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The impact of mentoring and induction programs on teacher efficacy

Dissertation
Author: Juanita Cruz Martinez

vii Table of Contents Page Acknowledgements.........................................................................................………... v List of Tables............................................................................................………..........xi Chapter 1 Background........................................................................................………. ….1 Statement of the Problem.............................................................………............7 Theoretical Framework...............................................................………..............9 Purpose of the Study...................................................................………...........11 Significance of the Study.............................................................……...............12 Research Questions.......................................................................…………….12 Definition of Terms.........................................................................………........13 Delimitations...............................................................................……................15 Limitations..................................................................................……............... 15 Chapter Summary………………………………………………………..…………..16 Outline of Remaining Chapters...........................................………….…………17 Chapter 2 Social Cognitive Theory……………………………………………………..……..18 Self-Efficacy Theory………………………………………………………….……..20 Development and Exercise of Self-Efficacy…..…………………………..……..23 How Self-Efficacy Beliefs are Created………………………………………..….24 Effects of Self-Efficacy Beliefs……………………………………………….……25 Cognitive Motivation and Goal Setting…………………………….................….26

viii Teacher Efficacy…………………………………………………………………..27 Early Studies of Self-Efficacy……………………………….……….………28 Measurement of Teacher Efficacy………………….………………………29 An Integrated Model………………………….………………………………30 Self-Efficacy as Applied to Teacher Efficacy………………….…………..31 Cognitive Processes………………………………………….……………...32 Efficacy Beliefs of Pre-service and Student Teachers……......…...….…32 Teacher Efficacy and Novice Teachers…………………………...…….…33 Teacher Efficacy and Experienced Teachers……………….....….……...35 Importance of Valuing Teaching……………….………..…………..……..35 Mentoring Programs………………………………………………………….…..37 Elements of An Effective Mentoring Program…..………….….…….……40 Characteristics of a Good Mentor………………..……………...……….…42 Benefits of Mentoring…………………………….……...……………….….44 Pitfalls of Mentoring………………………………...…………………….…46 Effective Mentoring Programs…………………………...…………….…...47 Induction Programs…………………………………………………………….…49 Components of Effective Induction Programs…………….………..….…51 Exemplary Induction Programs………………………………………...….55 Flowing Wells School District Tucson, Arizona……...……………...55 Lafourche Parish Public Schools Thibodaux, Louisiana…………..55 Port Huron Area Schools Port Huron, Michigan…..……….........…56 Fairfax Public School District Fairfax Station, Virginia……...…......56

ix Leyden High School District Franklin Park, Illinois………….……57. Islip Public Schools New Teacher Induction Program…..………..58 CADRE Project Omaha, Nebraska…………………...…….………58 Connecticut Beginning Educator Support and Training Program…………………………………………………….……58 Other Induction Programs………..……………………………..…..59 Alternative Certification……………………………………………………………..60 From Emergency Certificates to Alternative Certification……….…….61 Types of Alternative Certification Programs……………………………63 Reasons for Alternative Certification Programs……………………….64 Alternative vs. Traditional………………………………………………..65 Challenges Confronting New Teachers………………………….………………..70 Teacher Retention and Teacher Attrition……………………….…………………74 The Problem………………………………………………………………74 Implications………………………………………………………………..74 The Cost………………………………………………………….………..79 Induction/Mentoring Programs in Socorro Independent School District……….81 Chapter Summary…….………………………………………………………….…..85 Chapter 3 Purpose of the Study.........................................................................................90 Research Questions.................................................................…………….......90 Participants................................................................................……………......91 Research Design…………………………………………………………………….91

x Data Analysis..............................................................................…………........92 Ethical Considerations..................................................................….……….....93 Chapter Summary.........................................................………......…................94 Chapter 4 Purpose of the Study.................................................………............….............95 Participants.................................................................………...........….............96 Results: Research Questions............................................……….......….........96 Chapter 5 Summary of the Study……………………………………………………………..105 Conclusions..................................................................……………………......106 Links to the Literature Reviewed..............................................….………..…..107 Recommendations for Further Research..............................….......…….…....109 Implications for Educators and Policy-makers.................................................110 References............................................................................................……………...112 Appendix A.............................................................................................………..…...138 Appendix B............................................................................................……………...141 Appendix C……………………………………………………………………………...…..142 Appendix D……………………………………………………………………………….....143 Curriculum Vitae..................................................................................……..……......145

