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The historicization of Chinese architecture: The making of architectural historiography in China, from the late nineteenth century to 1953

Dissertation
Author: Min-Ying Wang
Abstract:
The Confucian metaphysical philosophy devalued material artifacts. As a result, architecture was not traditionally seen as a scholarly field. Architectural study as a formal academic discipline began only in the last decades of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) when it was introduced as a field of study by Westerners. Since then, Chinese scholars have produced a significant body of architectural history that has helped shape the way that Chinese people think of architecture. The objective of this analytical study is to provide a history of the writings of the most important architectural historians who worked during the first stage of the discipline's development in China from both within China and abroad. Noting that the belated modernization was an unspoken factor that influenced all of these architectural histories, this dissertation examines the existing architectural texts with a specific interest in the nationalistic ideology underpinning their interpretations of architectural images both traditional and modem. Five groups of architectural historians who were involved in the formation of this discipline are examined. They are (1) Western Sinologists, including John Calvin Ferguson (1866-1945), Walter Perceval Yetts (1878-1957), Osvald Sirén (1879-1966), Carroll Brown Malone (1886-1973), Paul Demiéville (1894-1979), and Gustav Ecke (1896-1971), among others; (2) progressive Chinese intellectuals such as Yue Jiazao (1868-1944), Zhu Qiqian (1872-1964) and the fellows of the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture (1930-1945); (3) culturally conservative architectural professionals trained abroad, represented by Liang Sicheng (1901-1972) and Lin Huiyin (1904-1955); (4) architectural modernists, of whom, the most insightful was probably Tong Jun (1900-1983); and (5) socialist writers Hu Man (1904-1986) and Feng Zikai (1898-1975). The Chinese historians listed above exemplified a confident local response to foreign input. They interwove Confucian collectivism with Western architectural history to fulfill the need for a national identity caused by the asynchronous modernization. This is particularly embodied in the methodologies and historical styles that they remodeled. By scrutinizing these historical texts, this dissertation provides another perspective on the history of global architecture.

Table of Contents List of Illustrations iv List of Tables xvii Chronology of Chinese History xviii Introduction 1 Architectural Study in Premodern China 1 The Birth of Architectural Research in China: from the Late Nineteenth Century to 1953 5 The Research of Modern Chinese Architecture, from 1935 to the Present 8 The Physiognomy of Modern China: Historicism or Modernism? 16 The Structure of the Thesis 23 Chapter One: Chinese Architecture from a Western Perspective, 1875 -1930 33 The Academicization of Chinese Architectural Study in the Nineteenth Century 36 The Academicization of Chinese Study in the Nineteenth Century 46 Occidental Chinese Architectural Study in the Early Twentieth Century 50 Building and Beholding: Western Architectural Intervention in China and the Evolving Occidental View of Chinese Architecture 68 The Dissemination of the Western Concept of "Architecture" 76 Chapter Two: Traditional Chinese Book-Learning Culture and Indigenous Intellectual Scholars—Yue Jiazao, Zhu Qiqian and the First Members of the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture, 1890s-1933 102 Between Tradition and Modern: Chinese Architectural Practice at the Beginning of i

the Twentieth Century 102 Writings of Chinese Architectural Practitioners at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century 108 The First Chinese Scholars of Architectural History and the Influence of Archaeology: 1900s-1930s ..Il l The Study of Architecture following Traditional Methods 140 Power/Knowledge: Challenge from the Younger Generation 150 The Silence of Intellectual Scholars 156 Chapter Three: Eclectic Modernity—Liang Sicheng, Lin Huiyin, and their Chinese Architectural Research, 1924-1953 169 Foreign-Trained Chinese Architectural Professionals 169 Two New Directors of the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture: Liang Sicheng and Liu Dunzhen 172 Liang Sicheng 175 Liang Sicheng and Scientific Architectural History 183 Decoding the Mystery of Tmgzaofa shi ..187 Chinese Architecture: A "Historic" Style..., 193 Formulate a Cyclical Theory of History 198 The Crisis of Scientific History ..204 National Pride and Scientificism 211 Chinese Architectural Practice and the Realization of Liang Sicheng's Chinese Architectural Theory: 1900s-1964 217 Chapter Four: The Adaptation of Architectural Modernism in China and the Writing of TongJun, 1930s-1952 274 ii

