The impact of simulation in nursing education on the self-efficacy and learner satisfaction of nursing students
v Table of Contents Acknowledgments iv List of Tables vii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction to the Problem 3 Background of the Study 4 Statement of the Problem 6 Purpose of the Study 7 Rationale 7 Research Questions 8 Significance of the Study 9 Definition of Terms 9 Assumptions and Limitations 10 Nature of the Study 11 Organization of the Remainder of the Study 12 CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 14 Simulation 14 Self-Efficacy 32 Conclusion 43 CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY 45 Introduction 45 Research Design 46 Sample and Population 47
vi Instrumentation 48 Data Collection 51 Data Analysis 53 Ethical Issues 54 Limitations 55 Conclusion 55 CHAPTER 4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 56 Introduction 56 Characteristics of the Sample 56 Research Questions 61 Conclusion 73 CHAPTER 5. RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 74 Introduction 74 Summary and Discussion of Results 74 Conclusions 78 Implications 82 Generalizing the Study 84 Recommendations for Further Research 84 Conclusion 85 REFERENCES 86
List of Tables Table 1. Age and GPA 57 Table 2. Marital Status 58 Table 3. Gender 58 Table 4. Ethnicity 58 Table 5. Employment Status 59 Table 6. Number of Hours Employed per Week 59 Table 7. Previous Experience in Health Care 59 Table 8. Previous Simulation Experience 60 Table 9. Chi-Square 61 Table 10. Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Measure Descriptive Statistics 62 Table 11. Paired-Samples t Test on Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Measure Scores 63 Table 12. Mixed Model ANOVA Between-Subject Effect 63 Table 13. ANOVA Within Subjects 64 Table 14. Descriptive Statistics for Simulation Design Scale 64 Table 15. Descriptive Statistics for Educational Practices Questionnaire 65 Table 16. Descriptive Statistics for Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning 65
Table 17. Comparison Between Level and Simulation Design Scale Scores 66 Table 18. Comparison Between Level and Educational Practices Questionnaire 66 Table 19. Comaprison Between Level and Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scores 66
Table 20. Comparison of Learner Satisfaction by Level 67
Table 21. Descriptive Statistics for Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Measure by Role 68
Table 22. Descriptive Statistics for Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning by Role 68
Table 23. Comparison Between Role and Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Measure and Self-Confidence in Learning 69
Table 24. Descriptive Statistics for Simulation Design Scale by Role 70
Table 25.Descriptive Statistics for Educational Practices Questionnaire by Role 71
Table 26. Descriptive Statistics for Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning by Role 71
Table 27. Comparison Between Role and Components of Learner Satisfaction Tools 72
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Nursing education faces the challenge of preparing graduates to face the complexities that are found in today’s health care environment. Upon graduation, new nurses must be able to care for patients in a fast-paced environment that emphasizes clinical competence and accurate, timely decision-making skills. The development of clinical competence and decision-making skills is influenced by many factors, including confidence in the ability to accomplish a task or self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a personal characteristic that is believed to increase an individual’s abilities to be successful in a task. Self-efficacy “refers to beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1977, p. 3). As students matriculate through their educational experiences, they need a strong foundational knowledge and also need learning experiences that will provide them with the opportunities to become confident in their clinical skills and decision-making capabilities. Confidence in clinical skills and decision-making may directly influence students’ abilities to care for patients effectively. Upon graduation, many students report that they feel unprepared to face the complexities of the health care work place (Kilstoff & Rochester, 2004). The overall purpose of this study was to reveal the need for alternative educational strategies that would increase students’ confidence, or, self-efficacy. In order to cultivate a learning environment that encourages the development of confidence in the
2 ability to perform clinical skills and make sound clinical judgments, nursing educators must explore a variety of teaching strategies. The use of teaching strategies where the learner is actively involved in the learning process have been shown to increase learners’ self-efficacy (Fencl & Scheel, 2005; Noel-Weiss, Bassett, & Craig, 2006; Slavin, 2003). Simulation is a teaching strategy that has been utilized in nursing education to enable learners to enter the clinical setting better prepared (Lasater, 2007). Simulation places the learner in an active role within the learning environment and simulation also has the ability to provide a learning environment where the learner is able to concentrate on learning without any of the anxiety that may be associated with the clinical setting. Simulations vary in type and technology utilized. Simulations range in technological complexity from low-fidelity, consisting of case studies or written patient scenarios where students engage in problem-based learning, to high-fidelity, where high- tech mannequins are utilized to generate highly realistic scenarios (Hovancsek, 2007). In the simulation setting, learners are able to learn by experience. Learners focus on a particular situation, assessing, problem solving and making decisions regarding the care of a patient in a realistic, yet simulated environment. The nursing educator who utilizes simulation is able to create a learning environment where the learners can learn from their mistakes without harming a real patient. Also, simulated learning experiences prepare students for the actual clinical setting (Aronson, Rebeschi, & Killion, 2007). By participating in simulated patient care scenarios, students are more comfortable with their own abilities to perform the necessary skills in an actual clinical setting. As a descriptive evaluation study of the use of simulation in nursing education, this study provided an examination of the impact of simulated learning experiences on
3 the clinical self-efficacy and learner satisfaction of nursing students. Within this first chapter the topic will be introduced and a background of the problem will be provided. The first chapter will also include a statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the rationale for the study, the research questions to be examined, and the significance of the study. In addition, terms will be defined, assumptions and limitations will be identified, and the theoretical framework of the study will be introduced. Finally, the organization of the remainder of the study will be presented.