xi List of Tables Table 1. Teachers’ Level of Satisfaction with the Induction/Mentoring Program…………………………………………………………………………..…..96 Table 2. Teacher’s Level of Satisfaction with the Induction/Mentoring Program as a Function of Gender of the Participant and Gender of the Mentor………………97 Table 3. Teachers’ Level of Satisfaction with the Induction/Mentoring Program as a Function of Teaching Field………………………………………………………….98 Table 4. Teachers’ Level of Satisfaction with the Induction/Mentoring Program as a Function of Type of Preparation/Certification Program………………………….99 Table 5. Relationship of Teachers’ Satisfaction with the Teacher Induction/Mentoring Program and Perceived Self-efficacy as a Function of the Gender of Male Teachers…………………………………………………………..........................100 Table 6. Teachers’ Satisfaction with the Induction/Mentoring Program and Perceived Self-efficacy as a Function of Teaching Field…………………………………..102 Table 7. Teacher’s Satisfaction with the teacher Induction/Mentoring Program and Perceived Self-efficacy as a Function of Teacher Preparation Program……………………………………………………………………………104

1 Chapter 1

Introduction Background Finding and keeping highly qualified teachers is a top priority of schools in the United States. The federal government’s reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act,also known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) mandates that every teacher within a core academic subject be “highly qualified” at the conclusion of the 2005-2006 school year (Berry, Hoke, & Hirsch, 2004). These requirements, in addition to the existing national teacher shortage, pose even great challenges for states. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) approximately 1.7 million to 2.7 million newly hired public school teachers will be needed by 2008-2009 (Hussar, 1999). Furthermore, nearly a third of new teachers leave the profession within their first three years of teaching, and almost half of them leave after five (5) years of teaching (NCES, 2006). The National Center for Education Statistics has conducted the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and its Supplement Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS). The SASS is the largest and most comprehensive data source available on the staffing, occupational, and organizational aspects of schools. The TFS is a data source on teacher turnover, attrition, and migration in the United States. Four (4) cycles of SASS have been completed: 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993- 94, and 1999-2000. The Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) data indicated that since 1984 there has been an increase in: a) student enrollment, b) teacher retirements, and c) the size

2 of the elementary and secondary teaching work force (Ingersoll, 2003). Nevertheless, a critical analysis of SASS and TFS reveals that increases in student enrollment and teacher retirements are not the primary causes of the high demand for new teachers (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). Ingersoll and Smith (2003) indicated that a larger part of the problem is teacher attrition, particularly among teachers in their first years of teaching. According to TFS, a higher proportion of public school teachers left the teaching profession between the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 school years than between 1990- 1991 and 1991-1992, and the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 school years. Furthermore, teachers who were younger than 30 years of age or older than 50 were more likely to leave the teaching profession after the 1999-2000 school year than teachers 30-50 years old (TFS Report, p.3). Berry (2004) has asserted that retaining teachers in the teaching field is a larger problem than preparing new ones and may be the fundamental solution to the teacher shortage. Ingersoll (2003) undertook a series of research projects on teacher supply, demand, and shortages, and summarized what the data reveals about teaching shortages in his article “The Teacher Shortage: Myth or Reality.” He indicated that educational researchers and policy makers blame the teacher shortage problem on high levels of teachers retiring and an increase in student enrollments. Ingersoll (2003) has asserted that most of the demand and hiring is to replace teachers who leave their positions, not in response to teacher retirement or student enrollment increases. Two components make up teacher turnover a) teachers moving from one campus to another, and b) teachers leaving the teaching field completely (Ingersoll, 2003).

