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The impact of leadership on employee retention

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Linda Lea Saniewski
Abstract:
A common theme with Human Resources personnel is that employees leave their bosses, not their jobs (Harvey, Stoner, Hochwarter & Kacmar, 2007). Costs of employee turnover to the organization vary; Sagie, Birati, and Tziner (2002) reported a cost of 17% pretax annual income. Research showed professional position turnover in the Southeast was higher than the rest of the country with a turnover rate of 27.7% (U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of leaders and develop an understanding of the types, traits, and characteristics of leaders needed to improve employee retention using a three-round modified Delphi technique, with 17 Human Resource experts in the southeast. The goal of the study was to contribute an understanding of leadership and its impact on employee retention and to stimulate further discussion and uncover problems related to employee retention.

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................... x

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................. xi

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................. 1

Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................... 4

Purpose of the Study .................................................................................................. 4

Significance of the Problem ....................................................................................... 6

Nature of the Study .................................................................................................... 7

Research Questions .................................................................................................... 8

Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................ 12

Definition of Terms.................................................................................................. 14

Assumptions ............................................................................................................. 15

Limitations ............................................................................................................... 17

Delimitations ............................................................................................................ 18

Summary .................................................................................................................. 18

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .................................................. 21

Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, and Journals .................................. 22

Literature Review..................................................................................................... 22

Leadership theories ........................................................................................... 37

Leadership and managerial practices ................................................................ 50

Training ............................................................................................................. 51

Summary .................................................................................................................. 53

Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 53

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CHAPTER 3: METHOD ......................................................................................... 55

Research Design....................................................................................................... 56

Appropriateness of Design ....................................................................................... 59

Research Questions .................................................................................................. 62

Population ................................................................................................................ 62

Informed Consent..................................................................................................... 65

Sampling Frame ....................................................................................................... 66

Confidentiality ......................................................................................................... 67

Geographic Location ................................................................................................ 67

Instrumentation ........................................................................................................ 68

Data Collection ........................................................................................................ 70

Data Analysis ........................................................................................................... 71

Validity and Reliability ............................................................................................ 73

Summary .................................................................................................................. 74

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ............................ 76

Summary .................................................................................................................. 98

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................... 100

Overview of the Study ........................................................................................... 100

Results of the Study ............................................................................................... 102

Research Question 1 .............................................................................................. 103

Research Question 2 .............................................................................................. 108

Research Question 3 .............................................................................................. 110

Research Question 4 .............................................................................................. 114

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Research Question 5 .............................................................................................. 117

Summary of Findings ............................................................................................. 119

Assumptions, Scope, and Limitations and Delimitations of the Study.................. 122

Implications and Conclusions ................................................................................ 126

Recommendations and Future Research ................................................................ 129

REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 131

APPENDIX A: LETTER OF CONSENT FOR PILOT STUDY .......................... 160

APPENDIX B: APPLICANT SURVEY ............................................................... 162

APPENDIX C: LETTER OF CONSENT FOR STUDY ...................................... 165

APPENDIX E: TOTAL NUMBER (N) OF EXPERTS AND AREAS OF EXPERTISE FOR STUDY ................................................................................... 168

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Criterion for Experts in Human Resources and Related Fields ……64 Table 2 Modified Delphi Round 2 Statements ……………………………. .85 Table 3 Tabulated Likert-type Scale Results for Round 2…………………..88 Table 4 Median Results of the Modified Delphi Round 2 Questions……..….89

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Round 3 format………………………………………………………95

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION People leave their bosses not their jobs (Harvey, Stoner, Hochwarter, & Kacmar, 2007). Usually when people entered a position, employees had the expectation of getting along with his or her leader and the two developed a working relationship (Elpers & Westhuis, 2008). Problems developed when an employee began experiencing difficult interactions with his or her leader, which caused the employee to feel unworthy to perform his or her job function over time (Harvey et al.). In a study performed by Harvey and colleagues, the group found employees developed an intention to leave their position because the leader was unsupportive, showed favoritism to other employees, was difficult to interact with and had given the employee a feeling they had done something wrong. This study may provide information to corporations useful in developing stronger leadership, reduce voluntary turnover through improving employee retention. Chapter 1 contains information about the purpose of the study, background information, and the method used to gather data for this study. Chapter 1 also focuses on the styles and traits of leaders and the influence of those styles and traits on subordinates. Background Understanding why an employee leaves his or her job is important to employee retention. Retaining employees is important because of the organizational knowledge each person learns, develops, and takes with them when he or she leaves (Jones, 2005). Training new people helps get the job done, however it takes the person a long time to understand the business. In an opposing view, some employers felt retaining employees inhibited organizational growth and new employees provided motivation and innovation to move organizations forward (Jones).