Introduction to the Problem In addition to the complexities of the current health care environment, nursing educators face the realities of shortages of facilities and faculty. As nursing educators seek effective teaching strategies, they are struggling to do so with fewer clinical resources and fewer faculty. Qualified applicants to programs of nursing are being turned away due to insufficient numbers of faculty and insufficient clinical sites (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2005). Educators seek teaching strategies that are effective in preparing students to enter the profession of nursing and they also seek learning environment alternatives to the clinical setting. The alternative learning environments need to depict the clinical environment realistically so that the students will master the necessary competencies and gain the confidence, or self-efficacy, necessary to care for patients in the clinical setting effectively. In the challenging health care environment of today it is paramount that graduates of nursing programs are able to function effectively in an environment where problem resolution is often complex and time-consuming. Learning environments need to
4 reflect the appropriate degree of complexity in order for learners to develop a sense of confidence in caring for patients in deteriorating situations. Self-efficacy plays a role in individuals’ reactions to difficult situations (Bandura, 1977). Individuals with high self- efficacy will be more task-oriented and will persist, even when the task becomes very complex and difficult (Jackson, 2002). Simulation environments, effectively created, provide an environment where students experience scenarios that are very similar to the clinical setting. Simulated experiences provide students with opportunities to learn and become comfortable performing a variety of clinical skills prior to caring for patients in actual care settings. Once the students are comfortable with the clinical skills in simulated environments they would possibly be more confident in their ability to perform these skills in actual clinical settings. How the simulated environment impacts students’ self-efficacy and learner satisfaction was the basis for this study.
Background of the Study Schools of nursing are seeking ways to increase enrollment and retention while preparing students to successfully complete the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN). The health care industry is depending on schools of nursing to assist in solving the crisis the health care industry is facing as more and more nurses leave the profession. It is estimated that by 2014, “1.2 million RN positions will be needed for growth and replacement” (Walrath & Belcher, 2006, p. 81). In seeking to supply the health care industry with the needed professionals, schools of nursing are also seeking ways to identify students who are at risk for failure, in order to then intervene with
5 strategies that will enable these students to be successful in completing the academic program and passing the NCLEX-RN. It is important for students to succeed academically and pass the NCLEX-RN. Each student who graduates from a school of nursing must take the NCLEX-RN in order to be licensed to practice nursing professionally. Also, the accreditation of schools of nursing is tied directly to the NCLEX-RN passing rate of students who complete their programs (Nursing Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2006). Schools of nursing seek to prepare students for success and are continually examining factors that may influence each student’s academic success. Self-efficacy has been identified as a factor that may impact academic success (Devonport & Lane, 2006; Ofori & Charlton, 2002; Vancouver & Kendall, 2006; Zajacova, Lynch, & Espenshade, 2005). Bandura (1977) studied the concept of self-efficacy extensively. Bandura examined how individuals approach difficult situations. As individuals approach difficult situations, they study the situations, analyzing the various options open to them while they simultaneously determine their own individual likelihood for success. Bandura believed that self-efficacy directly impacted an individual’s ability to be successful at a given task. Bandura identified several ways to build self-efficacy beliefs. One way that self-efficacy beliefs may be cultivated is by individuals experiencing success at a particular task. Another way that self-efficacy beliefs may be cultivated is through individuals observing others successfully performing a task. A further way of enhancing self-efficacy beliefs is through praise and encouragement from others while the individuals are working on the task. A final way that self-efficacy beliefs may be enhanced is by reducing individuals’ feelings of anxiety toward the performance of a
6 certain task. Simulation incorporates many of the methods Bandura identified that could be utilized to increase an individual’s self-efficacy. Simulation has been used effectively in education for many years. Simulation was utilized by industries, such as the airline industry, prior to its use by health-care educators (Wilford & Doyle, 2006). One of the earliest mannequins utilized in simulated learning in the health care industry was Resusci-Annie. Resusci-Annie was introduced in the 1960s as a training aid for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (Cooper & Taqueti, 2004). Simulation has evolved since the 1960s to the high-tech field that is seen today in several health care simulation learning centers around the country. The high-fidelity simulation mannequins of today provide a realistic “patient” for the learner to care for (Jeffries, 2007). Simulation allows students opportunities to practice skills in an environment where they are free to make mistakes and learn from the mistakes so that when learners enter the clinical setting they feel better prepared to care for their patients. This study focused on the use of simulation in nursing education and its impact on clinical self- efficacy and learner satisfaction.
