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The effects of organizational culture and climate on employee's turnover in public child welfare agencies

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Miseung Shim
Abstract:
Background & Purpose. Employee's turnover in child welfare agencies negatively influences remaining employees, clients, and organization itself as well as losing skilled or trained employees. For example, employee's high turnover tends to be cyclical, in that high turnover gives additional workload burden to remaining employees and causes lack of continuity of services for vulnerable children and families. Moreover, child welfare agencies have to bear financial costs, including hiring and training. Although current literature increasingly emphasizes the importance of organizational factors in employee's turnover issues, more empirical research is needed to be conducted to understand organizational effects on employee's turnover. This study pays specific attention to the employee's turnover that arises, because of organizational culture and climate among organizational factors. Method. Survey data were collected from 766 respondents of caseworkers and supervisors in public child welfare agencies from 25 counties in the State of New York. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statement using a 5-point Likert scale at the Workforce Retention Study survey, covering various characteristics of organizational culture and climate. The outcome variable, an employee's turnover, is measured by the employee's intention to leave as the precursor of actual turnover. The independent variable, organizational culture is measured in three aspects, i.e., Achievement/Innovation/Competence (AIC), Cooperation/Supportiveness/Responsiveness (CSR), and Emphasis on Rewards (ER). And organizational climate is measured in four aspects, i.e., Role Clarity (RC), Personal Accomplishment (PA), Emotional Exhaustion (EE), and Workload (WL). Findings. Almost 63 percent of the sample indicated an intention to leave their current jobs. Regression analyses indicated that organizational culture and climate are significant predictors of employee's turnover. Among organizational culture and climate variables, Emphasis on Rewards (ER) and Emotional Exhaustion (EE) were appeared as significant determinants of employee's intention to leave in public child welfare agencies. These findings suggest that public child welfare employees who have clearer and more effective incentives and rewards for a job well done or who have more sufficient emotional energy for the job show less intention to leave their current jobs. Implications to social work, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents…………….. ......................................................................................... iii Abstract…………….. ......................................................................................................... v List of Tables…… ............................................................................................................ vii List of Figures…. ............................................................................................................... ix Dedication……… ............................................................................................................... x Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................. xi 1. Introduction 1-1. Purpose of Study ................................................................................................. 1 1-2. Characteristics of Child Welfare System............................................................ 2 1-3. Problem Description ........................................................................................... 3

1-4. Research Questions............................................................................................. 7

1-5. Study Rationale................................................................................................... 7

2. Literature Review 2-1. Review of Organizational culture ....................................................................... 9 The concepts of organizational culture .............................................................. 9 Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) .......................................................... 12 Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) ............................................................. 14 Organizational Social Context (OSC) .............................................................. 16 Commonalities of three quantitative measurement.......................................... 18 The effects of organizational culture ............................................................... 19 2-2. Review of Organizational climate .................................................................... 21 The conceptual level of climate ....................................................................... 21

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The historical review of climate ...................................................................... 23 The dimensions of climate ............................................................................... 25 The effects of climate ....................................................................................... 29 2-3. Summary ........................................................................................................... 31

2-4. Conceptual Framwork and Hypotheses ............................................................ 38 3. Methodology 3-1. Sampling, survey, and data ............................................................................... 43 3-2. Measurement .................................................................................................... 48 Variable definitions .......................................................................................... 48 Empirical model ............................................................................................... 54 4. Data analysis and findings 4-1. Descriptive statistics ......................................................................................... 62 4-2. Comparative statistics ....................................................................................... 64 4-3. Logistic regression analysis .............................................................................. 77

4-4. Summary ........................................................................................................... 92

5. Discussion and conclusion 5-1. Overview of major findings .............................................................................. 95 5-2. Implication to social work practice ................................................................ 106 5-3. Limitations of the study .................................................................................. 114

5-4. Recommendations for future studies .............................................................. 116

References........................................................................................................................118 Appendix I. Organizational culture and cliamte at the county level............................. 126 Appendix II. Workforce Retention Survey .................................................................... 127

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Abstract

Background & Purpose: Employee’s turnover in child welfare agencies negatively influences remaining employees, clients, and organization itself as well as losing skilled or trained employees. For example, employee’s high turnover tends to be cyclical, in that high turnover gives additional workload burden to remaining employees and causes lack of continuity of services for vulnerable children and families. Moreover, child welfare agencies have to bear financial costs, including hiring and training. Although current literature increasingly emphasizes the importance of organizational factors in employee’s turnover issues, more empirical research is needed to be conducted to understand organizational effects on employee’s turnover. This study pays specific attention to the employee’s turnover that arises, because of organizational culture and climate among organizational factors. Method: Survey data were collected from 766 respondents of caseworkers and supervisors in public child welfare agencies from 25 counties in the State of New York. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statement using a 5-point Likert scale at the Workforce Retention Study survey, covering various characteristics of organizational culture and climate. The outcome variable, an employee’s turnover, is measured by the employee’s intention to leave as the precursor of actual turnover. The independent variable, organizational culture is measured in three aspects, i.e., Achievement/Innovation/Competence (AIC), Cooperation/Supportiveness/Responsiveness (CSR), and Emphasis on Rewards (ER).

