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The Latina-Hispanic network: Increasing awareness and representation within higher education for Latina-Hispanic students and professionals by creating opportunities for community, collaboration, and professional development

Dissertation
Author: Lesley Jeanine Mateo
Abstract:
Using an action research paradigm, this study explored the experiences of Latina faculty, administrators, undergraduates, and graduate students at Emerald University, a four-year public university. Hinchey (2008) defined action research as a "process of systematic inquiry usually cyclical, conducted by those inside a community with the goal to identify action that will generate some improvement" (p. 4). In attempt to improve the experiences and representation of Latinas in higher education, the researcher created "a space" for the Latina-Hispanic Network with existing Latina staff to support Latina students. Research has found that as Latinas navigate through academia and resist "institutional exclusion," they seek a space in which to belong that fosters community, mentoring, and networking (Banuelos, 2006). This study examined the impact of creating the Latina-Hispanic Network and the researcher's evolution as a leader and development of voice during the process. Using the framework of narrative inquiry was essential to this dissertation study. Through the qualitative process of listening to other Latinas' voices, the researcher was able to construct the conditions of Latinas at Emerald University and the researcher's own plight as a Latina (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000; Creswell, 2007). The findings indicated the implementation of the Latina-Hispanic Network not only affected Latina students in higher education and successfully connected them with Latina faculty, administrators, and staff but also enhanced students' awareness regarding the field of higher education.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements………………………………………………….. ................................v List of Figures ......... …………………………………………………………………......xii List of Tables ....... ………………………………………………………………………xiii

CHAPTER .................................................................................................................. PAGE

I. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 1

Terminology ................................................................................................................ 1

Background of the Study ............................................................................................. 3

Context of the Study .................................................................................................... 7

Purpose of the Study .................................................................................................... 8

Research Questions ................................................................................................... 10

II. LEADERSHIP PLATFORM/THEORIES-IN-USE (TIU) ....................................... 12

Introduction ............................................................................................................... 12

Transformational Leadership .................................................................................... 13

Feminist Leadership .................................................................................................. 16

Servant Leadership .................................................................................................... 18

Democratic Leadership .............................................................................................. 19

Leadership Theories– in –Use: My Leadership Platform ......................................... 20

Being Different – “Other” ......................................................................................... 25

Influential Leaders ..................................................................................................... 29

Impact of Organizational Culture .............................................................................. 33

The Value of Change ................................................................................................. 35

Conclusion of My Leadership Platform .................................................................... 42

III. REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................................................................................... 45 Latinas and Higher Education: The Silent Minority - Increasing the Representation of Latinas as Administrators and Executives in Higher Education ........................... 45

Stereotypes and Cultural Values ............................................................................... 46

Collective vs. Individual Identity .......................................................................... 48

Dutifulness – Respeto ........................................................................................... 48

Family [Familia] ................................................................................................... 49

Impact of Culture and Family on Hispanics’ Education ....................................... 50

Educational Pipeline and Representation .................................................................. 51

High School .......................................................................................................... 51

Degree Completion ............................................................................................... 53

Positions in Higher Education .............................................................................. 54

Community Colleges ............................................................................................ 56

Career Development, Mentoring and Leadership ..................................................... 58

Mentoring .............................................................................................................. 58

Lack of Professional Pipeline and Leadership ...................................................... 59

Summary ................................................................................................................... 59

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IV. METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................... 62

Purpose .................................................................................................................. 63

Action Research ........................................................................................................ 64

Data Sources .............................................................................................................. 67

Cycle I ....................................................................................................................... 69

Data Collection ..................................................................................................... 70

Interviews .............................................................................................................. 70

Focus Groups ........................................................................................................ 72

Data Analysis ........................................................................................................ 75

Cycle II ...................................................................................................................... 76

Data Collection ..................................................................................................... 76

Data Analysis ........................................................................................................ 77

Cycle III ..................................................................................................................... 77

Data Collection ..................................................................................................... 78

Data Analysis ........................................................................................................ 78

Cycle IV- Leadership Assessment ............................................................................ 78