"Age d'or de la bourgeoisie chinoise" and the Transplantation of Architectural Modernism 274 Architectural Modernism in Pre-war China, ca. 1930-1937 277 Architectural Modernism during the Wars, 1937-1949 295 The Intellectualization of Commercial Modernism 300 Tong Jun and His Writing Career 306 Tong Jun, Modernism, and New National Identity 319 Tong Jun and Architectural Modernism in the New China 326 Chapter Five: Epilogue—Leftism and Architectural History in China, 1930s-1953 352 Left-wing Political Theory in China, 1899-1930s 352 Left-wing Arts in Republican China 355 Leftism and Republican Architecture 357 Leftism in Republican Architectural History and Theory 362 State Socialist Architectural History in the New China, after 1949 376 Selected Bibliography 387 Sources of Illustrations 399 Glossary 413 in

List of Illustrations Figure 1 An example of the Western historical architecture built in the early twentieth century China: the Banque de l'lndo-Chine (1917. Beijing. Designed by Atkinson and Dallas, Ltd.) 31 Figure 2 The ground floor plan of the Banque de l'lndo-Chine (1917. Beijing. Designed by Atkinson and Dallas, Ltd.) 31 Figure 3 An example of the Western historical architecture built in the early twentieth century China: La Banque Franco-Chinoise pour le Commerce et L'Industrie (1932. Tianjin. Designed by P. Muller) 32 Figure 4 The ground floor plan of La Banque Franco-Chinoise pour le Commerce et L'Industrie (1932. Tianjin. Designed by P. Muller) 32 Figure 5 The front elevation of La Banque Franco-Chinoise pour le Commerce et L'Industrie (1932. Tianjin. Designed by P. Muller) 32 Figure 6 Illustrations in Joseph Gwilt's The Encyclopedia of Architecture, Historical, Theoretical and Practical (1842). Top: A Chinese pagoda. Below: The Great Wall of China 80 Figure 7 Illustrations in Francois Benoit's L'architecture; I'orient medieval et moderne (1912). Left: the perspective view and plan of the Taihe Hall in the Forbidden City. Right: images of Chinese buildings from Chinese paintings 81 Figure 8 John Calvin Ferguson (1866-1945) 82 Figure 9 Walter Perceval Yetts (1878-1957) 82 Figure 10 Osvald Siren (1879-1966) 82 Figure 11 Paul Demieville (1894-1979) 82 Figure 12 Gustav Ecke (1896-1971) 83 Figure 13 Evangeline Dora Edwards (1888-1957) 83 Figure 14 Ito Chuta (1867-1954) 83 Figure 15 The front page of Osvald Siren's The Imperial Palaces of Peking iv

(1926) 84 Figure 16 An illustration from Gisbert Combaz's Les temples imperiaux de la Chine (1912), showing the plan of the Temple of Heaven, Beijing 84 Figure 17 An illustration from Osvald Siren's A History of Early Chinese Art (1929), showing a brick model of a Han building 85 Figure 18 An illustration from Auguste Choisy's L'Histoire de I 'architecture (1899), showing the structural composition of a Chinese pillar. 85 Figure 19 An illustration from Ernst Boerschmann's Chinesische Architektur, showing the wood structure of a temple in Chengdou, Sichuan 86 Figure 20 Illustrations from Gustav Ecke's "Atlantes and Caryatides in Chinese Architecture" (1930). Left: a tomb pillar of the East Han Dynasty. Top middle: an atlantean type of Tang character in the Kondo of Yakushiji, Nara. Bottom middle: an atlantean figure in a pagoda in Beijing. Right: an atlantean figure in a bas-relief of the East Han Dynasty 87 Figure 21 An illustration in James Fergusson's History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, showing a temple in Macao, sketched by James Fergusson (1876) 87 Figure 22 Illustrations of Chinese and Japanese architecture in Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method: for Students, Craftsmen and Amateurs (1901) 88 Figure 23 Chinese pagodas, in Ernst Boerschmann's Die Baukunst und religiose Kuultur der Chinesen: Pagoden (1931) 89 Figure 24 New York skyscrapers, in Erich Mendelsohn's Amerika Bilderbuch eines Architekten (1926) 90 Figure 25 The Wooden Pagoda in Yingxian, Shansi. Built in 1056, the pagoda was the oldest remaining wooden building in China identified before 1931. 90 Figure 26 The Hall of Guanyin (top, model) and the Main Gate (below) in Dule Temple, Jixian, Hebei. Rebuilt in 984 and discovered in 1931, the Hall of Guanyin had remained the earliest authenticated wooden structure in v