Statement of the Problem Nursing students often exhibit a low clinical self-efficacy as they care for patients in clinical settings. Traditionally, extensive clinical experiences have been utilized to increase students’ clinical self-efficacy. The shortage of qualified nursing faculty and the decreasing ability of the faculty to provide the necessary clinical settings to meet the students’ learning needs has led nursing faculty to investigate alternative teaching strategies.
Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of simulation to impact the development of clinical self-efficacy in junior- and senior-level nursing students at a Midwestern liberal arts university. This study also evaluated student satisfaction with simulation as an educational strategy. Finally, this study evaluated the impact that the learner’s role in the simulation had on clinical self-efficacy and learner satisfaction. The findings from this study serve to provide a broader knowledge base concerning the use of simulation in nursing education.
Rationale Nursing educators continually seek teaching strategies that will assist them in generating an effective learning environment. Simulation has been utilized effectively as a teaching strategy in several professions, including aviation, engineering, the military, community service and medical (Bradley, 2006; Dy, 2008; Stackpole, 2008; Toon, 2008). Each of these professions has examined ways to make educational experiences more realistic for learners. Additionally, simulation in nursing education has been utilized to supplement the actual clinical experiences of students (Feingold, Calaluce, & Kallen, 2004; Haskvitz & Koop, 2004; Lasater, 2007). Simulation has also been utilized in conjunction with lecture (Anderson, 2007). Educators are seeking a better understanding of how to integrate simulation into nursing curriculums. Research regarding how simulation may be effectively utilized in nursing education is an important component of the knowledge base of nursing education.
8 Self-efficacy directly impacts performance (Bandura, 1977). Bandura further stated that high self-efficacy results in increased human effort. Accordingly, a nursing student who has high self-efficacy regarding a certain patient care procedure will be more likely to perform that procedure successfully, even under a stressful patient care situation. High self-efficacy will empower the student to persevere, seeking the best care option for the patient. Several studies have been performed examining simulation and its role in improving learning outcomes (Aronson et al., 2007; Feingold et al., 2004; Morgan, Cleave-Hogg, Desousa, & Lam-McCulloch, 2006). Although some research has been conducted concerning the use of simulation in nursing education to increase self-efficacy, the need has been identified for further studies that examine factors, such as the placement of simulation in the curriculum and the role or participation level of the students in the simulation (Anderson, 2007; Leigh, 2008).
Research Questions This study addressed the following three research questions: 1. Given the use of simulation in learning laboratory settings, what is the impact of high-fidelity simulation on clinical self-efficacy in junior- and senior-level nursing students?
2. Given the use of simulation in learning laboratory settings, what is the impact of high-fidelity simulation on learner satisfaction in junior- and senior-level nursing students?
3. Utilizing high-fidelity simulation, what is the impact of the role the learners play in the simulation on clinical self-efficacy and learner satisfaction on junior- and senior-level nursing students?
9 Significance of the Study The significance of this study serves to assist nursing educators in creating educational environments that incorporate simulation in a manner that could promote the development of clinical self-efficacy in nursing students, thereby increasing nursing students’ academic success. The nursing shortage has generated an educational environment where educators are challenged as they seek strategies that will increase students’ success in nursing education. Students’ self-efficacy will impact their academic success in nursing education. Nursing students who possess high self-efficacy for a particular task or situation will be more likely to continue to be successful with the task or a similar situation. Learning opportunities that allow students to increase their self- efficacy will impact learning outcomes. Simulations that are effectively designed and implemented will allow students to experience first-hand the complexities of the clinical setting in a learning environment where students utilize critical thinking skills as they gain confidence in the ability to provide appropriate patient care.
Definition of Terms In this study, the following terms were defined: Clinical self-efficacy - Personal beliefs regarding the ability to successfully carry out clinical nursing tasks necessary to provide appropriate care for the patient in the clinical setting (Owen, 2002). Debriefing - A time of reflective learning where learners evaluate their decisions and actions in a group setting and integrate the newly constructed knowledge (Lederman, 1992).