Data Collection ..................................................................................................... 79

Ethical Considerations .......................................................................................... 81

Limitations to the Study ........................................................................................ 83

Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 84

V. CYCLE I ANALYSIS: CHRONICLING LATINAS’ EXPERIENCES .................. 85

Introduction ............................................................................................................... 85

Interview Results .................................................................................................. 85

Identity: Latina/Hispanic Confronting Otherness ................................................. 86

Language ............................................................................................................... 89

Family: Roots of My Identity ............................................................................... 90

Self –Efficacy........................................................................................................ 92

A Sense of Community ......................................................................................... 93

Education: an Expectation .................................................................................... 96

Impact of Role Models .......................................................................................... 97

Higher Education: Rewards and Challenges ....................................................... 100

Role of the Institution ......................................................................................... 105

Latina Students’ Focus Groups and Results ............................................................ 106

Framing Student Focus Groups .......................................................................... 106

Student Focus Group Results .............................................................................. 107

Latina Professionals’ Focus Groups and Results .................................................... 110

Professionals Focus Group Results ..................................................................... 110

Leadership Assessment ........................................................................................... 113

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VI. CYCLE II PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT ............................................................. 118

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 118

First Meeting ........................................................................................................... 120

Mi Bandera, My Flag, My Identity ..................................................................... 121

Being Latina ........................................................................................................ 122

Resistance ........................................................................................................... 123

The Aftermath of Resistance .............................................................................. 125

Second Meeting ....................................................................................................... 126

A Historical Perspective of Latinos on Campus ................................................. 127

Latina-Hispanic Discussion ................................................................................ 129

The Importance of Mentoring and Role Models ................................................. 129

The Meeting Dynamics ....................................................................................... 131

Third Meeting .......................................................................................................... 132

Las Navidades ..................................................................................................... 133

The Latina-Hispanic Network Mission and Objectives ...................................... 134

The Name Game ................................................................................................. 135

Spreading the Word about the Latina-Hispanic Network ................................... 136

Event Survey Results ............................................................................................... 136

Leadership: Locating My Vision and My Voice ..................................................... 138

VII. CYCLE III PROGRAM EVALUATION ............................................................... 156

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 156

Interview Results ..................................................................................................... 157

Community ......................................................................................................... 157

Networking, Collaboration and Awareness ........................................................ 158

Personal and Professional Development ............................................................. 160

Time and Commitment ....................................................................................... 160

Network Purpose ................................................................................................. 162

Recruitment Efforts ............................................................................................. 163

Leadership Assessment ........................................................................................... 164

VIII. ANALYSIS OF THE LATINA-HISPANIC NETWORK ...................................... 172

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 172

Institutional Culture ................................................................................................. 178

The Research Questions .......................................................................................... 181

Implications ............................................................................................................. 189

IX. LEADERSHIP ......................................................................................................... 192

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 192

My Leadership and the Latina-Hispanic Network .................................................. 193

My First Leadership Tool: LCI ............................................................................... 195

My Second Leadership Tool: LPI ........................................................................... 197

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Five Leadership Practices ................................................................................... 198

LPI Results .......................................................................................................... 198

Leadership Behaviors .......................................................................................... 201

Open-ended Responses ....................................................................................... 204

Overall LPI Conclusion ...................................................................................... 205

My Third Leadership Tool: ISE .............................................................................. 206

Internship Survey Results ................................................................................... 207

Overall Internship Survey Conclusion ................................................................ 209

My Fourth Leadership Tool: Network Follow-up Interviews ................................. 209

Improving the Latina-Hispanic Network ............................................................ 210

Reflections on my Leadership and the Network ..................................................... 214

Vision ...................................................................................................................... 216

Relationships ........................................................................................................... 218

No Title, No Power, Not a Leader- a misconception .............................................. 221

Me as an Expert? ..................................................................................................... 225

Me a Social Justice Leader? .................................................................................... 228

Me as a Transactional Leader? ................................................................................ 230

My Values and Actions: a Dichotomy .................................................................... 231