China until 1937 91 Figure 27 The plan of Dule Temple 92 Figure 28 The Main Hall of Foguang Temple, Wutai Mountains, Shansi. Built in 857 and discovered in 1937, the Main Hall of Foguang Temple had remained the earliest authenticated wooden structure in China until other older wooden structures were discovered in the 1950s 93 Figure 29 The plan of the Main Hall of Foguang Temple 93 Figure 30 The longitudinal section and elevation of the Main Hall of Foguang Temple 94 Figure 31 The transverse section of the Main Hall of Foguang Temple 94 Figure 32 An example of the Chinese Architectural Renaissance style: Peking Union Medical College Hospital (ca. 1917-1921. Beijing. Designed by Shattuck & Hussey Architects) 95 Figure 33 An example of missionary institutions in China adopting the Chinese Architectural Renaissance style: Nanjing University (1920. Nanjing. Designed by Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton) 96 Figure 34 An example of missionary institutions in China adopting the Chinese Architectural Renaissance style: Ginling College (ca. 1921. Nanjing. Designed by Murphy and Dana Architects) 97 Figure 35 An example of missionary institutions in China adopting the Chinese Architectural Renaissance style: Yenching University (ca. 1926. Beijing. Designed by Henry Killam Murphy Architect) 97 Figure 36 An example of missionary institutions in China adopting the Chinese Architectural Renaissance style: Catholic University of Peking (1928-30. Beijing. Designed by Adelbert Gresnigt) 98 Figure 37 "The Nativity" (1928). The image, made by the Benedictine monk Adelbert Gresnigt, shows that Jesus was born in a Chinese pagoda style manger. 99 Figure 38 "Facade of a church with two towers". A project designed by the Benedictine monk Adelbert Gresnigt to be built in China, the vi

Western-layout church adopted a Chinese look. 100 Figure 39 Two illustrations in Werner Blaser's West Meets East: Mies van der Rohe, juxtaposing Mies van der Rohe's Crown Hall at the IIT in Chicago (1950-1956) and Ryoko-in, Daitoku-ji Temple district, Kyoto (built ca. 1628) 100 Figure 40 J0rn Utzon, sketch of a Japanese house 101 Figure 41 J0rn Utzon, preliminary sketch of the vaults of the Sydney Opera House, conceptual drawing: earthwork and roof work 101 Figure 42 An illustration in Kun yu tu shuo (Explanation of the Map of the Terrestrial Globe. 1674), showing the Colosseum in Rome, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 101 Figure 43 Chen Yuan (1880-1971) 159 Figure 44 The cover and front page of Zhang Yingxu's Jian zhu xin fa (Building Construction) 159 Figure 45 Illustrations in Jian zhu xin fa, showing the groundwork (Building Construction) 160 Figure 46 Portico building of the Qing Dynasty in the rock-cut shrines at Yungang Grottoes 161 Figure 47 Carved niche in one of the rock-cut shrines at Yungang Grottoes (460-525) 161 Figure 48 The cover and inner pages of a 1922 offprint of Shansi datong wu zhou shan shi ku si ji (The Shiku Temple in Wuzhou Mountain, Datong. Written by Chen Yuan. First published in 1919) 162 Figure 49 The cover of Yuan mingyuan ou shi gong dian canji (The Relics of the European Palaces in Old Summer Palace. 1933). The book compiles a batch of pictures of the Old Summer Palace held by the German architect Ernst Boerschmann 162 Figure 50 Two books written by Zhu Xie. Left: Yuan da du gong dian tu kao (A Treatise on the Plans of Palaces of the Capital of the Yuan Dynasty. 1936). Right: Jin ling guji mingshengyingji (Nanking. 1936) 163 vii

