• unlimited access with print and download
    $ 37 00
  • read full document, no print or download, expires after 72 hours
    $ 4 99
More info
Unlimited access including download and printing, plus availability for reading and annotating in your in your Udini library.
  • Access to this article in your Udini library for 72 hours from purchase.
  • The article will not be available for download or print.
  • Upgrade to the full version of this document at a reduced price.
  • Your trial access payment is credited when purchasing the full version.
Buy
Continue searching

The identity and function of the Seven Spirits in the book of Revelation

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Ingo Willy Sorke
Abstract:
This dissertation explores the identity and function of the seven spirits in the Book of Revelation. Chapter 1 surveys the history of Revelation studies in the particular context of pneumatological pursuits and the seven spirits (Rev 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6), noting a research gap in regards to pneumatological studies as well as hermeneutical shortcomings in the state of academia. Chapter 2 traces the semantic domain of the term πνευμα, leading to a six-fold division of usage: (1) modus operandi, (2) plural phenomena, (3) πνευμα as speaker, (4) prophetic associations, (5) unclean/evil phenomena, (6) naturalistic-inanimate phenomena. The scope of this semantic spectrum permits a proportionally large vesting of theological meaning for the term πνευμα, including that of divinity (esp. with Rev 1:4)--a possibility justifying capitalization for divine entities in Bible translations. Chapter 3 summarizes models of heptadic-pneumatological interpretation, distilling the most common four interpretative approaches (as distinct from OT intertextuality): (1) Babylonian Astral-Cosmology, (2) Approaches in Second Temple Literature (including Qumran and the Pseudepigrapha), (3) Heptadic Fullness, and (4) Dogmatic Trinitarianism. The lack of a hermeneutical process in most studies that would furnish a verifiable trajectory between theorem and primary data becomes evident. In other words, data congruencies are insufficient by themselves to provide a definitive interpretation of the data at hand; only links based on discernable intentionality qualify as directly applicable sources. Thus extra-biblical explanations of the seven spirits are refuted, while a biblical-theological model is upheld with Chapter 4. Chapter 4 proposes that such a linguistically and contextually verifiable trajectory of intentionality exists between Zechariah's fifth night vision (Zech 4) and the particulars of the seven spirit occurrences in Revelation. This intertextual congruence combines elements of covenantal fulfillment (building the temple as a programmatic building of the people of God), judgment (as exemplified in Rev 3:1), and Pentecostal specificity in the sense of mission (Acts 2; cf. Rev 4:5; 5:6). The number seven symbolically expresses the spirits' specific functionality, rather than locking them into an ontology foreign to the intent of their apocalyptic presentation. Chapter 5 provides a contributive summary of the conclusions drawn from this project, as well as suggestions for further research. The study could be mined for two core veins: first, the history of interpretation invites further tracking of its lack of exegetical controls, thereby establishing interpretive accountability. Second, arising out of a focused ecclesiology of Revelation, missiological aspects of this study's conclusions could yield valuable insights into God's operative schemes in the world, especially from an eschatological perspective. Without compromising relevance or appeal, Revelation's churches were not to define themselves by contemporary culture but by God's eschatological agenda, already programmatically rooted in OT conceptualizations. The tenor of this study calls on scholarship to acknowledge with Hengel that "the derivation of individual themes is often difficult to elucidate, and it is also often difficult to decide whether we have chance analogies to alien conceptions or real instances of dependence" (Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism , 1.251), echoed by Bauckham's caution that a "chain of literary dependence is very difficult to reconstruct" (Bauckham, Climax , 39). The core of this work thus centers on the rejection of unsubstantiated suggestions in regards to the identity and function of the seven spirits, and constructively proposes an intertextual model of interpretation based in particular on parallels with Zechariah's fifth night vision (Zech 4) as the seven spirits' identity and function. The model unfolds in the Pentecost event (Acts 2) and culminates as global catalyst in an eschatological motif of both appeal and judgment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xii LIST OF FIGURES xiv LIST OF EXAMPLES xv LIST OF TABLES xvi PREFACE xix Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 1 History and State of Research in Apocalyptic Pneumatology 4 A Brief Survey of Historical Developments and Perspectives 4 Survey of irve\)[ia-Aspects in the Apocalypse: The Research Gap 6 Case Studies: Recent Treatments of the Spirit in the Book of Revelation 16 The Seven Spirits in the Book of Revelation 19 Overview 19 Determining the Identity and Function of the Seven Spirits in Revelation 24 Current Analyses 25 Thesis Development 31 vin