My Voz [Voice] ....................................................................................................... 232

The Latina–Hispanic Network and Organizational Change .................................... 234

Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 238

The Latina-Hispanic Network Moving Forward ..................................................... 238

References ......................................................................................................................... 241

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APPENDICES Appendix A Interview Questions ................................................................................. 258

Appendix B Focus Group Questions ........................................................................... 260

Appendix C Event Survey ........................................................................................... 262

Appendix D Follow up Interview ................................................................................ 264

Appendix E HR Internship Supervisor Evaluation ...................................................... 266

Appendix F LPI Leadership Behaviors ........................................................................ 269

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE Figure 1 Overview of Action Research Cycles ............................................................68 Figure 2 LPI Self/Observer Assessment……………………………………………..199 Figure 3 Fullan’s Framework for Leadership..……………………………………....237

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE Table 1 Participant Responses Regarding Latina-Hispanic Network……………..138

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Terminology Latinos continue to be underrepresented in the social and political, managerial and academic networks of higher education. As a campus leader, I designed the following action research dissertation to understand Hispanic females’ experiences and to emphasize and address their needs by creating a Latina-Hispanic Network on campus. This network created a community of Latina professionals and students at Emerald University and promoted collaborative relationships, opportunities for knowledge sharing, engagement, and professional development. For purposes of clarity, it is essential to define some common terms utilized throughout the dissertation. Hispanic is a word that was created in 1978 by the Federal Office of Budget and Management and refers collectively to Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Central, and South Americans and other people with Spanish-speaking origin (Trevino, 1987). Latino, a more modern term, introduced by theorists Hayes-Bautista and Chapa in 1981, refers to individuals whose ancestry is from Latin American countries in South and Central America, particularly Peru and Argentina, and Nicaragua, and Guatemala, respectively (Jones & Castellanos, 2003a; Trevino, 1987). Latino may refer also to individuals who may not necessarily speak Spanish, but another romance language like Portuguese, and is deployed by Central and South American countries (Jones & Castellanos, 2003a). Between the two expressions, Hispanic and Latino, there has been much debate regarding their appropriate application and function. Some have rejected the term Hispanic because it was produced as a reductivist category by the government and media

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(Jones & Castellanos, 2003a). On the other hand, others, of Hispanic descent, identify with the phrase Latino not only for its modernity, despite its references to Latin American ancestry but also as a way of asserting ethnic identity within the United States (Gonzalez & Gandara, 2005). For the purposes of this study, both Hispanic and Latino references have been used interchangeably to reflect common usage. When referring to gender initiatives, Latinas will be used when referring to women. Another key term to identify is culture. According to Jones and Castellanos (2003a), culture implies values, customs, and beliefs shared by a group, which may be passed on through generations, language, and rituals. To understand the Hispanic population, it is vital to accept that academic persistence, retention, and degree completion are affected by ethnic identity and cultural heritage (Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Oseguera et al., 2009). Latino culture is distinct in its values, language and expressions as they apply to education. Other terms used throughout the dissertation are administrator and network. The Princeton Review defines a college administrator as a professional in higher education who has decision-making power, manages university programs, interacts with students, and possesses at least an undergraduate level degree (http://www.princetonreview.com/cte/profiles/dayInLife.asp?careerID=40). Network refers to the group of Latina students and professionals in this study who interact, socialize, and engage in conversations and activities geared toward enriching their personal, academic, professional, and social experiences as well as increasing awareness regarding the field of higher education and strategies for professional development and increased representation.