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And organizational climate is measured in four aspects, i.e., Role Clarity (RC), Personal Accomplishment (PA), Emotional Exhaustion (EE), and Workload (WL). Findings: Almost 63 percent of the sample indicated an intention to leave their current jobs. Regression analyses indicated that organizational culture and climate are significant predictors of employee’s turnover. Among organizational culture and climate variables, Emphasis on Rewards (ER) and Emotional Exhaustion (EE) were appeared as significant determinants of employee’s intention to leave in public child welfare agencies. These findings suggest that public child welfare employees who have clearer and more effective incentives and rewards for a job well done or who have more sufficient emotional energy for the job show less intention to leave their current jobs. Implications to social work, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

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List of Tables

Table 2-1: Important factors of organizational culture ................................................... 19 Table 2-2: Important dimensions of organizational climate ........................................... 27 Table 3-1: Caseworker turnover rates, participants, staff size, urban vs. rural location ................................................................................. 47 Table 3-2: Constructing organizational culture variables ............................................... 52 Table 3-3: Constructing organizational climate variables .............................................. 53 Table 4-1: Descriptive statistics ...................................................................................... 63 Table 4-2: Correlation matrix among variables .............................................................. 64 Table 4-3: Characteristics between respondents who intent to leave and those who do not .................................................................................... 66 Table 4-4: Comparison between respondents who intent to leave and those who do not .................................................................................... 67 Table 4-5: Comparison between respondents from high and low turnover conties ....... 72 Table 4-6: Comparison between HTC and LTC ............................................................. 74 Table 4-7: Logistic regression: Aggregate organizational culture and climate (Model 1) ................................................................................... 79 Table 4-8: Logistic regression: Disaggregate organizational culture and climate (Model 1) ................................................................................... 81 Table 4-9: Logistic regression: Aggregate organizational culture and climate (Model 2) ................................................................................... 83 Table 4-10: Logistic regression: Disaggregate organizational culture and climate (Model 2) ................................................................................... 85

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Table 4-11: Logistic regression: Aggregate organizational culture and climate (Model 3) ................................................................................. 88 Table 4-12: Logistic regression: Disaggregate organizational culture and climate (Model 3) ................................................................................. 91

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List of Figures

Figure 2-1: A conceptual model of the effect of organizational culture and climate on employee intention to leave ................................................. 40 Figure 4-1: Comparison of organizational culture and climate between two groups ..... 69 Figure 4-2: Comparison of organizational culture variables between two groups ......... 70 Figure 4-3: Comparison of organizational climate variables between two groups ........ 71 Figure 4-4: Box plot of organizational culture in LTC and HTC ................................... 75 Figure 4-5: Box plot of organizational climate in LTC and HTC .................................. 76

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Dedication

I would like to dedicate this dissertation to my parents, Nam-sub Shim and Young-ja Kim, who are responsible for giving me life. I have so much more love and passion for life due to them. I am sincerely grateful to my Dad and Mom.

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Acknowledgements

There are many individuals who have supported and encouraged me over the past four years. Without their support, I could not have gone through the academic process and be where I am today. I would first like to thank my dissertation committee members. Dr. Nancy Claiborne has been a wonderful Chairperson. Her thoughtful, supportive, and organized guidance pushed me to do as much as I could go. Dr. Mary McCarthy provided me with the knowledge of child welfare. Her brilliant inspiration, patience, and belief in my ability encouraged me to go even further than dreamed. Dr. Thomas L. Gais helped me think in new and systematic ways that increased my research knowledge. I would also like to thank Dr. Carolyn Smith, Dr. Eunju Lee, and Dr. Jessica Strolin who offered key advice in my doctoral studies. Also, I am grateful to Dr. Ricky Fortune for the generous support from the William J. Reid Endowment Scholarship. Receipt of her approval and the scholarship confirmed the value of my dissertation. I was fortunate to have many wonderful and supportive colleagues. I would like to thank my close colleagues, Aely Park, Junqing Liu, Jihyun (Gina) Park, Binahayati Rusyidi (Titi), Maureen Sinclair, and Wu Lei. We have grown as students together due to the encouragement and support we provide to each other. In particular, Mary Lou Weseman and Linda Gilbert provided much support for my work in many ways at the Social Work Education Consortium (SWEC). Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my family. My parents, parents-in-law, my two brothers and two sisters, as well as two brothers-in-law - all of whom demonstrated their continuous love and frequently reminded me of the importance