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Employee retention is critical to an organization’s profits; high turnover results in direct, measurable costs (Keating, 2007). Organizations however need to add new employees with new technological and other advanced skills to be and remain competitive in the industry (Sullivan, n.d.). To keep employees means the organization needs to satisfy and provide a setting in which each individual grows with the organization. The organization needs to provide the employee with necessary resources such training, current technology and industry updates (Tate, 2007). Leadership is one determinant of employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity (Rad & Yarmohammadian, 2006). Scroggins (2007) noted that leaders needed to identify an employees’ fit amongst multiple departments that will influence job satisfaction and reduce the intention to leave. An employee seeking to stay with an organization where he or she feels comfortable is more likely to be motivated to seek advancement within that organization (Scroggins). Payne (2005) discussed a variety of concepts about the effectiveness of a leader moreover, his or her influence on subordinates and understanding the business. An ineffective leader does not understand the business and does and not meet the needs of his or her subordinates. Feinberg, Ostroff, and Burke (2005) found attitudes of the subordinates towards the leader make a difference. A leader who received respect from subordinates had high morale and high performance in the department while leaders who did not have respect faced high absenteeism, numerous complaints to upper management, and high employee turnover. Leaders, who had soft skills promoted employee engagement, improved morale and personal effectiveness (P, 2008) and brought desirable changes in employees who

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benefited the organization (Rahim & Psenicka, 2005). Soft skills included showing empathy towards others, control over their emotions, understood employee’s feelings and themselves while making decisions, and motivated employees (Chen, 2006). Some leaders did not have issues with employee turnover; they had motivated and satisfied employees. Organizations should identify and understand the differences between leaders who have a high employee turnover and those that do not. To achieve higher employee satisfaction, morale, and retention, an organization must transform to move forward, which required organizations to create a structured approach to leadership (Wirtenberg, Abrams, & Ott, 2004). Employee retention is critical to an organization’s profits; high turnover results in direct, measurable costs (Keating, 2007). Organizations however should add new employees with new technological and other advanced skills to be and remain competitive in the industry (Sullivan, n.d.). To keep employees means the organization should satisfy and provide a setting in which each individual grows with the organization. The organization needs to provide the employee with necessary resources such training, current technology and industry updates (Tate, 2007). Elmer and Kilpatrick (2008) observed that improving organizational issues such as accountability, organizational alignment, sharing ideas, and learning to trust in the knowledge of employees would help the organization move forward. Leaders who understood the business, communicated the goals of the organization, and showed empathy towards employees were leaders who promoted job satisfaction (Chen, 2006; Payne, 2005; Rad & Yarmohammadian, 2006).

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Statement of the Problem Human resource managers explored various cases of voluntary termination garnered from information gained from exit interviews. The managers wanted to understand the reasons why an employee left and create an opportunity for companies to make changes to policies or to correct actions of other employees before more leave. Capko (2007) found the ideal practice was to create an open communication environment that allowed employees one or more ways to express job dissatisfactions before they left permanently. The specific problem is that business leaders require insights into managerial and leadership strategies and policies to retain valuable employees. The qualitative modified Delphi design incorporated the expertise of people from the human resources departments from pharmaceutical manufacturing companies in the Southeast of the United States. The desired result of the study identified leadership models, qualities, actions, policies, and procedures that may cause employees to leave. The focus of the study was to develop criterion for Human Resources to use when interviewing potential leaders and focused on training needs for current leaders who need to make a positive impact on subordinates and the organization. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this qualitative research study, using a modified Delphi design, was to explore the characteristics of leaders and develop an understanding of the types, traits, and characteristics of leaders needed to improve employee retention. A panel of experts answered open ended questions and surveys based on the actions of leaders, types of leadership models, policies, and procedures that an organization can use to encourage