3 Researchers have indicated that having helpful mentors decreased the chances of new teachers leaving the field (Goodwin, 1999; Onafowora, 2002; Ingersoll & Smith, 2003; Smith and Ingersoll, 2004). Often novice teachers face unique challenges and at times feel overwhelmed, isolated, and disenchanted. For new teachers, it is usually a sink or swim situation. According to Andrews and Quinn (2005), “mentoring programs serve to ameliorate the sense of isolation and lack of support new teachers often feel” (p. 113). Data from the SASS/TFS show that mentoring does make a difference in keeping teachers in the classroom (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). Mentoring programs should be part of an overall induction program. To be effective, both should improve teaching performance, promote the well being of beginning teachers, and increase the retention of new teachers (Clement, 2000). Quality induction and mentoring provide a support system for beginning teachers. Although both mentors and new teachers stand to gain from a quality mentoring experience, not all programs are effective. According to Clement (2000), model mentoring programs do exist, but there are barriers to establishing programs that last. Clement (2000) indicated that one of the primary factors that place a strain on the effectiveness of mentoring programs is time. A veteran teacher needs to have the time available to observe and be observed by the new teacher, collaborate on lesson planning, and share effective teaching strategies with the novice teacher. Furthermore, it is important to have a positive mentor-novice teacher paring in which the new teacher is comfortable seeking advice on a wide range of topics relating to teaching (Clement, 2000). Brown (2003) described a quality mentoring program in which veteran teachers must have three or more years of successful teaching experience, be able to work

4 collaboratively, maintain confidentiality, be effective time managers, model effective teaching practices, and demonstrate caring, kindness, and understanding. Veteran teachers must undergo a rigorous screening process that is designed to ensure quality mentoring and a high level of commitment (Brown, 2003). Paring a good mentor with a novice teacher and providing the time to collaborate effectively may contribute to a novice teacher’s sense of well being and ensure that the novice teacher has a positive first-year of teaching. Preparation and experience are diverse for many new educators. Some individuals enter the field through alternative certification programs and are learning the pedagogical foundations as they teach for the first time. Alternative certification programs seek to prepare individuals who have at least a bachelor’s degree to become licensed in teaching. Alternative certification is a licensing process that has progressed due to the demands for highly qualified teachers. In 1985-1986 there were 575 teachers who were certified through alternative certification programs (Teach-Now, 2006). During the 2003-2004 school year 9,290 teachers attained their teaching license through alternative certification programs. Today, there are a variety of alternative certification programs that are available to prospective educators. Publicly funded alternate route programs have sprung up nationwide so that nearly every state has some form of alternative certification, up from eight states in 1983 (Feistritzer & Chester, 1998; Rose, 2002). According to Berry (2004), alternative certification programs vary in scope, size, duration, and intensity. These programs offer varying types of support as teachers experience their first year of teaching. Some alternative certification programs assign a mentor who provides

5 guidance and support to the new teacher. Other programs offer a stipend to teachers on campus to serve as mentors to new teachers. The assignment of mentors is an effort to help new teachers become acclimated to the profession, the district, and the school. In 1977, Bandura identified the important premise of self-belief with the publication of “Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change” (Pajares, 2002). Knobloch and Whittington (2002) have stated that the support novice teachers receive is a factor that can help them feel more efficacious and be more effective teachers. Novice teachers who exhibit a higher sense of efficacy are more likely to persist in the profession (Knobloch & Whittington, 2002). Teacher efficacy has been associated with several variables such as “student motivation, teachers’ adoption of innovations, superintendents’ ratings of teachers’ competence, teachers’ classroom management strategies, time spent teaching in certain subjects, and teachers’ referrals of students to special education” (Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). Few longitudinal studies have been conducted that track efficacy across the early years of teaching (Hoy, 2000). Bandura (1994) has suggested that there are four sources of self-efficacy: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, and somatic and emotional states (Bandura, 1994). The most effective way of creating a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences (Bandura, 1994). Success builds one’s efficacy while failure lowers efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1994). Vicarious experiences are those that are provided by social models. According to Bandura (1994), people seek proficient models that possess the skills they aspire to achieve. Social persuasion refers to the need for a “pep talk” or specific performance feedback from another teacher or an administrator (Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). Finally, how