Page 2. PATTERNS OF IINEYMA OCCURRENCES IN THE BOOK OF REVELATION 34 Introduction 34 The Semantic Domain of -nvev\ia 34 Categories of Trvet>|o,a in Revelation 45 "In the Spirit": The Spirit as Modus Operandi for the Content Recipient (1:10; 4:2; 17:3; 21:10) 45 "What the Spirit Says": The Spirit Formula in the Letters to the Seven Churches (Rev 2:7, 11, 17, 22, 29; 3:6, 13, 22), and Revelation 14:13 and 22:17 64 "The Spirit of Prophecy": The Eschatological Role of the Spirit (Rev 19:10; 22:6) 76 "spirit(s)": Anarthrous Uses of vvev[ia (Rev 11:11; 13:15; 16:13, 14; 18:2) 102 Conclusion 103 3. MODELS OF HEPTADIC-PNEUMATOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION 105 Introduction 105 Babylonian Astral-Cosmology 108 Gunkel's History-of-Religion Model 108 Approaches in Second Temple Literature 115 Jewish-Apocalyptic Backgrounds 115 Dead Sea Scrolls 126 Pseudepigrapha 154 Greek Apostolic Fathers 162 IX

r Page Heptadic Fullness 163 Existence and Economy 165 Personification of Multiple Providence of God? 167 The Number "Seven" and the Meaning of Perfection 167 Dogmatic Trinitarianism 170 The Spirit in Historical-Trinitarian Contexts 171 Conclusion 188 4. CULTIC AND PROPHETIC BACKGROUNDS OF THE SEVEN SPIRITS IN REVELATION 190 The Case for Old Testament Considerations 190 Plural Occurrences of irveuiaa in the New Testament 194 The Hermeneutics of hitertextuality 197 Preliminary Considerations 197 Limitations of hitertextuality as Hermeneutical Method 204 Author and Audience 209 Methodological Proposal 211 Possibilities and Limitations of a Connection to Isaiah 11 215 Old Testament Menorahs and Revelation 4:5; 5:6 219 The Role of Zechariah 3-4 for the Interpretation of the Seven Spirits 226 Historical Background 226 The Use of Zechariah in Revelation 229 Excursus A: Symbolism 237 Anthropomorphisms 241 Excursus B: The Judgment Motif in Revelation 251 Case Study: The Seven Spirits in Christ's Self-Identification to Sardis (Rev 3:1) 256 x

Chapter Page The Seven Spirits in Revelation 4:5 and 5:6 and Canonical Implications 262 From the Temple to the World- The Global Scope of the Cultic Spirit 267 Conclusion 274 5. CONCLUSION 276 Summary of Findings 277 Areas for Further Study 278 The Spirit of Pentecost (Acts 2) as the Seven Spirits of Revelation: A Synthesis 279 Conclusion 290 BIBLIOGRAPHY 294 Appendix [electronic] CD 1. PLURAL OCCURRENCES OF mi/IINEYMA IN MT/LXX/UBS4 2. PLURAL OCCURRENCES OF n i l IN THE QUMRAN SECTARIAN MANUSCRIPTS 3. PLURAL OCCURRENCES OF IINEYMA IN THE PSEUDEPIGRAPHA 4. PLURAL OCCURRENCES OF "SPIRIT" IN CHARLES' PSEUDEPIGRAPHA 5. MODELS OF INTERPRETATION: SURVEY OF AUTHORS 6. PLURAL OCCURRENCES OF IINEYMA IN THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS 7. PLURAL OCCURRENCES OF IINEYMA FN PHILO 8. MENORAH OF ZECHARIAH XI

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABD Anchor Bible Dictionary Ant. Antiquities (Josephus) AUSS Andrews University Seminary Studies BDAG Bauer, W., F. W. Danker, W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago, 1999. BFC La Bible en Francais Courrant BW Bibleworks (7.0) c. century ca. circa Cat. CSB DSS EIN ELB Category/Categories Holman Christian Standard Bible Dead Sea Scrolls Einheitsubersetzung Revidierte Elberfelder Bibel e.o. emphasis original (by author of cited publication) e.s. emphasis supplied (by this writer) esp. especially ESV English Standard Version xn