Figure 51 Yue Jiazao, 1915 163 Figure 52 Yue Jiazao, 1927 163 Figure 53 The front page of the first edition of Zhongguo jian zhu shi (Chinese Architectural History), by Yue Jiazao (1933) 164 Figure 54 A page in the first edition of Zhongguo jian zhu shi (Chinese Architectural History), by Yue Jiazao (1933). The page, a part of the Introduction, gives a concise account of the framework of the book: single-level building, terrace, multi-level building, tower, pavilion, pagoda, bridge, gateway, gate, city, palace, memorial hall, garden, and temple.. 164 Figure 55 Illustrations in Yue Jiazao's Zhongguo jian zhu shi (Chinese Architectural History. 1933). The right page shows the perspective and plan of the Pavilion of the Yellow Crane, a historic relic first built in "Three Kingdoms" period (220-280). The left page shows the perspective and plan of a turret of the Prohibit City. 165 Figure 56 Illustrations in Yue Jiazao's Zhongguo jian zhu shi (Chinese Architectural History. 1933), showing four ancient pagodas. Left to right: Songyue Temple pagoda, Henan Province; the quadrangle pagoda in Yu Shan, Jiangsu Province; Longxing Temple in Yanzhou, Shandong Province; and Randeng Pagoda in Tongxian County of Beijing 165 Figure 57 Zhu Qiqian, 1906 166 Figure 58 Zhu Qiqian, 1938 166 Figure 59 A page in the Ding version of Ying zao fa shi (Building Standards. 1103), reprinted by Zhu Qiqian in 1919 166 Figure 60 A page in the Tao version of Ting zao fa shi (Building Standards. 1103), edited and reprinted by Zhu Qiqian in 1925 166 Figure 61 The cover of the first issue of Bulletin of the Society for the Research in Chinese Architecture (July, 1930) 167 Figure 62 An imagined portrait of Li Jie (1035-1110), painted by Tao Zhu in 1930 '. 167 Figure 63 One of the seven measure drawings in Zhu Qiqian's "Yuan da du viii

gong yuan tu kao" (A Treatise on the Plans of Palaces and Parks of the Capital of the Yuan Dynasty), made by Song Zhenglin. The drawing shows the plan of the capital of the Yuan Dynasty (today's Beijing) 168 Figure 64 Lin Huiyin, ca. 1928. 238 Figure 65 Lin Huiyin, 1945 238 Figure 66 Liang Sicheng, ca. 1920 238 Figure 67 Liang Sicheng, in the 1960s 238 Figure 68 The Monument to Wang Guowei (1919. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng) 239 Figure 69 The Tomb of Liang Qichao (1929. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng) 239 Figure 70 The auditorium and library of Jilin University (1929-1931. Jilin. Designed by Liang, Chen, Tong and Tsai, Architects and Engineers). Top: back view. Below: ground floor plan, frond elevation, side elevation and back elevation 240 Figure 71 The restoration of Jenli Company (1932. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin) 241 Figure 72 The female dormitory of Beijing University (1935. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin). Front elevation and ground floor plan. 242 Figure 73 The geology hall of Beijing University (1935. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin) 243 Figure 74 The tomb of Ren Bishi (1951. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin) 243 Figure 75 The Monument to the Martyrs of the People (1952. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin) 244 Figure 76 The tomb of Lin Huiyin (1955. Beijing. Designed by Liang Sicheng). 245 Figure 77 The cover of the first edition of Zhongguo jian zhu shi (Chinese ix

Architectural History. 1953), written by Liang Sicheng 245 Figure 78 Illustrations in "Ji xian du le si guan yin ge shan men kao" (The Pagoda of Kwan-yin Ssu, Chi Hsien, 1932). Up left: south elevation of the Hall of Guanyin. Up right: the transverse section of the Hall of Guanyin. Middle left: west elevation of the Hall of Guanyin. Middle right: the longitudinal section of the Hall of Guanyin. Down left: calculation of loading. Down right: comparison of Liao, Song, and Qing beam section. 246 Figure 79 An illustration in "Ji xian du le si guan yin ge shan men kao" (The Pagoda of Kwan-yin Ssu, Chi Hsien, 1932), showing the structural detail of the Main Gate 247 Figure 80 An illustration in "Ji xian du le si guan yin ge shan men kao" (The Pagoda of Kwan-yin Ssu, Chi Hsien, 1932), showing the detail of the staircase 247 Figure 81 Jianzhen Memorial Hall (1963. Yangzhou. Designed by Liang Sicheng) 248 Figure 82 Evolution of Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasty dougong (bracket system), in Qing shi ying zao ze li (Qing Structural Regulation. 1934). The illustration shows the decrease in size of the bracket system, the change of the structure from robustness to gracefulness in proportion, the degeneration from their original structural function to mere ornaments, and the increase in number of the intermediate sets 249 Figure 83 Evolution of Tang, Liao, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dougong (bracket system), in "Zhongguo jian zhu zhi Hang bu wen fa ke ben" (Two Grammar Books of Chinese Architecture. 1945). Traced further back to Tang Dynasty, the illustration meant to show the same evolutionary principle of Chinese bracket system as Figure 82 did 250 Figure 84 Evolution of the Chinese "order" (i.e. dougong, bracket system) of Tang, Liao, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, in A Pictorial History of Chinese Architecture (1946). The illustration meant to show the same evolutionary principle of Chinese bracket system as Figures 82 and 83 did, but provided more examples from field work. This illustration was x