6 an individual perceives or interprets the intensity of emotional and physical reactions affects self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994). Teachers go through a series of phases as they prepare for and enter into the teaching profession (Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). They enroll in formal training at the university level during which they participate in observations of other teachers and in student- teaching during their junior and senior years. Research indicates that the major concerns of most new teachers include classroom management, student motivation, differentiation for individual student needs, assessment and evaluation of learning, and dealing effectively with parents (Beck-Frazier, 2005; Brock & Grady, 1998; Conway, Hansen, & Schulz, 2004; Feiman-Nemser, 2003; Hertzog, 2002; Kurtz, 1983; Renard, 2003; Veenman, 1984). Their first year of teaching can be a challenging experience depending on their level of self-efficacy, level of support, difficulty of teaching load, and classroom management experiences (Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). Woolfolk Hoy (2000) noted that there have been few studies that have explored the development of efficacy beliefs among novice teachers. Woolfolk Hoy (2000) revealed that efficacy beliefs of first-year teachers are affected by stress, their commitment to teaching, and their satisfaction with support. In a study conducted by Woolfolk Hoy, she found that teacher efficacy increased during student teaching and decreased during a teacher’s first year teaching. She concluded that the individuals she studied received more support and buffering during their student teaching experience than they did during their first year in the profession (Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). Effective mentoring programs are linked to more positive and richer experiences for novice teachers. Effective mentoring programs contribute to self-efficacy of both

7 veteran teachers and novice teachers. A veteran teacher experiences mastery when mentoring another teacher; physiological and emotional experiences are gained when veteran teachers share and validate their own practices and competencies; novice teachers gain vicarious experiences when assigned a mentor to model effective practices (Yost, 2002). Finally, veteran teachers receive recognition from the administration for their efforts and novice teachers receive positive feedback from their mentors. Statement of the Problem

Recruiting more teachers will not solve the teacher crisis if teachers continue to exit the field in such large numbers (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). The Alliance for Excellent Teaching (2005), referred to this phenomenon as leaky buckets that can’t hold water. Simply preparing and recruiting “highly qualified” teachers does not reduce the costly teacher attrition rates. Lack of support is one reason that more than 30% of novice teachers leave the teaching profession within three years (Brighton, 1999; Darling- Hammond, 1997; Montgomery, 1999). For every two new teachers a school district hires, one will leave the profession within five (5) years (all4ed.org, 2005). Brown (2003) suggested that some believe that by implementing mentoring programs the dropout rate can be cut from roughly 50% to 15% during the first five years of teaching. The Alliance for Excellent Teaching (2005) affirmed that solving the new teacher attrition problem requires more than a stand-alone mentoring program. The Alliance asserted that a comprehensive induction program would have great payoffs. The Alliance suggested that an effective induction program should include high-quality mentoring, common planning time and collaboration, ongoing professional

8 development, participation in an external network of teachers, and provide for standards-based evaluation of novice teachers. Many school districts have developed induction/mentoring program models in recent years. Nevertheless, many mentor teachers receive no training or inadequate training and only limited support for their work (Rowley, 1999). Rowley (1999) articulated that there are significant criteria that need to be present for a good mentoring program to exist. Mentors need to be a) committed to the role of mentoring, b) accepting of the new teacher, c) skilled at providing instructional support, d) effective in different interpersonal contexts, e) a continuous learner, and f) able to communicate hope and optimism (Rowley, 1999). Rowley (1999) asserted that for a mentor to demonstrate these abilities he/she must receive ongoing training and professional development. Teacher attrition continues to be a costly burden to many school districts. Texas loses between $8,000 and $48,000 for each beginning teacher who leaves (Darling- Hammond and Sykes, 2003). In 2000, the Texas Center for Educational Research reported that the estimated cost of teacher attrition is $329 million each year during the first three years of teaching. The overall turnover rate of teachers leaving the field of teaching or transferring to another school is costing Texas over $500 million per year (all4ed.org, 2005). The cost of replacing teachers who leave the field is $2.2 billion a year. When the cost of replacing teachers who transfer to other schools or school districts is added, the total reaches $4.9 billion every year (all4ed.org, 2005). El Paso County is the home of nine school districts. The three largest school districts in El Paso are: El Paso Independent School District, Ysleta Independent School District, and Socorro Independent School District. The El Paso Times (2006)