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employee retention. The panel of experts in human resources came from local, state, and national locations and provided ideas, suggestions, and recommendations through open- ended questions and surveys in a modified Delphi method (Simon, 2006). The Delphi method is a systematic method of getting opinions and views rapidly from a group of knowledgeable individuals (Simon, 2006). The main objective of the modified Delphi method was to gain the most reliable consensus from an expert panel using close-ended questions with Likert type responses with summations of the results (Render, Stair, & Hanna, 2009; Simon, 2006). The use of a modified Delphi method was appropriate for the qualitative unit of the research because the data used inductive reasoning from information gathered through a panel of experts and developed a theory about leadership and employee retention. The written responses of the individuals were suitable for the qualitative portion of the study because their responses provided information on leaders influencing employee retention and lead to an emerging theory of leadership for improved employee retention. Significance of the Study This modified Delphi study focused on critical components of organizational success through its biggest asset, the employee. The significance of this qualitative modified Delphi study identified connections between leadership practices and poor employee retention. Many studies addressed employee retention (Ghere & York-Barr, 2007; Keating, 2007; Singh, 2007; Tate, 2007). Burnes (2004) discussed a qualitative study-using employee and voluntary turnover records and Elpers and Westhuis (2008) discussed a connection between organizational leadership and social workers’ job

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satisfaction. No previous studies related leadership styles and traits directly to employee turnover. Significance of the Problem The significance of the problem focused on why an employee chose to leave the organization. The current study explored reasons for low job satisfaction, specifically focusing on leaders’ skills and employee engagement. Employee turnover is not completely bad for organizations; it opens opportunities to bring in new knowledge and skills (McConnell, 2007). Glebbeek and Bax (2004) performed a study where they found high and low employee turnover affects the organization. The authors recommended organizations’ to calculate their turnover rate and define the parameters of high and low turnover and cost. In a survey performed by the US Department of Labor and the Bureau of Labor Statistics between 2001 and 2006, the accommodation and food services had a high turnover of 50% while educational services was a low 10 %. Manufacturing was approximately 15% and people who voluntarily quit averaged about 35% during the same period (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009; U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). Significance of the Study to the Field of Leadership The study was significant to leadership because the information gained through a panel of experts in Human Resources provided insight into why employees left the organization based on his or her leader’s leadership techniques. The study looked to develop criteria for Human Resources to use during interviews for potential leaders and the impact leaders have on the subordinates and the organization. Leaders who created an environment of job satisfaction were important to employee retention. One of the top five

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reasons employees stated for leaving the organization was an unsatisfactory connection with his or her leader (Studer, 2004). The inability to form a working association with a leader affected employee turnover and created dissatisfaction about the actions or lack of actions by leaders (Brightman, 2004; McConnell, 2007). Unfortunately, not all leaders have professionally developed where they can successfully balance the needs of their organization with the needs of their subordinates. Leadership development in organizations should begin early in leaders’ careers and give him or her acceptable means to perform their jobs well (Brightman, 2004; Studer, 2004). Essential to the organization is the leaders’ ability to understand and supervise employees. Studer (2004) found organization who incorporated subordinates’ comments on leader performance presented information on areas that needed improvement. Many articles supported leadership and training (Reed & Vakola, 2006; Tate, 2007; Wiley & Legge, 2006) and leadership and employee retention (Concelman, 2005; Harris, Kacmar & Witt, 2005; Woodruffe, 2005). The study was important to leadership because the information collected explored areas where leaders needed additional training to perform their jobs better and reduce employee turnover. Nature of the Study The qualitative modified Delphi survey explored the consensus of experts on the practices and skills of hiring and managing leaders. The Delphi method was suitable for the study because it gathered the consensus of reliable experts through rounds of questionnaires combined with controlled feedback (Dalkey & Helmer, 1963). The modified Delphi method in this study allowed experts to answer questions, complete surveys, and reach consensus without violating privacy concerns. The Delphi method