10 Fidelity - A term utilized in simulation. Fidelity “refers to how closely it replicates the selected domain and is determined by the number of elements that are replicated as well as the error between each element and the real world” (Gaba, 2004a, p. 8). Learner satisfaction - The degree to which the learner believes that the learning experience meets their learning needs. Satisfied learners value their learning experience and will put more effort into their performance (Chickering & Gamson, 1987). Self-efficacy – “The conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes” (Bandura, 1977, p. 79). Simulation – “Activities that mimic reality and variously involve role-playing interactive videos, or mannequins that help students learn and allow them to demonstrate decision making, critical thinking and other skills” (Jeffries & Rogers, 2007, p. 22).
Assumptions and Limitations There were several assumptions for this study. First, it was assumed that the students’ responses on the surveys would be honest. It was also assumed that the students would actively participate in the simulation. It was further assumed that the students who participated in the study were representative of junior- and senior-level nursing students in a baccalaureate nursing program. There were also several limitations in this study. The sample being utilized was a convenience sample. The size of the sample was small, making the information obtained limited in its usability (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). Also, because only one university was utilized to collect data, the generalizability of the findings is limited.
Nature of the Study The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of simulation as a teaching strategy on clinical self-efficacy and learner satisfaction. Learning that is experientially- based seeks learning experiences that focus on the development of cognition and understanding. Simulations provide a learning environment that actively engages the learner in experientially-based learning activities, where it is acceptable to make mistakes and learn from them. The theoretical framework for this study is drawn from several different learning theorists. The study primarily utilized The Nursing Education Simulation Framework, which provided a picture of how teachers, students and educational practices interact with the simulation design characteristics to influence learning outcomes (Jeffries & Rogers, 2007). The Nursing Education Simulation Framework is based on constructivist learning theory, along with the theories of Dewey, Schon and Kolb (Jeffries, 2007). Constructivist learning theory examines how knowledge is acquired through individuals’ interactions with the environment. Constructivism places learners in environments where there is active involvement in discovery learning. Learning takes place as learners, who view the learning environment through familiar constructs, assimilate and accommodate new information with old constructs (Henry, 2002). Dewey believed that new knowledge was generated through interaction with the learning environment (Gutek, 2004). Dewey also believed that the quality of the experience impacted learning. Schon’s theory of learning was directly influenced by
12 Dewey. Schon (1983) emphasized the importance of reflection in the learning process. Reflection seeks to discover new understanding and can be applied in future situations. Kolb’s (1984) theory of experiential learning emphasized that learning is an active process where learners generate new knowledge through experiences. Kolb’s theory relies on active learning experiences and reflection on the experiences. It is during the reflective period that new insights are generated and the learner comes to a deeper understanding of the situation. The Nursing Education Simulation Framework draws from each of these theorists. The framework takes into consideration teacher factors and student characteristics, and emphasizes the use of teaching strategies where the learner is actively engaged in the learning process. The framework also identifies the important role that the simulation design characteristics play in the attainment of the learning outcomes.
Organization of the Remainder of the Study The report of this evaluation study is comprised of five chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the study. Included in Chapter 1 is the statement of the problem, along with background information regarding the problem. Research questions are also identified, along with the significance of the study. Also found in Chapter 1 are definitions, assumptions and limitations. Finally the theoretical framework that forms the foundation of the evaluation study is identified. In Chapter 2, topics related to the study are examined. Literature was reviewed and appropriate literature on the identified topics was analyzed. The topics that were reviewed include the use of simulation in nursing education, learning theories utilized to
13 develop simulations, simulation and learner satisfaction, self-efficacy, and clinical self- efficacy. In Chapter 3, the evaluation research design is described. The sample and population that was utilized in the study is defined. The instruments that were utilized in data collection are described. Finally, the data collection methodology is described. In Chapter 4, an analysis of the data is presented in various appropriate formats. The report of the study concludes with Chapter 5, where conclusions are drawn from the findings are presented, along with recommendations for further research.
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents the review of the literature regarding simulation and self- efficacy. Literature related to the history of simulation, learning theories utilized in the development of simulations and the use of simulation in the education of health care professionals was reviewed. The concept of self-efficacy was examined from a theoretical perspective as well as how self-efficacy may influence the academic success of students. Finally, the literature regarding clinical self-efficacy was reviewed with an emphasis on the impact simulation may have on enhancing the development of clinical self-efficacy.