9 reported that El Paso ISD had 29 teaching vacancies, Ysleta ISD had 24 teaching vacancies, and Socorro ISD needed 4 teachers during the middle of the 2005-2006 school year. During the 2004-2005 school year, the El Paso Independent School District had a 14.1% teacher turnover rate; Socorro Independent School District had a 10.2% turnover rate; and, the rate for Ysleta Independent School District was 9.9%. During the 2003-2004 school year, the three school districts reported an average teacher turnover rate of 10%. In 1992-93, the Policy Research Report on teacher attrition in Texas showed that El Paso had an 11.7% turnover rate and an 8.4% attrition rate. According to Darling-Hammond and Sykes (2003) Texas currently experiences a 15.5 percent turnover rate, which includes more than 40% of new teachers quitting in their first three years. In response to this problem and in consideration of the NCLB mandates, all three major El Paso school districts have developed induction/mentoring programs for novice teachers. Nevertheless, teacher turnover continues and the rate has not changed dramatically since the implementation of these support programs. Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework for this study is based on the idea that novice teachers who participate in an effective induction and mentoring program become more efficacious and, will therefore, remain in the teaching profession. Those teachers who do not have the support they need to survive the critical first five years of teaching will be less efficacious and will therefore, be more likely to exit the teaching profession. Bandura’s social cognitive theory views human functioning to be affected by cognitive, vicarious, self-regulating, and self-reflective processes (Pajares, 2002). It views human functioning as a product of a dynamic interplay of personal, behavioral,

10 and environmental factors (Pajares, 2002). The social cognitive theory views individuals both as products and producers of their environments and their social systems (Pajares, 2002). At the core of the social cognitive theory is the notion of self-efficacy. Bandura (1994) defined self-efficacy as “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives.” According to Bandura (1994), an individual with a high sense of self- efficacy will more likely face challenges head-on rather than avoid them. Individuals with a high level of assurance attribute failure to inadequate knowledge and skills or to a lack of effort, both of which can be acquired. By contrast, an individual with low self-efficacy deals with failure in a completely different manner. These individuals will focus on their deficiencies; obstacles to success slacken their efforts, and they often give up (Bandura, 1994). Self-efficacy beliefs help determine how much effort someone will put forth to complete an activity, how long they will persevere when confronting difficulties, and how resilient they will be when facing difficult situations. New teachers must face challenging situations as they enter the teaching profession. They deal with high student loads, having to teach more than one subject, lack of experience in the classroom, classroom management challenges, limited resources, and extended work hours. Also, beginning teachers may be asked to supervise extra curricular activities. Having a high sense of self-efficacy will allow teachers to persevere through the difficult situations and may reinforce the commitment a teacher makes to the profession. Self-efficacy is created from four sources: mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasions, and somatic and emotional states. A mastery

11 experience provides individuals an opportunity to interpret the results of one’s previous performance (Pajares, 2002). Positive outcomes raise self-efficacy; failures lower self- efficacy. Having a successful first-year teaching experience will affect teacher efficacy. Vicarious experiences provide new teachers with opportunities to observe master teachers in the classroom (Pajares, 2002). Beginning teachers benefit from observing effective, experienced teachers. Social persuasions allow new teachers to receive feedback about their performance from experienced teachers (Pajares 2002). Open communication and collaboration with a mentor and other teachers, and positive constructive feedback from an experienced teacher can certainly have a positive affect on teacher efficacy. An individual’s negative thoughts and fears about their capabilities can lower self-efficacy perceptions and trigger more stress and agitation which then helps ensure continued inadequate performance (Pajares, 2002). A comprehensive induction program with high quality mentoring can provide the support a teacher needs to become a reflective educator and build on his/her strengths and weaknesses. According to Milner and Woolfolk Hoy (2002), there is evidence that teachers who leave the teaching profession have lower scores on teacher self-efficacy than teachers who remain in the teaching profession. Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study were: 1) to determine the level of satisfaction of high school teachers with 1-5 years of experience with the induction/mentoring program provided by their school district; and 2) to determine the relationship between teachers’ satisfaction with the induction/mentoring program provided by their school district and perceived self-efficacy.