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS—Continued ET English Translation (this author's unless otherwise indicated) ISV International Standard Version (1.4.5 release) LSG La Sainte Bible, Louis Segond (1910) L45 Lutherbibel(1545) LUO Lutherbibel (1912) LUTH84 Lutherbibel (1984) NASB New American Standard Bible (1995) NET New English Translation (1.0, 2006 release) NKJV New King James Version n. footnote pi. plural QL Qumran Literature QSM Qumran Sectarian Manuscripts Ref. Reference RSV Revised Standard Version sg. singular TH Theodotian's LXX (also identified by 0) TNTV Today's New International Version UBS4 The Greek New Testament, 4th rev. ed., United Bible Society War Jewish War (Josephus) x in statistical contexts denoting "times" xiii

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. The Communication Sequence From Author to Recipients 209 2. Model of Intertextual Interpretation 214 xiv

LIST OF EXAMPLES Example Page 1. Single-spouted Lamp from Dothan Tomb 1 223 2. Late Bronze-Iron I, Menorah on Arch of Titus 223 3. Menorah on Maccabean Coin 223 4. Menorah of Zechariah: Image (Appendix 8) CD xv

LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Number of weuua-occurrences in the Gospels, Acts, and Revelation 15 2. Anarthrous/Articular NT Examples of TTvefyia 26 3. Harm's Categories of TTveuna-Occurrences in Revelation 28 4. Syntactical-Contextual Categories of TTvei)|ia-occurrences in Revelation 30 5. Comparison of Semantic Domains of TTveOua 35 6. m i in Psalm 51 38 7. Comparison of the Prepositional Phrase kv TTveui-um as Modus Operandi .... 47 8. Comparison of the Usage of kv -rrveu|i(m in Revelation 1:10; 4:2; 17:3; 21:10 51 9. m"l in Daniel 5 61 10. Sequence Variations of the Spirit-Formula in the Letters to the Seven Churches 65 11. The Parallel Framework of Speech between Christ and the Spirit in the Seven Letters 68 12. The Phrase r\ iiaptupia Tnaou in Revelation 81 13. Comparison of Revelation 19:10 and 22:8-9 82 14. Parallels Between Revelation 1:1; 22:6, and Theodotion's Daniel 2:45 98 15. Structural Parallels in Revelation 22:7-20 99 16. Forms of €pxo|ioa in Revelation 22:17, 20 100 xvi

Table Page 17. Semantic Domain Categories of PIT"! (pi.) in the Qumran Sectarian Manuscripts 127 18. Sekki's Syntactical Characteristics of Ruah in Qumran Literature 128 19. Comparison of the Usage of kv nveu[j,cn:i in Revelation 1:10; 4:2; 17:3; 21:10 137 20. Comparison of Psalm 104:4 (103:4 LXX) and Revelation 4:5 143 21. OT/NT References to Mi^ar^ 145 22. Parallelism Between ill IT and n i l in Nehemiah 9 171 23. Plural Occurrences of nil/nveiHia in MT/LXX 192 24. Plural Occurrences of Trve0|ia in the New Testament 194 25. Beale's Model of Allusions 199 26. Kowalski's Anspielungen as Intertextual Criteria 202 27. Jauhiainen's Correlative Statistical Agreement Among Four Proposals 204 28. Jauhiainen's Statistical Distribution of Criteria for 66 Allusions 205 29. Comparison of Menorah Descriptions in Pentateuch and Zechariah 219 30. Comparison of Zechariah 8:8 LXX and Revelation 21:3 229 31. Comparison of Vocabulary Parallels Between Zechariah LXX and Revelation 230 32. The Chiastic Center of Zechariah 4:1-14 233 33. Parallels between Jesus and the Paraclete in the Gospel of John 235 34. Forensics as Chiastic Frame in the Book of Revelation 255 xvii

Table Page 35. The Correlation of Christ's Self-Identification and the Condition of the Church 257 36. Comparison of Christ-Attributes and Self-Identification in Church Greetings 260 37. Chiastic Arrangement of Attributes and Self-Identification 261 38. Comparison of Jesus with the Spirit in the Gospel of John 267 39. Comparison of 2 Chronicles 16:9a and Zechariah 4:10b 271 40. Comparison of Activity/Scope/Method of the Two Witnesses of Revelation 11 and the False Prophet (2nd Beast) 273 41. The Literary Location of the Seven Spirits in Revelation 1:4-5 279 42. Comparison of Acts (Pentecost) with Revelation 4:5; 5:6 (Enthronement) . .. 281 43. Structural Features in Revelation as Prospective Introductions 283 44. Contrasts Between the Earth Beast and the Holy Spirit 289 xvm