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Background of the Study In the past two decades, a demographic explosion has occurred in the United States (NCES, 2003). At the core of this boom, Hispanics have had one of the highest rates of population growth. In 2007, Hispanics were the largest racial/ethnic minority group comprising 45 million of the total population of 301 million. Hispanics have surpassed the Black population of 40 million, who had been the dominant minority group (United States Census Bureau, 2008). Yet, while the Hispanic population has increased, the educational attainment of Latinos is not proportionally equivalent to their White mainstream counterparts. In 1980, Hispanics represented only 4% of students enrolled in colleges and universities. Two decades later, in 2000, Hispanics comprised 10% of the total enrollment (NCES, 2003). The slight rise of Hispanics in higher education signifies that, despite cultural differences and obstacles, Latino students have started to recognize the urgency in pursuing an education if they are to participate effectively in the workforce. According to the 2006 Minorities in Higher Education Twenty-second Annual Status Report (American Council on Education, 2006), in terms of undergraduate education, over the last decade, Hispanics nearly doubled the number of bachelor’s degrees received to more than 105,000. Additionally, Hispanics also made remarkable gains in doctoral degrees earned, rising from 950 in 1995 to more than 1,700 in 2005, an 83% increase. A 2007 report from the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) shows that between 1996 and 2006 overall Hispanic enrollment in graduate school grew faster than any other racial/ethnic minority group, averaging five percent a year. Although these numbers

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appear impressive for Hispanics’ upward mobility through the educational pipeline, in relation to their White counterparts, their representation remains significantly deficient. A current study conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (2009) found that, in 2007, White students comprised 64% of college enrollment compared to Hispanics at 11%. Latinos are still clearly underrepresented in higher education and are in crisis (NCES, 2009; Valverde et al., 2008). Hispanics are more likely to drop out of high school than Whites or Blacks. Additionally, when Latinos attend post secondary institutions, they are more likely to enroll in two-year community colleges and earn an associate’s degree (NCES, 2003). With the continued demographic shift, Latinos’ disproportionate educational attainment will not only have effects on the economy but also on the presence of Latinos in the global workforce. As more Latinos move through the educational pipeline seeking undergraduate and graduate level degrees, institutions must acknowledge the need for organizational changes to support all students. Research has asserted that Latino students should see other Hispanics in positions as faculty, administrators, and staff because not only is building student faculty relationships important for Latino students’ cultural affirmation and success, but it also provides opportunities for mentorship and networking (Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Gloria & Castellanos, 2003; Santos & Reigadas, 2002). A “critical mass” of Latinos in higher education fosters belongingness and social integration (Hagedorn, Chi, Cepeda, & Mclain, 2007). Having visible successful Latinos in academia to serve as role models to other Latinos is critical. Moreover, greater visibility of Latino leaders in higher education enhances the undergraduate experience for Hispanic students (Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Hagedorn

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et al., 2007; Orozco, 2003; Santos & Reigadas, 2002; Zalaquett & Lopez, 2006). Through interactions with faculty and administrators, students may be exposed to diverse opportunities that increase their awareness regarding campus life and community, socialization, and mentoring (Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Hagedorn et al., 2007; Orozco, 2003; Zalaquett & Lopez, 2006). The decade from 1993 to 2003 produced the largest rate of Latino faculty increase, increasing by 66.3 %, an additional 8,000 Hispanic faculty members, although the number still lags behind their White counterparts and other ethnic groups (American Council on Education, 2006). Despite increased numbers of Hispanics in higher education, professionally, they lag behind in roles as executives, managers, and administrators. In a 1995 study, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, 1998) examined staff at higher education institutions across the United States and found that 78% of full time staff was White and only 4% were Hispanics. A more recent NCES study (2008) found that among the over 4,276 degree-granting institutions and 186,505 executive, managerial, and administrative positions, Hispanics comprised only 3.8% (7,195 positions), in relation to the 9% (17,601) held by Blacks and 81% (152,630) by Whites. While Latino college enrollment has doubled in the past decade, executive, managerial, and administrator positions has not reflected that change. Hispanics’ cultural identity exacerbates the difficulty of their educational attainment and professional representation in higher education. Latinos navigating through the educational pipeline have had an unrelenting struggle balancing institutional priorities with cultural and family values (Canul, 2003; Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Ginorio & Huston, 2001; Hurtado, 1994; Hurtado & Ponjuan, 2005; Renaud & Suarez-