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allowed collecting opinions on a particular topic and gaining collective knowledge from experts (Brill, Bishop, & Walker, 2006). A modified Delphi method was acceptable as the method for the study because it allowed a procedure to gather information and facilitated objectivity in creating an agreement on a complex problem (Franklin & Hart, 2007). The modified Delphi method was proper for the study because it efficiently and effectively allowed the panelist to think and reflect on the problem and avoid face-to-face debates. The method reduced the influence of any dominant personalities and avoided groupthink concerns (Amos & Pearse, 2008; Brill, et al., 2006). The method was iterative and each round gained further discussion and knowledge (Amos & Pearse). The method in the current study also allowed selected experts in human resources and related fields to discuss and express opinions and judgments in a systematic method (Dalkey & Helmer, 1963) to explore the concerns on employee retention and leadership skills. The information gained from the experience and knowledge of experts in human resources and related fields, companies may identify and correct possible problem areas such as leadership, benefits, compensation, or overall work environment. High employee turnover costs the company in replacement and training costs (Cascio, 2006). High employee turnover also presents an opportunity for an organization to analyze itself and identify needed changes. Research Questions As previously discussed, the purpose of this research was to explore the characteristics of leaders and develop an understanding of the types, traits, and characteristics of leaders needed to improve employee retention. The research questions

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for this study related directly to the purpose of identifying unique attributes associates with leadership and employee retention. The intent of the study’s framework was to help human resource managers, stakeholders, and organizations to explore a deeper reasoning behind employee turnover and to further examine leader’ training and actions towards subordinates. This study used a modified Delphi method to explore the impact of leadership on employee retention. The central research question for the study was how can organizations retain employees through improved leadership? The research questions include the following (a) what are the key elements to retain employees? (b) How do you measure the leadership skills of leaders? (c) What key leadership elements are lacking if employees are leaving? (d) What are the factors or characteristics of the leaders whose employees choose to stay, in your experience? and (e) What specialized professional development training for managers and leaders might increase employee retention? According to the 2006 data of employee voluntary turnover from the United States Department of Labor, turnover among professionals was 27.8 % between September 2005 and August 2006 (U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). Turnover among the professional sector ranked third behind Accommodation and Foodservices at 56.4%, Leisure, and Hospitality at 52.2% (U.S. Department of Labor). The Southeast regions showed voluntary turnover at 27.7% during the same period (U.S. Department of Labor). In 2008, the U.S. Department of Labor showed a three percent decrease in voluntary turnover in the professional level and the same for the Southern region. This study focused on the Southeastern region of the United States.

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In the professional sector, including functions like Research and Development, losing employees can create problems in areas of performance and intellectual and social capital (Chang, Choi, & Kim, 2008). Professionals take their knowledge with them; the result leaves gaps in the research, and sets projects back (Chang, et al.). Organizational leadership needs to understand why employees leave and how to retain employees. Insight into the experiences and knowledge of the experts emerged by asking a panel of experts what an organization can do to retain employees by improving leadership skills. The experts’ knowledge and experiences also helped distill specific reasons professionals leave organizations and suggested ways to improve employee retention. This study focused on the skills, traits, and styles of leadership that influence employee retention. Organizations may not know how their leaders are performing until the employee leaves when it is too late to avoid the consequences of turnover (Anonymous, 2005). Employees who have positive relationships with their leaders are more satisfied at their job than those who do not have a positive relationship (Watson, 2009). Having an effective leader may be one key to employee job satisfaction. Asking a leaving employee about his or her leaders’ skills would be beneficial to the organization and to the leader. The third research question sought a connection between leadership models, styles, traits, or characteristics and increased employee retention, added focus to general assertions of leadership traits and styles being ideal in leading an organization or a department. Specifically, Epitropaki and Martin (2005) described leader-member exchange where leaders and subordinates created a working relationship. Transformational leadership creates a vision, positive attitude, and motivation for