PREFACE Among angels and beasts, polarizing symbols and diverse images, the seven spirits greet the reader and listener of Revelation as the first enigmatic entity. My search for a viable dissertation did not lead directly to these seven spirits; I initially envisioned a study of correlative group dynamics in the Apocalypse. Within those group realities, God and the Son appeared "familiar"; but the seven spirits struck me as much mysterious as neglected. They solicited further investigation as a group of unknown identity and function, appearing significant enough to stand in divine company and central heavenly location. The project quickly developed beyond mere content analysis, however, questioning conventional procedures and customary assumptions sans hermeneutical process. In the process and in the end, formulating constructs on divine entities redefined my larger paradigms and concepts of God, church, and eschatological purpose. Thank you, Dr. Paul Wolfe, for always alerting me to a resource that was always necessary at the time. Thank you, Ms. Barb Isbell, for countless hours of editorial refinement and format-compliance. All remaining inconsistencies and errors are mine. Thank you, Dr. Shawn Radford, for checking up on me when many had long checked out. xix

Thank you, Southwestern Adventist University, for your patience and financial support. I did it for you. I could not have done it without you. Dr. Anderson, Dr. Bunch, Dr. Konrad-"the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience''' (Gal 5:22)! You will save so much money now, Mr. Garrett! Thank you, Dr. Willis, Dr. Kilgore, Dr. Rico-TQ5e x\ uuoi-iovr] TGOV ay'aov koxlv. Thank you to my parents, Edith and Wolfgang Sorke-you waited to see me for too long. Danke fur's Daumendrucken. Thank you, Kenton and Kollin-snipe hunting? Tree house? Thank you, Nancy. I am back. I am still here. Quis nos separabitl Thank you, Father, Son, and yes, Holy Spirit! Despite "seeing in a mirror, dimly" (1 Cor 13:12) . . . how close did I get? Post tenebras spero lucem. Veni, Sancte Spiritus. Ingo Willy Sorke Joshua, Texas March 2009 xx

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem While the book of Revelation has seen a resurgence of attention, specific areas still show gaps in the state of research. This absence becomes apparent in specific pneumatological aspects of Revelation: the precise identity and function of the seven spirits (Rev 1:3; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6) remain an interpretive conundrum, with few studies offering a focused treatment of these seven spirits.1 Defining these seven spirits 'Following Isaacs' practice, this study generally does not capitalize the term 'spirit' to "avoid any prejudging of issues of classification." Marie E. Isaacs, The Concept of Spirit: A Study ofPneuma in Hellenistic Judaism and its Bearing on the New Testament, Heythrop Monographs 1 (London: Heythrop College [University of London], 1976), vii. Some commentators capitalize from the onset: Arthur Everett Sekki, The Meaning ofRuah at Qumran, Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series, no. 110 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), 6 n. 1; Robby Waddell, The Spirit of the Book of Revelation, Journal of Pentecostal Theology Supplement Series 30 (Dorset, UK: Deo Publishing, 2006), 2; Rustin Jack Umstattd, "The Role of the Holy Spirit in Judgment," (Ph.D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2007), 108f. Biblical authors had no such formatting tool at their disposal. A specific historical context or theological intentionality can warrant capitalization nonetheless. The issue of capitalization becomes evident in translation, as, for instance, in the NIV's alternate reading of "Or the sevenfold Spirit" for "the seven spirits" in Rev 1:4 (see also CSB, and John R. Levison, "Holy Spirit," in Dictionary of New Testament Backgrounds: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship, ed. Craig A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter [Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2000]: 507, 510-11-see below). See also Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, ed. and trans. Frederick W. Danker, William F. Arndt, and F. Wilber Gingrich, [BDAG], 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), s.v. "uveOua," categories 5 and 6 (cf. Table 5, chapter 2). For a discussion of capitalization dynamics within systematic models of pneumatology, see especially Garrett C. Kenney, Translating H/holy S/spirit (Lanham: University Press of America, 2007). Interestingly, none of the four core texts pertaining to this study are covered by Kenney. 1