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Renaud, 2008). Latinos have worked hard to simultaneously maintain and negotiate their bicultural and often bilingual identities. Hispanic college students have faced many adversities to achieving ongoing academic success and graduation. Often, Latinos have confronted discrimination, alienation, marginalization, a limited network of role models/mentors, and a campus climate unwelcoming of the Hispanic experience (Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Castellanos & Jones, 2003a; Gloria & Castellanos, 2003; Gloria, Castellanos, Lopez, & Rosales, 2005; Hurtado, 1994; Torres, 2004). Although scholars have begun to examine the reasons for Latinos’ underrepresentation, much of the research regarding Hispanics’ experiences in higher education has primarily addressed students’ academic expectations, performance, and retention, faculty, peer, and staff interactions; and the role of social capital with regard to campus experience and socialization (Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Castellanos & Jones, 2003a; Miller, 2005; Oseguera et al., 2009; Saenz, Ning Ngai, & Hurtado, 1997). The research has also uncovered that Latinos’ cultural heritage directly affects their higher education experiences. Cultural values comprised of familismo, respeto, communidad, and personalismo guide Latinos’ decisions about educational and professional pursuits (Bordas, 2007; Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Canul, 2003). Family, who provides a principle source of support and influence, is the nucleus for the Latino experience (Canul, 2003; Ceballo, 2004; Ginorio & Huston, 2001; Renaud & Suarez-Renaud, 2008; Zalaquett & Lopez, 2006). The Latino experience reflects a diverse hologram that is influenced by somewhat insular cultural, ethical, familial, and communal perspectives. Research has indicated that intertwined with strong family ties is the Latinos’ need to afford the utmost respect or

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respeto to family members, elders, and community members. Additionally, Hispanics highly regard social interactions, relationships, and community. Consequently, Latinos feel a strong sense of community and use personalismo, valuing others, not as individuals but members of a collective (Bordas 2007; Canul, 2003). Often, institutional priorities, particularly in education, have been contrary to Latinos’ own cultural identities (Castellanos, Gloria, & Kamimura, 2006; Gloria & Castellanos, 2003; Hurtado, 1994; Renaud & Suarez- Renaud, 2008; Reyes & Rios, 2005; Rosales, 2006). The disparity is even more apparent with Latinas (Gorena, 1996; Haro, 2003; Hixson, 2002; Louque & Garcia, 2000; Luhrs, 1994). Hispanic females in higher education face not only the insular pressures experienced by all Latinos but are further subjected to external cultural and gender specific stereotypes that challenge them as Latinas, women, students, and professionals. Although there has been considerable research regarding Latinos and their journeys through the educational pipeline as well as their retention and graduation rates, it was not until the late 1990s that substantial studies exploring Latinas’ educational experiences and unique perspectives as women, students, faculty, and administrators began to be published. The lack of research and underrepresentation of Latinas in higher education, combined with my personal desire to act on and improve these conditions, has led to this study, which will focus specifically on Hispanic females in higher education. Context of the Study The setting for the study was the main campus of a four-year medium sized public institution, Emerald University, (a pseudonym) located in Southern New Jersey. For fall 2008, enrollment was 10,271 full and part time students. Of the total population, 45.3 %

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were males and 54.7% females. Hispanic students made up 6.6% of the total population. For 2008-2009, there were 1,250 full time employees. According to university records, in terms of Hispanic / Latina faculty, staff, and administrators at the university, there were a total of 14 female employees, of whom five are in faculty positions, two in executive / managerial positions, and seven in professional/administrator positions. Purpose of the Study The purpose of my action research study was to explore experiences of Latina faculty, administrators, undergraduates, and graduate students at this four-year public university in Southern New Jersey. In an attempt to improve both the experiences and representation of Latinas, I created a network with existing Latina staff to support Latina students. Hinchey (2008) defines action research as a “process of systematic inquiry usually cyclical, conducted by those inside a community with the goal to identify action that will generate some improvement” (p. 4). As an educational leader, Latina, graduate student, and administrator, I felt compelled to understand the changing needs of Latinas in higher education. Because there has been a considerable disparity and disconnect in the ratio of Latina students to Latina professionals within higher education, I sought to explore how the institution and I, in my own role as an educational leader, could provide varied resources and networks to Latina students. My goal was to utilize already established Latina faculty, staff, and administrators to inform, support, and enhance Latina students’ experiences at Emerald University. Available research has substantiated the demand for increased representation of Latinas as professionals in higher education (Castellanos & Gloria, 2007; Jones & Castellanos, 2003a; Hagedorn et al., 2007; Hixson, 2002). Thus, my goals in establishing