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employees (Watson, 2009). Transactional leadership referred to a person who led by recognizing and rewarding employees (Bass, Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003). Charismatic leadership referred to a person who had the ability to lead people using charisma. The person explained a vision such that people feel the person had transcendental qualities and followed the person (Howell & Shamir, 2005). The fourth research question added new insight into the specific policies and procedures beneficial to employee retention efforts. One focus was to look at the organization’s benefits and perform a benchmark study to see where the company stands compared to others (Stimson, 2008). Vito (2008) discussed including Human Resources in an internal audit to determine if the department is compliant in employment regulations and used best practices. Vito suggested looking at the department and reviewing it methods in hiring and in dealing with employee complaints and grievances. Failure to investigate employees’ complaints may create negative feelings to the organization and employee turnover. The fifth research question sought perceptions of Human Resource professionals regarding specific professional development programs for managers and leaders perceived to increase employee retention. Introducing new management practices has significant implications for training (Smith, Oczkowski, Noble, & Macklin, 2004). The direction the organization took defined the area of training needed and provided guidance into the incorporation of the training into the organizational design (Aik & Tway, 2006); Murray (2003) found that learning organizations use informal training so the learning is part of the learner’s personal development goals. Behavioral skills that help workers adapt to the new methods were key elements of training (Smith et al.; Aik & Tway).

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Tate (2007) discussed different avenues for organizations to increase employee retention. If a leader needed training in specific areas, identify those areas and perhaps obtain a mentor for the individual. A third idea from Tate (2007) focused on the work environment such as teamwork or having a work environment to help achieve the organizations’ goals. Theoretical Framework Many studies addressed employee retention (Ghere & York-Barr, 2007; Keating, 2007; Singh, 2007; Tate, 2007). Burnes (2004) discussed a qualitative study-using employee and voluntary turnover records and Elpers and Westhuis (2008) discussed a connection between organizational leadership and social workers’ job satisfaction. No studies related leadership styles and traits directly to employee turnover. This study focused on the leadership styles, traits, and methods to increase employee retention This research study explored leaders’ influence on employee retention. The theoretical framework for the study represented leadership styles and theories such as authoritative leadership, which focused on the power of an individual over others (Bakotić, 2007), and Weber’s management theory of bureaucracy with information only flowing from the top-down (Mccabe, Rooke, Seymour, & Brown, 1998). Leader-member exchange defined the association between the leader and subordinate (Lee & Park, 2007). Charismatic leaders led by influencing others with their visions (Howell & Shamir, 2005). In situational leadership, individuals led based on the context (Vecchio, 1987). Transactional leaders led by recognition and rewarding employees (Bass et al., 2003) while transformational leaders influenced, motivated, stimulated and coached and

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mentored followers (Bass et al.). Adaptive leaders helped to develop people by looking at circumstances and procedures in a new way (Heifetz & Laurie, 2003). Researching previous studies on exit interviews, employee retention, change management, leadership and training were keys to understanding the causes of the employees leaving. Breukelen, Van der Vlist, and Steensma (2004) found in their study the behavior of the employees dictated their intentions to stay or leave the organization. In his research, Ajzen (1991) identified employee turnover with prominent contributing reasons were job satisfaction, organizational commitment. Understanding the characteristics of present leaders who created job satisfaction and leaders who faced high employee turnover allowed organizations to explore necessary changes to leadership programs. Failure to change the work environment of former research employees does not aid in retaining employees (Woodruffe, 2005). Concelman (2005), Harris, Kacmar, and Witt (2005), Johnston (2005), and Woodruffe (2005) noted issues of leadership associated with employee retention and turnover. According to a 2002 Watson Wyatt study, dissatisfaction with management and conflicts with managers were two of the top five reasons employees left the organization (Johnston). Leaders needed to support and coach their people. Engaged, motivated employees are more likely to keep employment within an organization (Concelman; Woodruffe). The organizations and leaders need to provide training for the employees (Tate, 2007). Organizations that perform training needs analysis should meet the demands necessary for employees to engage in their work and aid in the competitiveness of the organization (Reed & Vakola, 2006).