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of my study. I especially want to acknowledge my two children, Seoyoung and Inseo, who were very able and willing to provide me with the emotional nurturing needed to be a mom and student. My beautiful daughter, Seoyoung, called me as a best mom of all time; our happy boy, Inseo, always presented his big smile. My husband, Suho Bae, provided endless support, encouragement, and trust for my study. I was able to accomplish my professional journey because of the support by these many individuals. I am deeply grateful to all again.

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1. Introduction

1-1. Purpose of Study

The mission of child welfare agencies is to provide for the well-being, permanency, and safety of vulnerable children and families (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2008). However, without a competent and stable workforce, child welfare agencies are not able to deliver the continuous and high quality services required for meeting the needs of children and families in the child welfare system. Recognizing the central role that workforce retention plays in child welfare, this dissertation explores those aspects of organizational culture and climate that have a significant impact on the ability of public child welfare agencies to retain a competent and stable workforce. In the current literature, no formal consensus has been reached on what defines organizational culture and organizational climate, how the concepts should be operationally measured, and what functional impact culture and climate has on organizations. For the purpose of this study, organizational culture is defined as the behavioral expectations and norms that characterize the way work is done in an organization or work unit (Cooke & Szumal, 1993; Verbeke, Vlogering, & Hessels, 1998). These behavioral expectations and norms serve as formal and informal rules governing the socialization process and provide a conceptual guide for how new workers are to carry out their work. Organizational climate is defined as employees’ shared perceptions of how their work environment impacts on them, assuming employees in the

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same work environment share the same perceptions (Jones & James, 1979; Joyce & Slocum, 1984; Verbeke, Vlogering, & Hessels, 1998). In this introduction, the author introduces the reader to the child welfare system, then moves on to discussing the workforce crisis in child welfare agencies. This discussion is followed by the presentation of the research questions being considered.

1-2. Characteristics of Child Welfare System

The child welfare system is designed to provide services that seek to ensure safety, achieve permanency, and strengthen the well-being of vulnerable children and families. By nature, child welfare systems are complex, and their specific procedures and programs vary widely by states. However, certain aspects of the child welfare system are shared, including:

▪ Screening and investigating reports of child abuse and neglect;

▪ Placement of children in foster families if they are not safe at home;

▪ Provision of protection and child care services to families who experience child abuse and neglect;

▪ Facilitation of the adoption for children whose reunification with family is untenable;

▪ Monitoring of families/children by the juvenile or family courts, that oversee decisions such as the potential removal of children from an unsafe environment, reunification of the family, and/or termination of parental rights to their children (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2008).

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Among the 13 states where child welfare services are state supervised but county administered, New York has one of the most complex systems. Although the regulatory framework and policies are established by the state Office of Children and Families Services (OCFS), the administration of services is left to the 57 counties and the New York City Administration for Children’s Services which oversees the 5 counties that comprise New York City. Although commonalities exist across the state child welfare system, each county has unique characteristics in its procedural approach and how it implements its program (Strolin, McCarthy, & Caringi, 2007).

1-3. Problem Description

The ability of child welfare agencies to meet the needs of the vulnerable children and families they serve depends on a competent and stable workforce. Unfortunately, child welfare agencies in the United States tend to experience high rates of turnover and have struggled to attract qualified employees with the professional training, skills, and knowledge needed to ensure quality of service (American Public Human Services Association [APHSA], 2005; U.S. Government Accounting Office [GAO], 2003). According to national studies, annual turnover rates in child welfare agencies are estimated to be between 20 and 40 percent (APHSA, 2005; GAO, 2003), with 90 percent of the states reporting difficulty in recruiting and retaining child welfare workers (GAO, 2003). Turnover tends to be cyclical, with high turnover resulting in increased workloads for remaining workers which then in turn creates incentives for additional workers to leave (APHSA, 2005). Child welfare agencies also cite several other common factors

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that impede recruitment and retention of qualified workers. These include salaries, concerns for safety, lack of resources, lack of adequate skill and supervision, and complexity of the work (GAO, 2003). High turnover rates among child welfare employees impose significant costs at several levels. Not only is there a loss of expertise and knowledge when seasoned workers leave the organization, but turnover requires the agency to then expend additional funds for the recruitment and on-the-job training of new workers (Ellett, Ellett, & Rugutt, 2003). Lawson & Claiborne (2005) estimate the financial cost of training a new worker in New York State to be approximately $24,000. In recent study by Dorch, McCarthy, and Denofrio (2008), the average cost of separation, replacement and training (SRT) of a new child welfare worker was calculated to be $27, 487, covering expenditures from when the previous employee submitted their resignation to when a new worker was hired and trained for the vacant position.