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a Latina-Hispanic professional/social network were to bridge relationships between students and professionals, provide students access to role models, engage them in dialogue about additional opportunities in higher education, increase awareness about the workforce and the field of higher education, and, finally, facilitate ongoing knowledge sharing that promotes collaboration and professional development opportunities. All these measures served as viable solutions to the shortage of Latina professionals as faculty, administrators, staff, and executive level leaders. As a leader within the institution, after investigating Latinas’ experiences at Emerald University, I became better informed regarding the diverse experiences of Latinas’ personal, academic, and professional pursuits. As a result, I was determined to create a supportive network of Latina role models for Latina students to access in an effort to inform and encourage Latinas about the workforce, higher education as a potential career choice, and promoting the value of internships as a potential career step. Latinas’ bilingual and bicultural identities inform their personal, educational, and professional pursuits. Within the realm of career development, research has addressed the value of narrative counseling, in which students personalize career information and bring their own experiences and stories to the discussion (Clark, Severy, & Sawyer, 2004). Because Hispanics’ unique cultural background affects their choices, institutions must support Latinas’ need to conceptualize their participation in such settings based on their unique cultural heritage. Creating the Latina-Hispanic Network has allowed Latina students to begin to engage in dialogue about their own career development, to meet Latina faculty and administrators, and to see Latina role models.

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Research Questions This study sought to answer the following questions about the experiences of Latina faculty, administrators, graduate students, and undergraduates in higher education and about my Latina-Hispanic Network: 1. What have Latina undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and administrators experienced during their educational and professional pursuits at Emerald University? 2. What influences, opportunities, and barriers have Latina students, faculty, and administrators encountered while enrolled or employed by Emerald University? 3. In what ways has the Latina-Hispanic Network affected Latina students in higher education and connected them with Latina faculty, administrators, and staff? 4. How did the Latina-Hispanic Network affect Latina students’, faculty’s, and administrators’ higher education experiences within Emerald University and the students’ awareness regarding higher education? This study also sought to answer the following questions about my leadership: 5. In what ways has my leadership shaped this Latina-Hispanic Network? 6. In terms of my own leadership, how have I grown as a democratic, feminist, and social justice leader? 7. How has my own voice as a Latina, administrator, and student evolved?

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As the initiator of this change, the next chapter provides an overview of my leadership platform, and illustrates my initial exploration of feminist and democratic leadership styles.

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CHAPTER II LEADERSHIP PLATFORM/THEORIES-IN-USE (TIU) Introduction

Throughout history, effective leadership has steered the kismet of society’s political, social, and economic advancement. Leaders have had to possess not only confidence, commitment, and knowledge, but also the ability to build relationships, motivate people, and embrace change. Leaders, some guided by a sense of “moral purpose,” work toward making improvements in the hopes of eliminating organizational deficiencies (Fullan, 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 2003a; Senge, 2006). Others are motivated by having “a sense of urgency” that change is vital to combat complacency and for continued organizational success (Kotter, 1996; 2008). Nevertheless, above all, leadership presents opportunities. Heifetz and Linsky (2002) claim: Each day brings you opportunities to raise important questions, speak to higher values, and surface unresolved conflicts. Every day you have the chance to make a difference in the lives of people around you. And every day you must decide whether to put your contribution out there, or keep it to yourself to avoid upsetting anyone, and get through another day. (p. 2) Exercising leadership on a daily basis has been complicated and grueling. Leaders must be grounded in a profound understanding of ethics, requiring an intimate understanding of their inner selves –the values and experiences that embody their identities and the importance of self-reflection (Branson, 2006; Osterman & Kottkamp, 2004; Scharmer, 2009; Senge, 2006; Spears, 1998).

