personality of school principals, the researcher sought to provide further information on principal personality. This study investigated the xi

relationship between dimensions of principal personality type, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, and gender, level of school (elementary, middle, high), and student achievement, as measured by the math scores on either the Georgia Criterion- Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) or the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to perform descriptive and correlational statistics. Pearson r was utilized to analyze the relationship between the predictor and criterion variables, and crosstabulation was the method of analysis of the descriptive statistics. Results indicate that the majority of participants in this study were extroverted, sensing, feeling, and judging. Due to the limited number of participants there was only one statistically significant relationship discovered. Female principals were more likely to possess the intuitive dimension of personality than male principals. Replication of this study with a larger number of participants is recommended to further test the hypotheses. xn

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Predictions have been made that over half of the school principals in the United States are near retirement age (Thomas & Bainbridge, 2000) resulting in an increasing need for effective principals to lead schools. Leadership traits associated with effective principal leadership have been identified by researchers (Sergiovanni, 2005; Stodgill, 1948; Waters, Marzano, & McNulty, 2003); however, there is limited research on principal personality. Among the traits associated with an effective principal are the development of positive relationships and a healthy school climate (Waters, Marzano, & McNulty). The psychodynamic approach to leadership stresses the leader's awareness of personality type. Knowledge of personality types and an understanding of the differences among the personality types promote positive relationships within an organization, resulting in a healthy organizational climate. In an era of accountability brought about by the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), principals are faced with the challenge of ensuring that schools are improving their performance, based on the state's established annual achievement target (annual measurable objectives). Schools are measured against the annual measurable objectives to determine whether or not the school has made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) mandates that each state develop an assessment that will measure a student's mastery of content in each grade level. Georgia requires that students 1

in grades three, five, and eight meet standards established by the Georgia Department of Education in order to be promoted to the next grade level (Georgia Department of Education, 2002). Pressure placed on educators by these mandates has resulted in a scramble to find effective methods for increasing student achievement. This search for an answer to increasing student achievement has resulted in multiple theories of the cause of effectiveness (Hallinger & Heck, 1998; Hulme, 2006; Stewart, 2006; Waters, Marzano & McNulty, 2003). Among the plethora of research on student achievement is the theory that the principal has an indirect influence on student achievement second only to that of the classroom teacher (Hulme, 2006; Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). Waters, Marzano, and McNulty (2003) identified 21 responsibilities of effective principals that impact student achievement: (a) culture, (b) order, (c) discipline, (d) resources, (e) curriculum/ instruction/assessment, (f) focus, (g) knowledge of curriculum/instruction assessment, (h) visibility, (i) contingent rewards, (j) communication, (k) outreach, (1) input, (m) affirmation, (n) relationship, (o) change agent, (p) optimizer, (q) ideals/beliefs, (r) monitors/evaluates, (s) flexibility, (t) situational awareness, and (u) intellectual stimulation. Principal behavior sets the tone and establishes the culture and climate of the school (Sergiovanni, 2005). According to Leithwood and Jantzi (2006), transformational leadership is an effective model for principals. Transformational leaders embrace the challenge of stimulating the organization to be innovative in its approach to school improvement. Transformational principals utilize the knowledge they possess in

3 curriculum, instruction, and assessment to collaborate with teachers to achieve the common goal of the school (Leithwood & Jantzi). Teachers have the greatest impact on student achievement; therefore, the principal's knowledge of curriculum and instruction facilitates the evaluation of teacher effectiveness (Hulme, 2006). Additionally, the principal's knowledge of curriculum and instruction enables the principal to determine professional development, as well as other resources needed to implement the curriculum; therefore impacting the teachers' effectiveness, the most common influence on student achievement (Blase & Blase, 2000). Results of research conducted by Hallenger, Bickman, and Davis (1996) revealed no direct impact from the principal's instructional leadership on student achievement. However, the results support the theory that the principal has a direct impact on the learning climate of the school which indirectly impacts student achievement. Effective principals possess strong interpersonal skills necessary to develop positive relationships of caring and trust among teachers, students, parents, and the community (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). Showing an interest in staff members and students establishes a positive rapport and creates a positive school climate (Blase & Blase, 2000; Leithwood & Riehl). Due to the fact that past researchers have found that the principal is responsible for the development of the school climate and positive relationships, which have an indirect effect on student achievement, this research investigated the role of principal personality type. By investigating the relationship between gender of the principal, level of the principal's school (elementary, middle, high), and student achievement and