12 Significance of the Study

Department of Education and school district officials have attempted to address the problem of teacher attrition by instituting a wide range of initiatives to recruit new teachers such as: career change programs; alternative certification programs; recruiting in foreign countries, and offering financial incentives (Hirsch, Koppich, & Knapp, 2001). El Paso area school officials have collaborated with area alternative certification staff, have recruited teachers from the Philippines, and have offered financial incentives to teachers who are employed to teach in the critical shortage areas of math, science, special education, and bilingual education. El Paso area school officials have also developed induction/mentor programs to support new teachers. This study will contribute to the knowledge base regarding the perceived effectiveness of existing induction/mentoring programs and their relationship to teacher self-efficacy. Research Questions

The following research questions provided the focus for this study: 1. What is the level of satisfaction of high school teachers with 1-5 years experience with the induction/mentoring program provided by their district? a. as a function of the gender of the teacher and the gender of the mentor, b. as a function of teaching field, and c. as a function of the teacher preparation/certification program in which they participated (e.g. traditional, alternative)?

13 2. What is the relationship between teachers’ satisfaction with the induction/mentoring program provided by their district and perceived self- efficacy? a. as a function of the gender of the teacher, b. as a function of teaching field, and c. as a function of the teacher preparation/certification program in which they participated (e.g. traditional, alternative)?

Definitions of Terms Alternative Certification refers to every avenue to becoming licensed to teach from emergency certification to programs that address the professional preparation needs of individuals who have at least a bachelor’s degree and want to become teachers (Teach-Now, 2006). Beginning Teachers refers to teachers that have been in the field for five years or less (Ingersoll, R.M. & Smith, R.M., 2003). Highly-Qualified Teacher is a person who is a fully certified or licensed teacher in the appropriate content area(s) (NCLB). Induction Program is defined as the planned staff development for new teachers and for those who are new to a district (Clement, 2000). Mastery experiences refer to the successful experiences that build on an individual’s self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994). Mentors are veteran teachers who are paired with new teachers to promote the growth of a personalized relationship by providing support to the new teacher (Clement, 2000).

14 Mentoring Programs are programs designed to pair an experienced teacher with a novice teacher in order to provide support during a novice teacher’s first year of teaching (Rowley, 1999). No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was signed into law on January 2002 by President George W. Bush as the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (http://www.ed.gov). Novice Teacher refers to beginning teachers (Wang, Strong, & Odell, 2004). Self-Efficacy is defined as people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives (Bandura, 1994). Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) is the largest and most comprehensive data source available on the staffing, occupational and organizational aspects of schools (http://www.ed.gov). Social Cognitive Theory refers to the view that cognitive, vicarious, self- regulating, and self-reflective processes affect human functioning (Pajares, 2002). Social Persuasion refers to an individual receiving performance feedback from another individual that impacts self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994). Somatic and Emotional States refers to how an individual perceives or interprets the intensity of emotional and physical reactions that affect self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994). The Socorro Independent School District is the third largest school district in El Paso County with an enrollment of 38,298 (Flores, 2/3/07, SISD representative). Teacher Attrition refers to teachers who retire, migrate to other positions within

15 the education system, migrate to different schools, or leave the teaching field altogether (Harrell, Leavell, van Tassel, & McKee, 2004). Teacher Efficacy is defined as a teacher’s confidence in his/her ability to promote students’ learning (Woolfolk Hoy, 2000). Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) refers to the data source on teacher turnover, attrition, and migration in the United States (http://www.ed.gov). Teacher Retention refers to the process of retaining teachers in the teaching profession (Harrell, Leavell, van Tassel, and McKee, 2004). Teacher Shortage refers to estimates that schools will need to replace more than two million teachers over the next decade (Howard, 2003). Teacher Turnover identifies teachers exiting the field of teaching altogether and those transferring to another school (Ingersoll, 2003). Vicarious Experiences refers to the experiences an individual has by observing proficient models that possess skills they aspire to achieve (Bandura, 1994). Delimitations This study was delimited to high school teachers with 1-5 years of teaching experience who were employed by the Socorro Independent School District during the spring of 2007. This study did not include data from high school teachers who had left the teaching profession. Limitations Following are the major limitations of this study. The instruments that were utilized rely on self-reported information that depends on respondent honesty. The teacher self-efficacy instrument addressed self-perceptions that can be biased and

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