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This modified Delphi study focused on ideas, philosophies, and practices from a panel of experts, revealing strategies, suggestions, and recommendations related to why employees leave an organization. A leadership and employee retention framework highlighted best practices for employee retention from various studies from which emerged implications of leadership skills and employee retention (Buchen, 2006; Epitropaki & Martin, 2005; Kaliprasad, 2006; Keating, 2007; Lim, 2008; Naude & McCabe, 2005; Van de Ven, 2007; Yeung, 2006). The theoretical framework and strategies, suggestions, ideas, and recommendations from the expert panel created an avenue to discus the connection between leadership skills and employee retention. Definition of Terms Included in this section are the definitions of terms to allow for a better understanding of specialized terms appearing in this study. The section covers technical terms specific to the subject of voluntary employee turnover, job satisfaction, and employee retention. Adaptive leadership occurred when leaders help develop people to identify problems, associations, and procedures through new approaches (Heifetz & Laurie, 2003). Charismatic leadership referred to a person who had the ability to lead people using charisma. The person explained a vision such that people felt the person had transcendental qualities and followed the person (Howell & Shamir, 2005). Job satisfaction resulted when an individual felt contentment for staying with a job (Saari & Judge, 2004).

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Leader-member exchange referred to the association between the leader and subordinate (Lee & Park, 2007). The leader controlled the organizational role the subordinate performed based on the abilities of the subordinate (Harris, Kacmar, & Witt, 2005). Leadership role referred to the ability of a person to portray confidence in her or his actions and commitment to the organization (Scharf & Mayseless, 2009). Leadership style referred to the manner in which a leader chose to influence her or his subordinates (Giritli & Oraz, 2004). Situational leadership occurred when an individual managed, made decisions, and led based on the circumstance in which he or she is dealing (Vecchio, 1987), Transactional leader referred to a person who led by recognizing and rewarding employees (Bass et al., 2003). Transformational leader referred to a person who influenced, motivated, stimulated, coached, and mentors followers (Bass et al., 2003). Voluntary employee turnover occurred when employees voluntarily left their employment (U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). Assumptions A general understanding of the definition of an assumption is to take something for granted without proof. Assumptions are facts that may be true but not verified. An assumption was the expert panelists had the expertise and knowledge to participate in the study and had experience with people leaving the organization because of poor leadership skills. Another assumption was all leaders, are able to create a positive connection with their employees so the employees will have a positive outlook on their positions and be

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less likely to leave voluntarily. People leave their bosses not their jobs (Harvey et al., 2007). Usually when people entered a position, employees had the expectation of getting along with his or her leader (Harvey et al.). Problems developed when the employee began experiencing difficult interactions with his or her leader caused the employee to feel unworthy to perform his or her job function over time (Harvey et al.). By using inductive reasoning from information gathered through a panel of experts, the panel developed a theory about leadership traits and employee retention. Another assumption was the responses from the panel of experts in this study would offer insights into the ideal traits, characteristics, and abilities of leaders. Using the modified Delphi research method, an expectation was for the experts to suggest ways to create seminars to enlighten and train leaders. The seminars could help leaders to find a method to form a closer connection to subordinates. The responses from the panel of experts reflected a collective understanding and perceived implications of employee retention issues in organizations. Finally, through the open-ended discussions in the study, the experts would find best practice methods to strengthen the relationship between leaders and their subordinates through a platform of strategies, suggestions, and ideas for human resources and leaders. The focus was on the people in the middle who were average performers and cost the company money associated with the costs of hiring a new employee when they left (Sullivan, n.d.). Creating a stronger relationship between leaders and subordinates could reduce costs for organizations and may increase job satisfaction for employees.

Full document contains 182 pages
Abstract: A common theme with Human Resources personnel is that employees leave their bosses, not their jobs (Harvey, Stoner, Hochwarter & Kacmar, 2007). Costs of employee turnover to the organization vary; Sagie, Birati, and Tziner (2002) reported a cost of 17% pretax annual income. Research showed professional position turnover in the Southeast was higher than the rest of the country with a turnover rate of 27.7% (U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of leaders and develop an understanding of the types, traits, and characteristics of leaders needed to improve employee retention using a three-round modified Delphi technique, with 17 Human Resource experts in the southeast. The goal of the study was to contribute an understanding of leadership and its impact on employee retention and to stimulate further discussion and uncover problems related to employee retention.