4 principal personality, this study sought to provide insight into the personality traits of principals and the role of principals' personality on effective leadership. Statement of the Problem The 2008 test scores for the State of Georgia revealed low math achievement (Georgia Department of Education, 2008b). Twenty-three percent of eighth grade students failed to meet standards on the math section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT), and 22.7% failed to meet standards on the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT). Low achievement in math was attributed to the implementation of the new Georgia Performance Standards which increased the rigor of the curriculum (Georgia Department of Education, 2008b). Although the state scores on both the CRCT and the GHSGT met the Annual Measurable Objective (AMO) established by the Georgia Department of Education (2008a), by the year 2014 the State of Georgia has been mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (2001) to educate all students to 100% proficiency (Georgia Department of Education, 2008a). The purpose of this research was to develop an understanding of the role between the personality of the principal and student achievement. The behavior exhibited and traits possessed by effective principals are plentiful and varied (Sergiovanni, 2005; Stodgill, 1948; Waters, Marzano, & McNulty, 2003). Researchers have attempted to determine what specific behaviors, traits, or combination of behaviors or traits contribute to the effectiveness of principals (Sergiovanni; Stodgill; Waters, Marzano, & McNulty). Research by Waters, Marzano, and McNulty and Hulme (2006) supports the indirect impact that principals have on student achievement.

Outside of the field of education, Smith and Canger (2004) advanced the body of literature on the relationship between a leader's personality and job performance. In addition to the exploration of personality and job performance in the corporate world is the implementation of personality instruments for team building. Companies use programs such as Keirsey's Team Building Workshop and Emergenetics for the development of stronger more productive teams. There is limited research on the use of personality instruments in the field of education; however, Wethayanugoon (1994) explored this concept using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as the personality instrument to promote awareness of the characteristics of personality types in team building in the school setting. Wethayanugoon found that an awareness and acceptance of individual differences in personality type promoted positive relationships among staff members resulting in a more collaborative team. Although the impact personality has on leadership and the role of personality in team building has been analyzed, what is not found in the literature is the relationship between principal personality type and student achievement (Myers, 2003; Stanley, 1984). In an effort to ascertain solutions to Georgia's low performance on the math achievement measures for 2008, this research examined the relationship between principal personality type and selected school characteristics including student achievement. A relationship between the personality of the principal and student achievement would suggest the need for professional development on the understanding of the differences among characteristics of personality in order to promote team building.

6 Research Questions This study will be guided by the following research questions: Research Question 1. Is there a relationship between the dimensions of personality of Georgia principals, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, and gender? Research Question 2. Is there a statistically significant relationship between the dimensions of personality of principals of schools in Georgia, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, and school level (elementary, middle, high)? Research Question 3. Are there common dimensions of personality, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, among principals of Georgia schools making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)? Research Question 4. Is there a relationship between dimensions of principal personality, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, and student achievement, as measured by Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status on either the math portion of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) or the math portion of the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT)? Purpose of the Study The purpose of this empirical study of the dimensions of principal personality type, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KTS-II), was to provide greater understanding of the relationship between principal personality and the different facets impacting a school's performance, including gender of the principal, level of principal's school (elementary, middle, high), and student achievement as measured by the school's