2 resembles Plutarch's analogy of "painting the lion from a single claw."2 The five models of interpretation that do emerge from the literature (see Chapter 3) consistently lack a hermeneutical process. This absence creates a desideratum in New Testament studies, whose findings promise new insights for understanding the role of rryeGjioc in Revelation, with particular attention to the seven spirits. Perceived as "the eschatological Gift of God,"3 the role of the spirit in the book of Revelation deserves the attention of a focused study. With Swete this author admits that "of the spirit we expect to hear much in the one prophetical book of the New Testament, and we are not altogether disappointed, though there is less on the surface of the book than what we might have looked for."4 He cautions at the same time that the Apocalypse introduces "another atmosphere": while the great objects of faith are the same,. .. they are seen in new lights, and the general impression differs from that which is left on the mind by the teaching of our Lord or of St. Paul. Nor is it only in the realm of eschatology that the book takes its own 2Plutarch, quoting Alcaeus. Plutarch De defectu oraculorum 410C, in vol. 5 ofPlutarch's Moralia, trans. Frank Cole Babbitt (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984), 352-53. ('&; ovuxo? Toy Xkovxa ypd^iovza^, also quoted by John R. Levinson, The Spirit in First-Century Judaism, Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums 29 [New York: Brill, 2002], 7). du Rand speaks of "really an exegetical challenge and adventure" in this context. J. A. du Rand,'".. . Let him hear what the Spirit says.. .': The Functional Role and Theological Meaning of the Spirit in the Book of Revelation," ExAud 12 (1996): 47. 3George T. Montague, "The Fire in the Word: The Holy Spirit in Scripture," in Advents of the Spirit: An Introduction to the Current Study of Pneumatology, ed. Bradford E. Hinze and D. Lyle Dabney, Marquette Studies in Theology, no. 30 (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2001), 50. He points to Matt 12:28, where the "the kingdom of God has come upon you" by the mere casting out of demons through Jesus by the spirit of God (cf. Acts 1:6-8; Gal 3:6-14; 2 Cor 1:22; 5:5; Eph 1:14; Heb 6:4). Interestingly, Montague's substantial essay on the Holy Spirit addresses eschatology directly in only this paragraph. For a restrictive view of almost exclusive Greek influence on the synoptic irveuna-materials, see Hans Leisegang, Pneuma Hagion: Der Ursprung des Geistbegriffs der Synoptischen Evangelien aus der Griechischen Mystik (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1922). Similar to the classifications of this study (see below), Leisegang establishes three core categories of irveu|ia: divine spirit, human spirit, and evil (sick, unclean) spirit. Ibid., 5-6. "Henry Barclay Swete, The Apocalypse of St. John: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes and Indices (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1906), clxiv.

3 course; its views of the Person of Christ, of the Holy Spirit, of Redemption, and of the church, are its own; even its doctrine of God has no exact parallel in the rest of the New Testament.5 The role of Trv€U(j,a in Revelation6 begins with its7 active participation in the introductory greeting (Rev 1:4), rises quickly to the forefront of the book with its formulaic presence in the conclusion of all the letters to the seven churches (Rev 2-3), and continues in the apocalypse's throne room scene (Rev 4:5; 5:6), only to climax in the book's epilogue with the spirit's insistent call to "Come!" (Rev 22:17).8 A survey of 5Ibid., clix. Levison cautions that the term 'Holy Spirit' as t£Hp ni*1/[xo] irveO^a [TO ayiov] did not constitute a terminus technicus: "The century that spawned early Christianity was characterized by enormous diversity with respect to conceptions of inspiration" (cf. 4 Ezra 14:22; Mart. Isa. 5:14). Thus "the inspiring spirit (pneuma) could be interpreted as an angelic spirit that ousts thought, as a customary friend that instructs the untroubled mind and as a catalyst to prophetic oracles that inflames and arouses. Studies of the NT therefore must acknowledge that references to the holy spirit are not homogeneous but rather reflect the complex situation of the milieu of the NT, in which various adherents of early Judaism conceived of the spirit differently from one another, due often to the nature of their indebtedness to a diverse and influential Greco-Roman milieu." Levison, "Holy Spirit," 507, 510-11. These factors should further affect judgments in regards to capitalization of terms (see also Wallace's discussion of monadic nouns in Daniel Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament with Scripture, Subject, and Greek Word Indexes [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996], 248). Horn similarly notes that "The combination of the terms "holy" . .. and "spirit" ... does not occur in Greek literature, and in the OT only in two historically late texts." Furthermore, Horn shows a development in which "a technical usage of pneuma hagion is not yet apparent." The attributive adjective came into play, then, to provide "distance, factually and terminologically, from the neutral use of pneuma in Greek-Hellenistic usage." F. W. Horn, "Holy Spirit," trans. Dietlinde M. Elliott, in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 3:261. 6This study uses the capitalized term 'Revelation' (sans "book of ) strictly in regards to the canonical book, not the doctrinal dogma or technical dynamics of divine communication. 7The masculine pronoun in reference to tryeu|ia is subsequently employed for grammatical convenience and to reflect conventional English parlance, not to argue anthropomorphic peculiarity or gender specificity. 8Unless otherwise indicated, all translations into English are this author's. In regards to the particular challenges of translating eschatological materials, Wilder cautions that these carry "a distinctiveness of language which cannot be translated without falsification," and as such feature "terms, symbols and conceptions" that "all belong together, and no part can be separated from the whole or placed in a different context without loss." Amos N. Wilder, Eschatology and Ethics in the Teaching of Jesus, rev. ed. (New York: Harper, 1950), 66, relying on the observations of Paul Sevier Minear, Eyes of Faith: A Study in the Biblical Point of View (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1946).