used again in Liang's Zhongguo jian zhu shi (Chinese Architectural History. 1953) 251 Figure 85 Evolution of the general appearance of timber-framed halls, in Zhongguo jian zhu shi (Chinese Architectural History. 1953). The illustration shows the change of the appearance of Chinese architecture in accordance with the evolution of structure 252 Figure 86 A letter to Liang Sicheng from his father Liang Qichao, written on May 4, 1928. In the letter, Liang's father stated that he was arranging a teaching position to the son, who was returning to China soon 253 Figure 87 Horyu Temple, Nara. Founded in 607, the temple is widely acknowledged to have one of the oldest wooden buildings existing in the world 254 Figure 88 The first steel structure built in China: Shanghai natural gas plant (1863. Shanghai. Designed by unknown English architects) 254 Figure 89 Portrait of the United Nations Board of Design, showing, in the foreground, from left to right: Liang Sicheng (China), Oscar Niemeyer (Brazil), Nikolai Bassov (USSR) and Ernest Cormier (Canada); in the background, from left to right: Le Corbusier (France), Vladimir Bodiansky (France), Wallace K. Harrison (the United States), G. A. Soilleux (Australia), Max Abramovitz (the United States) and consultants Ernest Weismann (Yugoslavia), and Matthew Nowicki (Poland). (1947) 255 Figure 90 The conference group of the Princeton University Bicentennial Conference "Far Eastern Culture and Society" in 1947, showing Liang Sicheng (the front row, the seventh to the left), Langdon Warner (the front row, the third to the left), Osvald Siren (the front row, the sixth to the left), Laurence Sickman (the third row, the second to the left), and Wilma Fairbank (the third row, the fourth to the right), among others 256 Figure 91 The first reinforced concrete frame structure built in China: Shanghai Telephone Company (1908. Shanghai. Designed by Davies & Thomas, Civil Engineers & Architects) 257 Figure 92 An example of late Qing official buildings in Western historical style: Qing Army Barracks (1907, designed by Shen Qi). Left: south elevation. xi

Right (top to down): first floor plan, and transverse section 257 Figure 93 An example of late Qing official buildings in Western historical style: Aristocrat College (1909. Beijing).... 258 Figure 94 An example of late Qing official buildings in Western historical style: National Assembly (1912. Beijing. Designed by Curt Rothkegel. Uncompleted). Perspective and plan 259 Figure 95 An early example of buildings in the Chinese Architectural Renaissance style that the Nationalist Party built: the Sun Yet-sen Mausoleum (Competition: 1925, completion: 1929. Nanjing. Designed by LuYanzhi) 260 Figure 96 The general perspective view of The City Plan for Nanking (1929. By Henry Killam Murphy and Ernest P. Goodrich) 261 Figure 97 Projects for government buildings in The City Plan for Nanking (1929. By Henry Killam Murphy and Ernest P. Goodrich) 261 Figure 98 The Ministry of Railway (1930. Nanjing. Designed by Fan Wenzhao). 262 Figure 99 The Official's Club (1931. Nanjing. Designed by Fan Wenzhao and Zhao Shen) 262 Figure 100 Museum of History of the Nationalist Party (1936. Nanjing. Designed by Yang Tingbao) 263 Figure 101 The map of "The Great Shanghai Zoning Study" (1929. Shanghai. By Carl Ewald Grunsky and Asa E. Philips) 264 Figure 102 City Hall (1935. Shanghai. Designed by Dong Dayou) 265 Figure 103 City Hall (1935. Shanghai. Designed by Dong Dayou). Ground floor plan 265 Figure 104 National Peiping Library (Competition 1927, completion 1931. Beijing. Designed by V. Leth-Moller) 266 Figure 105 National Peiping Library (Competition 1927, completion 1931. Beijing. Designed by V. Leth-Moller). Ground floor plan 266 xii