7 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status on either the math portion of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) or the math portion of the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT). Conceptual Framework The goals of the school cannot be achieved independently; the greatest gain towards school improvement is accomplished by working together (Printy & Marks, 2006). Wethayanugoon (1994) established that understanding the differences in characteristics of personality is the foundation for building the effective relationships necessary for collaboration among school teams. Although the use of personality profiles for developing relationships in an organization is more widely used in the business world, the idea that the manner in which we communicate and respond to situations being directly influenced by our personality is a concept that has been researched by psychologists as far back as Hippocrates (370 BC). Waters, Marzano, and McNulty identified the principal's role in establishing positive relationships as one of the 21 responsibilities of the principal that has an indirect impact on student achievement. This research study sought to bridge the understanding of the principal's role in student achievement and the psychodynamic approach to leadership. Significance of the Study In order to lead others effectively, principals should understand their own personality type and the behaviors characteristic of that personality type (Wethayanugoon, 1994). Each person's perception of the world and how he or she approaches a situation or decision is indicative of the individual blueprint established at

8 birth (Gregorc, 1997; Keirsey & Bates, 1978; Wethayanugoon). Knowledge of personality type increases the awareness of one's self and the blueprint of others (Wethayanugoon). A principal's understanding of the individual blueprints of his or her staff is the foundation for the development of a culture of collaboration (Wethayanugoon). Collaboration and positive relationships in the school have a positive impact on student achievement (Barth, 2006; Davis, 1998; Printy & Marks, 2006); therefore, if a positive correlation between principal personality and student achievement had been established it would suggest the need for professional development on improving interpersonal effectiveness and team building. Development of a leadership team capable of collaboratively addressing issues from diverse perspectives fosters innovation, and innovation allows educational leaders to address the challenge of increasing student achievement (Gregorc, 1997; Hogan, Curphy & Hogan, 1994; Keirsey & Bates; Wethayanugoon). Although psychologists have promoted the use of personality measures in the selection of leaders, this is not a common practice (Hogan, Curphy & Hogan, 1994). Leaders are typically promoted to a position of leadership based on performance at subordinate positions (Hogan, Curphy and Hogan). Hogan, Curphy and Hogan argue that this is an ineffective method for the selection of a leader, and the implementation of personality tests would enhance hiring practices. Research by Hogan, Curphy and Hogan (1994) focused on corporate leaders and did not include school principals. Although the results of this study reveal no evidence of a relationship between principal personality type and principal's gender, level of principal's school (elementary, middle, high) and

9 student achievement, the researcher recommends replication of the study with a larger sample size. Replication of this study with a larger sample size could provide information on what characteristics of personality are associated with effective school leadership. Procedures The researcher used a correlational design to address the research questions. The variables used for analysis were dimensions of principal personality, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KTS-II), and student achievement, participants' gender, and the level (elementary, middle, high) of the participants' school. Due to the small sample size, each of Keirsey's four dichotomous preferences (extroverted/introverted, sensing/intuitive, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving) was analyzed separately. A letter describing the research study and requesting permission to conduct research was mailed to superintendents or research review boards in Georgia school systems. Once permission to conduct research in the school system was received from the district designee, a letter of introduction and consent was sent to the principals in each of the participating districts. After receiving signed consent, the researcher emailed principals information for completing the KTS-II on-line. Participants took the KTS-II in a private web session. Results from the KTS-II were accessible to the researcher through an established Certified Administrator web-based account. The researcher solicited participation from all 303 of the principals in the participating school districts. To determine statistical significance, with power set at .80, 76 was established as the target number of respondents to achieve a level of power for alpha of .05 (Warner, 2008). Responses were solicited from primary, elementary, middle,

10 and high school principals. Due to the timing of this research project, response rate was low. From the 168 systems solicited only 39 systems agreed to participate. Forty principals from those 39 systems participated. An attempt to secure more participants was made by not only sending the emails soliciting participation multiple times, but also by directly contacting participants. The sample for analysis included representation from the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Math achievement results from the 2008 administration of either the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) or the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) from each of the responding school systems were retrieved from the Georgia Department of Education. Personality type data retrieved from the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II administrator account and math achievement data retrieved from the Georgia Department of Education were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). In addition to entering the personality profile for each participant as a variable, the dimensions of personality were disaggregated and entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) as four separate variable columns (extroverted/introverted, sensing/intuiting, thinking/feeling, judging/perceiving). Information was analyzed using SPSS to perform the statistical procedure, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (Pearson r) and crosstabulations. By using SPSS, the researcher was able to determine if there was a relationship between the dimensions of the personality of a principal and gender, level of principal's school (elementary, middle, high), or student achievement.