interpretations and their development reveals the complexity of the issue at hand, beginning with semantic challenges. History and State of Research in Apocalyptic Pneumatology A Brief Survey of Historical Developments and Perspectives Even beyond the confines of Revelation, pneumatology has challenged interpreters as "one of the most elusive themes in the Bible or in theology."9 Since an ontological identity of-nvev\xa as divine entity (esp. in the dogmatic sense of '[Holy] Spirit') cannot be presupposed a priori, the scope of interpretation models warrants a broad initial excursion into the historical dynamics of both 'spirit' and the interpretation of the Apocalypse.10 The wording of the First Council of Nicea (AD 325) granted the Holy Spirit a subservient role by sheer quantity of content: We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father,. .. begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father. And [we believe] in the Holy Ghost.n 9Sean P. Kealy, "Holy Spirit," in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, ed. David Noel Freedman (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 601. 10As the "theologian of the Holy Spirit," Basil the Great (ca. AD 329-379) had to caution against tritheism in his On the Holy Spirit long before the filioque introduction in Toledo (AD 589) by supporting a tri-une view of divinity. Roger E. Olson, The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Centuries of Tradition and Reform (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1999), 177. Basil's work later aided in revising the Nicene Creed of AD 325. "Emphasis supplied (e.s.). Fears of Arian infiltrations cautioned the church against further elaboration on the Spirit at this point. See Ron E. M. Clouzet, "The Personhood of the Holy Spirit and Why It Matters," Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 17 (2006): 15. 'Spirit' in this section is capitalized for historical convention.

5 A revision came over fifty years later at the First Council of Constantinople (AD 381) with the added statement Credo in Spiritum Sanctum qui expatre filioqueprocedit}2 Now the Spirit "proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together {filioque] is worshiped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets"13-a conceptualization ultimately leading to the Great Schism of 1054 between the Eastern and the Western Church (with the former rejecting any notion offilioque). The West, however, espoused this status of the Spirit, confirming it with reason (Anselm of Canterbury, ca. 1033-1109), Scripture (Peter Lombard, ca. 1100-1160), and systematic theology (4th Lateran Council, 1215).14 With Luther's descriptions of the Spirit similar to Augustine's, the Reformation remained orthodox, mainly shifting from ontological discussions to those of function. It rejected enthusiasm as direct influence of the Spirit, independent of Scripture, but affirmed the Spirit as overriding structure.15 Except for minor nuances in wording and a greater acceptance of the Spirit's presence in the Lord's Supper (see the Wittenberg 12In between, Athanasius (ca. AD 293-373) and the Cappadocians "steadfastly wrote and taught and preached on the full divinity of the Son as well as the Spirit." See Clouzet's discussion in his "Personhood of the Holy Spirit," 15. Based on the ecumenical Klingenthal conferences (1978, 1979), Moltmann finds this Nicene addition "superfluous" since 'the Father' always also means "fatherhood"; thus fatherhood inextricably includes sonship and spirit-procession. Accordingly, "The Filioque addition therefore contributes nothing new to the statement about the procession of the Spirit from the Father. It is superfluous, not required, and it can consequently be struck out," especially since the addition practically sends the Holy Spirit "to third place in the primordial relationships of the Trinity." Jurgen Moltmann, The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation, trans. Margaret Kohl (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992), 306. 13For a comparison of both Nicene creeds, see Mark A. Noll, Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997), 57. 14T. S. Caulley, "Holy Spirit," in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ed. Walter E. Elwell (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984), 524. 15See Martin Luther, The Bondage of the Will, trans. Henry Cole (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1976).