Figure 106 The replica of the ornate Golden Temple of Rehe in the Chicago World's Fair (1933-1934. Chicago) 267 Figure 107 Bank of Communications (1930-1931. Beijing. Designed by Yang Tingbao) 267 Figure 108 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1933. Nanjing. Designed by Allied Architects) 268 Figure 109 Central Hospital (1933. Nanjing. Designed by Kwan, Chu, and Yang Architects) 269 Figure 110 National Art Museum (1935. Nanjing. Designed by Xi Fuquan). 269 Figure 111 "Two Conceptual Depictions of Future Chinese Architecture," by Liang Sicheng (1954) 270 Figure 112 Winning entry of the National Central Museum, Nanjing, in Qing-style. (1935. Designed by Su, Yang & Lei Architects). 271 Figure 113 Final rendering of the National Central Museum, Nanjing. Following Liang Sicheng's suggestion, the Museum, originally designed in Qing-style, was altered into Liao-style, as shown in this rendering, (ca. 1935-1936. Designed by Su, Yang & Lei Architects) 271 Figure 114 A concrete detail, in imitation of dougong (bracket system) from the National Central Museum. The dougong features in the Museum are simply ornamental; they do not played a part in the modern concrete structure of the Museum as they used to in traditional Chinese wood structure 272 Figure 115 People's court, Minhang District, Shanghai (ca. 2000). Western monumental styles have been favored in the boosting construction market in contemporary China 272 Figure 116 A replication of Le Corbusier's Ronchamp Notre Dame du Haut chapel in Zhengzhou, Henan province (ca. the 1990s. Zhengzhou. Built by the Zhengzhou Institute of Planning and Design). The building, as a part of the "architectural village" in a special economic zone of Zhengzhou, was commissioned to attract tourism by the zone's coordination committee 273 Xlll

Figure 117 Harbin railway station, front elevation, back elevation, and ground floor plan (1904. Harbin. Designed by Russian architects) 331 Figure 118 New Harbin Hotel (1937. Harbin. Designed by Russian architects). 331 Figure 119 Dalian railroad station (1937. Dalian. Designed by Ota Sotaro and Kobayashi Ryoji) 332 Figure 120 Nichi Nichi Shimbun Fengtian office (1937-1938. Mukden. Designed by Yokoi Kensuke) 333 Figure 121 Telephone Switching Office (1938. Taipei. Designed by Office of the Taiwan Governor-General) 333 Figure 122 Police station (1933. Shanghai. Designed by the Department of Architecture, Shanghai Municipal Council) 334 Figure 123 Maiqi Apartment (1937. Shanghai) 334 Figure 124 Broadway Mansions (1934. Shanghai. Designed by Shanghai Land Investment Co., Ltd.) 335 Figure 125 Park Hotel (1934. Shanghai. Designed by Ladislas Edward Hudec). 336 Figure 126 Park Hotel (1934. Shanghai. Designed by Ladislas Edward Hudec). The fifth to fifteenth floor plan 336 Figure 127 Wu Tongwen residence (1937. Shanghai. Designed by Ladislas Edward Hudec) 337 Figure 128 Sun Keji Obstetrics (1935. Shanghai. Designed by Zhuang Jun). 338 Figure 129 The International Club (1936. Nanjing. Designed by Liang Yan).338 Figure 130 Hongqiao Sanatorium (1935. Shanghai. Designed by Xi Fuquan). 339 Figure 131 Paramount Ballroom (1931. Shanghai. Designed by Yang Xiliu).340 Figure 132 The gallery of Paramount Ballroom (1931. Shanghai. Designed by YangXiliu) 340 xiv