11 Delimitations and Limitations Delimitations: • Other personality instruments were investigated by the researcher; however, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II was utilized due to the short administration time, cost, and ability to administer the instrument on-line. Limitations: • The researcher is aware that the small sample size limited the ability to generalize the findings of the study. • Principals from schools not making Adequate Yearly Progress on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) and the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) may have been hesitant to participate. • The inability to extrapolate extraneous factors which influence student achievement may impact the results. Definition of Terms Achievement: operationally defined for this study as math scores from the 2008 administration of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) and the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT). Bi/Polar Theory: "asserts that individuals have natural tendencies to express preferences for one pole of each of three pairs of core strengths: (a) thinking or risking, (b) practical or theoretical thinking, and (c) dependent or independent risking" (Toppins, 1986, p. 3).

12 Character: the configuration of habits that develops through the interaction of temperament and environment (Keirsey, 1998). Charter schools: a public school that operates according to the terms of a charter, or contract, that has been approved by a local board of education and the State Board of Education (GDOE). Climate: "reflects the physical and psychological aspects of the school that are more susceptible to change and that provide the preconditions necessary for teaching and learning to take place" (Tableman, 2004, p.l). Culture: "reflects the shared ideas, assumptions, values, and beliefs that give an organization its identity and standard for expected behavior" (Tableman, 2004). Dimensions of personality: the terminology used by the researcher to describe the itemization of each of the 16 composite personality types from the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, categorizing them into the four dichotomous preferences (extroversion/introversion, sensing/intuitive, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving). Instructional leadership: a leadership style in which the leader's main focus is on curriculum, instruction, and assessment (Lashway, 2002). International Successful Principalship Project (ISSPP): a project involving eight countries (Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Norway, Sweden, USA) which investigated the concept of leadership across cultures (Gurr, Drysdale, & Mulford, 2006). Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KTS-II): a 70-question instrument used to measure personality type; based on Dr. David Keirsey Temperament Theory (Keirsey & Bates, 1978).

13 Leader Behavior Analysis II (LBAII): an instrument designed by Ken Blanchard to measure leaders' perceptions of their leadership style. McREL's Balanced Leadership Framework: developed by Waters and Cameron (2007) to organize the 21 leadership responsibilities, identified through the meta-analysis of research conducted by Waters, Marzano, and McNulty (2003), into three components of leadership: focus, magnitude of change, and purposeful community. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: an assessment of personality type based on the work by Carl Jung and Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs. Personality: temperament and character (Keirsey, 1998). 16 Personality Factor Inventory (16PF): a self report personality inventory developed by Raymond B. Cattell to measure 16 personality dimensions (Schmidt, Kosmoski, & Pollack (1998). 21 leader responsibilities: 21 characteristics of effective leadership identified through the meta-analysis of research conducted by Waters, Marzano, and McNulty, that impact student achievement. Temperament: pre-disposed inclinations; an inborn form of human nature (Keirsey, 1998). Transformational leadership: first introduced by James MacGregor Burns (1978), transformational leadership is a style of leadership that inspires and motivates team members toward a common goal. Vouchers: a certificate issued by the government allowing parents a choice as to where their child will attend school.