6 Concord, 1536), Melanchthon was in accord with Luther. Calvin stood behind the idea that the Spirit produced Scripture; he also espoused a regenerative function of the Spirit who "works in regeneration to illumine the mind to receive the benefits of Christ."16 As a child of the Arminian counter-movement (though denounced by the Synod of Dort-1618- 19), Wesley credited the Spirit with a believer's sanctification.17 Ultimately the Word retained a superior role, especially since the philosophical milieu of "rationalism, naturalism, and even deism" presumably removed the Spirit "from an examination of nature."18 On the other hand, beginning with the 'Inner Light' (1647) of George Fox and continuing with Schleiermacher (1768-1834), the role of feelings diminished doctrine and ethics, a trend only fueled by the experiential emphasis of American revivalism and Pentecostalism at the turn of the century. Praxis overshadowed dogma as "rechte Lehre".19 In short, history affords neither consensus nor conclusion. Survey of Trveuiia-Aspects in the Apocalypse: The Research Gap While the spirit was "not yet" during John's Feast of Tabernacle pericope 16Caulley, "Holy Spirit," 525. See esp. John Calvin Institutes of the Christian Religion 2.8.8.; 1.7.4.; 3.1.1, ed. John T. McNeill, trans. Ford Lewis Battles, Library of Christian Classics 20 (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), 1:78-80, 265-66, 537-38. 17In his letter to a Roman Catholic (1749), Wesley clarifies that "the infinite and eternal Spirit of God, equal with the Father and the Son" is "not only perfectly holy in Himself, but the immediate cause of all holiness in us .... " John Wesley, The Letters of John Wesley, ed. John Telford (London: The Epworth Press, 1931), 3:9. For a detailed discussion see William M. Arnett, "The Role of the Holy Spirit in Entire Sanctification in the Writings of John Wesley," ed. KimberLee Bingham (Nampa, ID: Wesley Center for Applied Theology of Northwest Nazarene University, 2000) [on-line]; accessed 6 Apr 2007; available from http://wesley.nnu.edU/wesleyan_theology/theojrnl/l l-15/14-08.htm; Internet. 18Clouzet, "Personhood of the Holy Spirit," 17. 19See ibid., 11-32, for a concise overview of these historical developments.

7 (John 7:39), iTvefj|ia greets the readers of Revelation as a seven-fold manifestation (Rev 1:4), continued by a pluralistic penetration of the earth (Rev 5:6). In the midst of an already low volume of academic voices for pneumatological studies in Revelation (see above), the void of a marked silence meets the researcher when it comes to particular studies of the seven spirits. A lacuna of analysis in this specific area of the book only compounds the difficulty of synthesis, hi view of this gap, Kangas even hints at the possibility of a "defective theology" at play here.20 hi Revelation itself, the seven spirits are first introduced as a seven-fold entity (septiformis Spiritus)21 within atri-fold greeting formula . . . KOU onto TGOV euta TTveu|adcTG)v a evcrruov TOO Gpovou OCUTOU (Rev 1:4).22 Irenaeus's direct quote from Revelation 5:6 in Haer. IV 20,11 (SC 100, 666; agnum . . . habentem cornua septem et oculos septem, qui sunt septem spiritus Dei dimissi in omnem terram) remains absent of 20Ron Kangas, "The Seven Spirits of God," Affirmation and Critique 1 (1996): 28. See Kangas' lists of scholarly and popular tapestry that "make absolutely no mention of the seven Spirits of God" (ibid.). He concludes that "this neglect is widespread, even universal" (ibid., 29). 21In contrast to Paul's emphatic reality of ev rrveOua (Eph 4:4), leading some to protest the notion of a pneuma-plurality as "grotesque conception" (William Kelly, Lectures on the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, new ed. [London: G. Morrish, 1874], 310, or as a "fantastic doctrine [which] cannot justly be imputed to the writer" (Ernest F. Scott, The Spirit in the New Testament [London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1923], 217). Others have had difficulty with the concept; Dodd describes it as a "not-too-orthodox Trinity" of Rev 1:4-5, voicing surprise that "this muddled fantasy-thinking proceeded from the same mind that produced the notably sober and rational doctrine of Trveuu-a which is found in the Fourth Gospel." C. H. Dodd, The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel (Cambridge: University Press, 1968), 215. On the other hand, Martin Kiddle welcomes Revelation's unique profile here as "a distinct and precious contribution to the gradual formation of the doctrine of the Third Person of the Trinity." Martin Kiddle, The Revelation of St. John, The Moffatt New Testament Commentary (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1940), 101. The difficulty becomes especially apparent in Conner's ambivalence within his own writings: in The Work of the Holy Spirit he "hesitates" to identify the seven Spirits as the Holy Spirit, while his book The Faith of the New Testament readily equates the two. W. T. Conner, The Work of the Holy Spirit: A Treatment of the Biblical Doctrine of the Divine Spirit (Nashville: Broadman, 1940), 158; idem, The Faith of the New Testament (1940), 503. 22This sequence is also found in 1 Pet 1:2 (cf. the triadic occurrence in 2 Cor 13:13).