Figure 133 Siming Bank (1936. Hankou. Designed by Lu Yongbiao) 341 Figure 134 Siming Bank, front elevation (1936. Hankou. Designed by Lu Yongbiao) 341 Figure 135 Empire Mansion (ca. 1935. Shanghai. Designed by Huang Yuanji). .342 Figure 136 Student work of the Department of Architecture, the National Central University (1934) 342 Figure 137 Cover of the first issue of the Shanghai based architectural journal Zhongguo jian zhu (The Chinese Architect) 343 Figure 138 Cover of the first issue of the Shanghai based architectural journal Jian zhu yue kan (The Builder) 343 Figure 139 Nanping Theater (1939. Kunming. Designed by Allied Architects). 344 Figure 140 A. B. Building (1945-1946. Nanjing. Designed by Allied Architects). 344 Figure 141 Tong Jun, 1928 345 Figure 142 Tong Jun, ca. 1980 345 Figure 143 Zhongshan Cultural Education Hall (1936. Nanjing. Designed by Allied Architects) 345 Figure 144 Municipal Museum in Shanghai, project (1934. Shanghai. Designed by Allied Architects) 346 Figure 145 Metropol Theatre (1933. Shanghai. Designed by Allied Architects). 346 Figure 146 Lu Mansion, Dunxin Road (1936. Shanghai. Designed by Allied Architects) 347 Figure 147 The cover of Tong Jun's Xinjian zhu yu liu pai (New Architecture and Architectural Trends, 1980) 347 Figure 148 Washington Bridge under construction, sketched by Tong Jun in XV

1929 348 Figure 149 A domestic house in Salzburg, drew by Tong Jun in 1930 348 Figure 150 The Peace Hotel (1953. Beijing. Designed by Yang Tingbao) 349 Figure 151 The Peace Hotel, ground floor plan and standard floor plan (1953. Beijing. Designed by Yang Tingbao) 349 Figure 152 Children's Hospital (1954. Beijing. Designed by Hua Lanhong). 350 Figure 153 Children's Hospital, first floor plan (1954. Beijing. Designed by Hua Lanhong) 350 Figure 154 Tongji Hospital (1952-1953. Wuhan. Designed by Feng Jizhong). 351 Figure 155 Tongji Hospital, first floor plan (1952-1953. Wuhan. Designed by Feng Jizhong) 351 Figure 156 The Assembly Hall of the Workers' and Peasants' Democratic Government (1933. Ruijin. Designed by Qian Zhuangfei) 382 Figure 157 The Assembly Hall of the Assembly of Representatives of the Shansi-Kansu-Ningsia Border Region (1941. Yanan. Designed by Yang Zuocai) 382 Figure 158 The Central Assembly Hall (1941-1942. Yanan. Designed by Yang Zuocai) 383 Figure 159 The Central Office Building (1942. Yanan. Designed by Yang Zuocai) 383 Figure 160 Feng Zikai, 1919 384 Figure 161 Feng Zikai, 1965 384 Figure 162 The cover and title page of the first edition ofXiyangjian zhujiang hua (Lectures on Western Architecture. 1935) 384 Figure 163 An illustration in Xi yang jian zhujiang hua (Lectures on Western Architecture. 1935). Painted by Feng Zikai, the illustration shows the cross-section of the Great Pyramid of Giza 385 XVI

Figure 164 The first Chinese translation (partial) of A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method: for Students, Craftsmen and Amateurs, translated by Shen Liyuan in 1944. The three volumes of the translation are text, illustration, and appendix respectively 385 Figure 165 Itagaki Takao (1894-1966) 386 List of Tables Table 1 Western authors who had published academic studies on Chinese architecture from 1875 to 1930, listed chronologically by dates of birth. 39 Table 2 Contents of Yingzao fa shi, trans, by Guo Qinghua 190 Table 3 England-American returned Chinese architects who had designed modernist buildings before 1937, listed chronologically by dates of birth. 285 xvn

Chronology of Chinese History Xia Dynasty Shang Dynasty (ca. 1600 BCE-1050 BCE) Zhou Dynasty (1050 BCE-256 BCE) Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 BCE-771 BCE) Eastern Zhou Dynasty, or Spring and Autumn Period (770 BCE-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (403 BCE-221 BCE) Qin Dynasty (221 BCE-210 BCE) Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220) Three Kingdoms (220-280) Wei Dynasty (220-265) Shu (221-263) Wu (229-280) Jin Dynasty (265-420) Southern and Northern Dynasties (317-589) Sui Dynasty (581-618) Tang Dynasty (618-907) Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960) Liao Dynasty (907-1126) Song Dynasty (960-1276) Jin Dynasty (1125-1234) Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Republic of China (1912-) People's Republic of China (1949-) xviii