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After much reflection regarding my leadership influences, I discovered that the leaders in my life have been respectful, erudite, and interactive listeners who have challenged me to think critically. These values coupled with my Puerto Rican heritage have shaped me to become a person who is caring, supportive, and passionate. As an educational leader, I have recognized the relationship between the leadership theories I espoused, which included servant and transformational with that of my actual leadership theories-in-use that have blended feminist and democratic (Burns, 2003; Cronin, 1987; Gilligan, 1982; Greenleaf, 1977; Kouzes & Posner, 2003a; Rosener, 1990). Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership seeks to unite people together by inspiring and encouraging identity, efficacy, and participation (Bass, 1997; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Burns, 2003; Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002; Kouzes & Posner, 2003a). Burns first coined the term transformational and described it as: Leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivations - the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations of both leaders and followers. And the genius of leadership lies in the manner in which leaders see and act on their own and their followers' values and motivations. (p. 19) Transformational leadership highlights the relationship between leader and follower collaborating toward meeting objectives while infusing creativity, mutual understanding, motivation, and inspiration (Bass, 1997; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Burns, 1978; Kouzes & Posner, 2003a). The relationship between leader and follower is reciprocal - leaders and followers raise one another to higher standards of motivation (Bass, 1997; Burns, 1978) -

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unlike transactional leadership where the role and power of the leader is clearly delineated in relation to his followers (Bass & Avolio, 1994; Burns, 1978; Goleman et al., 2002). Followers within transactional settings are expected to engage in systematic exchanges – or transactions within an organization. Followers understand their roles and objectives working within a system of rewards and penalties. Transactional leadership reinforces delegation, control, and authority (Bass, 1997; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Burns, 1978; Goleman et al., 2002), whereas transformational leadership initiates a process of change that transforms people, structures, and values (Bass, 1997; Burns, 2003; Goleman et al., 2002; Kouzes & Posner, 2003a). Transformational leadership leads organizations away from working under a Rational-Structural model, operating bureaucratically with assigned rules and functions and where actions are linear and predictable, to a Strategic-Systematic model or second order change model where behaviors, assumptions, and values are modified (Evans, 1996). Second order change requires a profound shift toward accepting alternative perspectives and ways of doing things, modifying the existing culture (Evans, 1996; Fullan, 2001). Transformational leadership is contingent upon leaders not only understanding the need for change in an organization but also including its stakeholders in embracing the change for sustained improvement and longevity (Bass, 1997; Fullan, 2001; Kegan & Lahey, 2001; Kotter, 1996). Leading transforms the organization and its people to confront new problems that have gone unaddressed (Bass, 1997; Burns, 2003; Fullan, 2001). Views of leadership have traditionally been hierarchical, patriarchal, coercive, and related to power (Bass, 1997; Crippen, 2004; Goleman, et al., 2002; Rao & Kelleher,

Full document contains 285 pages
Abstract: Using an action research paradigm, this study explored the experiences of Latina faculty, administrators, undergraduates, and graduate students at Emerald University, a four-year public university. Hinchey (2008) defined action research as a "process of systematic inquiry usually cyclical, conducted by those inside a community with the goal to identify action that will generate some improvement" (p. 4). In attempt to improve the experiences and representation of Latinas in higher education, the researcher created "a space" for the Latina-Hispanic Network with existing Latina staff to support Latina students. Research has found that as Latinas navigate through academia and resist "institutional exclusion," they seek a space in which to belong that fosters community, mentoring, and networking (Banuelos, 2006). This study examined the impact of creating the Latina-Hispanic Network and the researcher's evolution as a leader and development of voice during the process. Using the framework of narrative inquiry was essential to this dissertation study. Through the qualitative process of listening to other Latinas' voices, the researcher was able to construct the conditions of Latinas at Emerald University and the researcher's own plight as a Latina (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000; Creswell, 2007). The findings indicated the implementation of the Latina-Hispanic Network not only affected Latina students in higher education and successfully connected them with Latina faculty, administrators, and staff but also enhanced students' awareness regarding the field of higher education.