Full document contains 345 pages
Abstract: This dissertation explores the identity and function of the seven spirits in the Book of Revelation. Chapter 1 surveys the history of Revelation studies in the particular context of pneumatological pursuits and the seven spirits (Rev 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6), noting a research gap in regards to pneumatological studies as well as hermeneutical shortcomings in the state of academia. Chapter 2 traces the semantic domain of the term πνευμα, leading to a six-fold division of usage: (1) modus operandi, (2) plural phenomena, (3) πνευμα as speaker, (4) prophetic associations, (5) unclean/evil phenomena, (6) naturalistic-inanimate phenomena. The scope of this semantic spectrum permits a proportionally large vesting of theological meaning for the term πνευμα, including that of divinity (esp. with Rev 1:4)--a possibility justifying capitalization for divine entities in Bible translations. Chapter 3 summarizes models of heptadic-pneumatological interpretation, distilling the most common four interpretative approaches (as distinct from OT intertextuality): (1) Babylonian Astral-Cosmology, (2) Approaches in Second Temple Literature (including Qumran and the Pseudepigrapha), (3) Heptadic Fullness, and (4) Dogmatic Trinitarianism. The lack of a hermeneutical process in most studies that would furnish a verifiable trajectory between theorem and primary data becomes evident. In other words, data congruencies are insufficient by themselves to provide a definitive interpretation of the data at hand; only links based on discernable intentionality qualify as directly applicable sources. Thus extra-biblical explanations of the seven spirits are refuted, while a biblical-theological model is upheld with Chapter 4. Chapter 4 proposes that such a linguistically and contextually verifiable trajectory of intentionality exists between Zechariah's fifth night vision (Zech 4) and the particulars of the seven spirit occurrences in Revelation. This intertextual congruence combines elements of covenantal fulfillment (building the temple as a programmatic building of the people of God), judgment (as exemplified in Rev 3:1), and Pentecostal specificity in the sense of mission (Acts 2; cf. Rev 4:5; 5:6). The number seven symbolically expresses the spirits' specific functionality, rather than locking them into an ontology foreign to the intent of their apocalyptic presentation. Chapter 5 provides a contributive summary of the conclusions drawn from this project, as well as suggestions for further research. The study could be mined for two core veins: first, the history of interpretation invites further tracking of its lack of exegetical controls, thereby establishing interpretive accountability. Second, arising out of a focused ecclesiology of Revelation, missiological aspects of this study's conclusions could yield valuable insights into God's operative schemes in the world, especially from an eschatological perspective. Without compromising relevance or appeal, Revelation's churches were not to define themselves by contemporary culture but by God's eschatological agenda, already programmatically rooted in OT conceptualizations. The tenor of this study calls on scholarship to acknowledge with Hengel that "the derivation of individual themes is often difficult to elucidate, and it is also often difficult to decide whether we have chance analogies to alien conceptions or real instances of dependence" (Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism , 1.251), echoed by Bauckham's caution that a "chain of literary dependence is very difficult to reconstruct" (Bauckham, Climax , 39). The core of this work thus centers on the rejection of unsubstantiated suggestions in regards to the identity and function of the seven spirits, and constructively proposes an intertextual model of interpretation based in particular on parallels with Zechariah's fifth night vision (Zech 4) as the seven spirits' identity and function. The model unfolds in the Pentecost event (Acts 2) and culminates as global catalyst in an eschatological motif of both appeal and judgment.