To Ken and Mary XIX

1 Introduction The act of writing history is an historical act itself. Joseph R. Levenson, Confucian China and Its Modern Fate, 1964 Architectural Study in Premodern China The Confucian metaphysical philosophy did not value material artifacts and so architecture was traditionally seen in China as an applied technique rather than a scholarly field. In premodern China, architectural professionals were viewed more as craftsmen or artisans. Consequently, unlike their cousins in the West, their social status excluded them from the cultural elite. Chinese classics confirm this lowly status such as in Guanzi (Writings of Master Guan), an encyclopedic compilation of Chinese philosophical materials written circa 475-221 BCE. In the "Xiao kuang" chapter of Guanzi, the unknown author divided Chinese society into four social hierarchies: scholars, farmers, artisans and merchants. Artisans were only rated somewhat higher than merchants. In Zhouli (Rites of Zhou), one of three ancient ritual texts listed among the classics of Confucianism, the author breaks down rural trades into six categories: politicians, scholar-officials, artisans, merchants, peasants, and weavers, in the chapter

2 "Kao gongji" (Record of Trades). Architectural professionals, considered to be artisans, were ranked lower than scholars. In sum, ancient Chinese architectural professionals lacked the autonomy to work as independent artists and their names were rarely mentioned in documented records. Nor was architecture included among the fine arts as it was in the West. Scholars considered architecture as a part of the domain of workmanship and thus inferior to literary arts such as painting, calligraphy, bronze and stone inscription, or tea ceremony. The etymology of the word "architecture" in Chinese shows that architecture was excluded from the literary arts. Before the late nineteenth century, a Chinese equivalent for the word "architecture," as it is understood in the West, did not exist. The word frequently used instead was ying zao, a term identified with "construction" or "building" in English. Jian zhu, the equivalent of "architecture" in modern Chinese, was first translated by Japanese as kenchiku when Tatsunosuke Hon (1823-1894) compiled A Pocket Dictionary of the English and Japanese Language, published in 1862. Later, kenchiku was introduced to China and became the jian zhu widely used today. 1 Norihito Nakatani ^ ^ i H t, "Jian zhu yu zhu jian, zaojiayu zao hua—guanyu ri ben mingzhi chu qi jian zhu gai nian zhi ding yi yi ji zhong rijin dai jian zhu de guan xf (Jian-Zhu (Architecture) and Zhu-Jian (Metzelen), Zou-Ka and Zou-Hua: About Architectural Definition in the Meiji Period in Japan, the Relation between Japan and China in Modern Architecture) S l UH^ ^ x jfitSflit'ffc—§IMB# W%i$mMmn±2.,£m&R$> B f i t t Mt t N t t, in Zhao Chen fljg and Wu Jiang ffi3l ed., Zhongguo jin dai jian zhu xue shu si xiang yan jiu (Research on China's Modern Architectural

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Abstract: The Confucian metaphysical philosophy devalued material artifacts. As a result, architecture was not traditionally seen as a scholarly field. Architectural study as a formal academic discipline began only in the last decades of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) when it was introduced as a field of study by Westerners. Since then, Chinese scholars have produced a significant body of architectural history that has helped shape the way that Chinese people think of architecture. The objective of this analytical study is to provide a history of the writings of the most important architectural historians who worked during the first stage of the discipline's development in China from both within China and abroad. Noting that the belated modernization was an unspoken factor that influenced all of these architectural histories, this dissertation examines the existing architectural texts with a specific interest in the nationalistic ideology underpinning their interpretations of architectural images both traditional and modem. Five groups of architectural historians who were involved in the formation of this discipline are examined. They are (1) Western Sinologists, including John Calvin Ferguson (1866-1945), Walter Perceval Yetts (1878-1957), Osvald Sirén (1879-1966), Carroll Brown Malone (1886-1973), Paul Demiéville (1894-1979), and Gustav Ecke (1896-1971), among others; (2) progressive Chinese intellectuals such as Yue Jiazao (1868-1944), Zhu Qiqian (1872-1964) and the fellows of the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture (1930-1945); (3) culturally conservative architectural professionals trained abroad, represented by Liang Sicheng (1901-1972) and Lin Huiyin (1904-1955); (4) architectural modernists, of whom, the most insightful was probably Tong Jun (1900-1983); and (5) socialist writers Hu Man (1904-1986) and Feng Zikai (1898-1975). The Chinese historians listed above exemplified a confident local response to foreign input. They interwove Confucian collectivism with Western architectural history to fulfill the need for a national identity caused by the asynchronous modernization. This is particularly embodied in the methodologies and historical styles that they remodeled. By scrutinizing these historical texts, this dissertation provides another perspective on the history of global architecture.