Simulation Simulation has been defined by several researchers. Simulation was defined by Jeffries and Rogers (2007) as “activities that mimic reality and variously involve role- playing interactive videos, or mannequins that help students learn and allow them to demonstrate decision making, critical thinking and other skills” (p. 22). Educational simulation was also defined by Hertel and Millis (2002) as “sequential decision-making classroom events in which students fulfill assigned roles to manage discipline-specific tasks within an environment that models reality according to the guidelines provided by the instructor” (p. 15). Rauen (2004) defined simulation as “an event or situation made to resemble clinical practice as closely as possible” (p. 46). Gaba (2004b) defined
15 simulation as “a technique, not a technology, to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences, often immersive in nature, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion” (p. 2). Each definition stressed the importance of the simulation being realistic. Gaba stated that simulation was a technique, not a technology, emphasizing the importance of simulation as an educational strategy. Jeffries and Rogers spoke of simulation as an activity that promotes learning. For the purposes of this study, Jeffries and Rogers’ definition was utilized. History Simulation in health care education has a long history. Sim One, the first patient simulator to be computer controlled, was developed in the 1960s. Sim One proved not to be cost effective (Cooper & Taqueti, 2004). Other early patient simulators included Harvey, a cardiology patient simulator and Case, an anesthesia patient simulator. More technologically advanced simulators have been utilized in health-care professional education for over 15 years (Seropian, Brown, Gavilanes, & Driggers, 2004). It was the introduction of high-fidelity simulators that brought about a transformation in teaching strategies for the health care professions. Several types of simulators have been identified as being utilized in nursing education. Simulators that have been used in nursing education range from low-fidelity simulators to high-fidelity simulators. Low-fidelity simulators consist of static models and lack the realistic qualities of high-fidelity simulators (Seropian et al., 2004). Low- fidelity simulators have been utilized quite effectively by students to practice psychomotor skills in a controlled environment. Moderate-fidelity simulators may have heart sounds or lung sounds that the students may listen to, but they lack the realism of
16 high-fidelity simulators where the chest rises and falls as each respiration is taken. High- fidelity simulators have the most realistic physical appearance and have realistic physiological responses and have been in use since the 1990s, when human patient simulators became more affordable and life-like (Hovancsek, 2007). Learning Theories Simulation is theoretically based on several learning theories. Hertel and Millis (2002) stated that simulation is rooted in experiential learning theory. Simulation places students at the center of the learning experience and allows students to construct new knowledge and also gain knowledge from fellow learners’ experiences. In the design of the Nursing Education Simulation Framework, Jeffries and Rogers (2007) utilized Kolb’s experiential learning theory, Schon’s theory on reflection, and constructivist learning theory. This section will review the literature as it relates to experiential learning theory, Schon’s theory on reflection, and constructivist learning theory and apply these learning theories to the Nursing Education Simulation Framework developed by Jeffries and Rogers. Experiential Learning. Kolb (1984) wrote extensively regarding experiential learning. Kolb’s theory of experiential learning described learning as “a holistic integrative perspective on learning that combines experience, perception, cognition, and behavior” (p. 21). Kolb’s model of experiential learning was circular in nature and revolved around four stages; concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. The circular nature of Kolb’s model emphasized the continual learning process that occurs throughout experiential learning.
17 Kolb’s theory of experiential learning emphasized the importance of the reflective observation stage. This stage has been described as a stage where new knowledge is generated. In simulation, reflection occurs during the simulation and during the debriefing time. Reflection. The process of reflection was described by Gibbs (1988) as being divided into six stages. The first stage consists of describing the learning experience. The second stage involves the learner examining his or her feelings during the experience. The third stage consists of the learner identifying the positive and negative aspects of the experience. Stage four, or the analysis stage, allows the learners the opportunity to analyze the experience, drawing knowledge through analysis. Stage five involves learners identifying how they could have modified their actions to enhance the outcomes of the learning experience. The final stage, or stage six, consists of the learners developing an action plan regarding how they would deal with the experience in the future. The importance of the process of reflection in relation to learning was emphasized by both Dewey and Schon. Dewey viewed the world as a constantly changing learning environment where the learner generates new knowledge through interaction (Gutek, 2004). Dewey (1938) stated that new knowledge was constructed through the process of reflection on the interaction. Further, Dewey believed that the process of reflection was an active learning process that leads to problem resolution (Miettinen, 2000). Schon (1983) expanded on Dewey’s thought regarding reflection and differentiated between reflection during the experience and reflection on the experience. Additionally, Schon (1987) stated that the reflective experience was based on experiential learning principles. Reflection during the experience allows learners to apply theoretical knowledge in an