14 Summary The purpose of this non-experimental study was to examine the relationship between dimensions of principal personality type, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, and gender, level of school (elementary, middle, high), and student achievement, as measured by the math scores on either the Georgia Criterion- Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) or the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT). Thirty-nine principals from school systems in Georgia completed the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II on-line to determine their personality type. Using the correlation coefficient Pearson r, as the measure of association, the researcher analyzed the data gathered from the principals' completion of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, demographic data, and the achievement data gathered from the Georgia Department of Education to determine if a relationship existed between principal personality and the criterion variables. Principals play a key role in the outcome of student achievement in their school through the development of a positive school climate. This indirect impact that principals have on student achievement could be the critical element in ensuring that schools meet the federally mandated Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). With more than 22% of the students in Georgia schools failing to meet standards on the state mandated tests, it was hoped that results from this investigation would provide greater understanding of the relationship of principal personality to student achievement. However, due to the limitation of sample size, there is a need for future research to further investigate the role of principal personality as related to student achievement.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Following a brief introduction to school leadership, this chapter is divided into eight sections: an overview of principals and leadership, research of the behaviors and skills of effective principals, traits of effective leaders, an introduction of personality theories, research of leadership and personality, research of principal personality, the relationship between the principal and student achievement, and the relationship between principal personality and student achievement. Due to the amount of research on the behavior and skills of an effective principal, the section on the behavior and skills of effective principals is further divided into seven categories derived from Waters, Marzano, and McNulty's (2003) leadership responsibilities: (a) climate and culture, (b) affirmation, (c) communication, (d) order, visibility, and discipline, (e) monitors and evaluates, (f) intellectual stimulation and resources, and (g) optimizer and change agent. The critical role of school leadership has been studied for decades. Although evidence supports the importance of leadership, there is still ambiguity in defining what effective leadership looks like (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). "While the impact of good leadership may be difficult to determine, the effects of poor leadership are easy to see" (Leithwood & Riehl, p.9). Educational leaders are faced with a constant barrage of situations requiring decisions. How a leader responds is situational and is determined by the individual and the event (Thomas & Bainbridge, 2000). Often there is no right or 15

16 wrong response to a situation; however, each response has consequences whether positive or negative. Effective educational leaders determine the most appropriate response for the organization, a response that will move the organization forward with the least amount of turbulence (Shapiro & Gross, 2008). The antecedent of the response has created a great debate of whether leaders are born or "made" (English, 2008). English argues that leadership is an art involving the "purposive construction of self," and to become a "complete leader" requires study, practice, and experiences which shape the leader (p. 5). Leaders develop leadership skills over time through the "interactive, reciprocal, and evolving process" of interaction with students, parents, community members, and teachers (English; Gur, Drysdale & Mulford, 2006, p. 379). Others suggest that leaders are born with a predisposition to become leaders (Keirsey, 1998). Paramount to public education is the employment of the best and brightest educational leaders. Public education is under greater attack than ever before in the history of public education. Financial support for public education is decreasing while an increasing amount of public funds are being channeled into school choice options in the form of vouchers and charter schools (Goldring & Phillips, 2008). Public opinion of the organization hinges on public perception of the principal (Butcher & Kritsonis, 2008). Therefore, principals must maintain an open line of communication among stakeholders, while modeling ethical and moral behavior. Leading with integrity is paramount to the success of developing the relationships necessary for communication and collaboration (Butcher & Kritsonis).

Full document contains 130 pages
Abstract: The characteristics of effective school principals and the impact of the school principal on the organization have been the target of investigation for numerous research studies. Included, but not limited to what researchers have documented, is the effect that characteristics of the principal have on the climate and culture of the school, communication, order and discipline, and the creation of a sense of community. Critical to each of these is the development of the relationship between the principal, teachers, students, parents, and community. According to the theory of psychodynamic leadership, leaders must have an understanding of the characteristics of their personality, as well as the characteristics of the personality of other members of the organization. Knowledge and respect of these characteristics and the associated responses elicited by certain situations promote positive relationships. While the personality of an effective leader has been examined in research, very few studies have investigated the personality of effective school principals. Due to the limited research on the personality of school principals, the researcher sought to provide further information on principal personality. This study investigated the relationship between dimensions of principal personality type, as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, and gender, level of school (elementary, middle, high), and student achievement, as measured by the math scores on either the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) or the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to perform descriptive and correlational statistics. Pearson r was utilized to analyze the relationship between the predictor and criterion variables, and crosstabulation was the method of analysis of the descriptive statistics. Results indicate that the majority of participants in this study were extroverted, sensing, feeling, and judging. Due to the limited number of participants there was only one statistically significant relationship discovered. Female principals were more likely to possess the intuitive dimension of personality than male principals. Replication of this study with a larger number of participants is recommended to further test the hypotheses.