Studies examining the issue of workforce retention in child welfare generally focus on identifying the factors associated with turnover. Two trends emerge from the literature: studies that examine factors related to the individual decision to stay or leave; and studies that seek to understand how the attributes of organizations impact turnover rates. Individual factors having an impact include worker characteristics such as possession of an educational degree in social work, emotional exhaustion, work experience, and age (Drake & Yadama, 1996; Ellett, Ellett, & Rugutt, 2003; Mor Barak, Nissly, & Levin, 2001; Scannapieco & Connell, 2003; Smith, 2005). Although individual factors have been identified, findings about the relationship between these factors and why a worker decides to stay or leave are still not clear.

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Related to educational status, for example, employees with a social work degree tend to stay longer with the agency because it is thought that their education and professional skills better match the tasks needing to be done (Scannapieco & Connell, 2003; Smith, 2005). Specific to the MSW degree, some researchers show that child welfare workers with a graduate degree are more competent and prepared than those with a non-MSW degree and that they are more likely to stay in their current jobs (Jones, 2001; Ellett, Ellett, & Rugutt, 2003; Rosenthal & Waters, 2004). Other researchers such as Nissly, Mor Barak, & Levin (2005), however, have found that having a MSW degree is significantly related to child welfare workers’ intent to leave.

The intent to leave their work position appears to increase when workers experience greater job demands and elevated chronic emotional stress from working with children in the system. Emotional exhaustion has been found to be significant or non- significant depending on the employee’s intention to leave. For example, higher level of emotional exhaustion was significantly related to job exit (Drake & Yadama, 1996), while average levels of emotional exhaustion positively related to employee’s intention to remain employed in child welfare (Dickinson & Perry, 2002).

Non-experience in child welfare has been shown by some researchers to predict employee retention and reduced job-exit (Rosenthal, McDowell, & White, 1998; Rosenthal & Waters, 2004). However, in a study by Nissly et al. (2005), non-experience in child welfare area was not significantly related to an employee’s intention to remain in their job. Nor has prior experience in child welfare been shown to be significantly related to employee retention (Rossenthal et al., 1998).

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Research studies examining the impact of age factors on job retention are also mixed. Rosenthal and colleagues (Rosenthal et al., 1998; Rosenthal & Waters, 2004) and Dickins & Perry (2002) show that an employee’s age did not predict their retention or turnover. However, studies do suggest that younger employees are more likely to leave their jobs, while those with more tenure are more likely to remain in their positions (Mor, Barak, Nissly, & Levin, 2001). This does not hold true, however, for older employees who are more likely to indicate they intend to leave their job (Nissly et al., 2005). Organizational factors leading to greater turnover include high caseload sizes, insufficient support from supervisors, and low salaries (Fox, Miller, & Barbee, 2003; Koeske & Kirk, 1995; GAO, 2003). Studies show that supervisor support, encouragement, and provision of training make the job demands of child welfare more tolerable (Fox, Miller, & Barbee, 2003). As one’s caseload increases, so does the probability of workforce turnover. Each case requires additional time for direct contact with the client, completion of paperwork, review of the case with a supervisor, court appearances, interagency collaboration, etc. (GAO, 2003). A child welfare worker’s salary is often not comparable to other professionals such as teachers and nurses, even though the child welfare job has many of the same demands and time constraints (Koeske & Kirk, 1995). Despite the focus on organizational factors, organizational culture and climate have not been fully considered as important predictors of worker turnover and retention in child welfare agencies. Organizational culture and climate have been primarily studied in business and for-profit organizations and are considered to be important elements in understanding how those organizations function (Ashkanasy, Broadfoot, & Falkus, 2000).

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Research has, for example, examined how organizations influence employees’ working attitude and their well-being, why some organizations are more successful than others at retaining employees, or why some organizations are more adaptive to new environment than others. However, there has been little focus on studying the effects of organizational culture and climate on staff turnover and retention specific to the field of public child welfare.

1-4. Research Questions

The dissertation will examine the effects of organizational culture and climate on employee turnover in New York State public child welfare agencies. This study seeks to address two research questions: 1) How does organizational culture affect employee turnover in public child welfare agencies? 2) How does organizational climate affect employee turnover in public child welfare agencies?

1-5. Study Rationale

To deliver continuous and quality services to meet the needs of vulnerable children and families, a competent and stable workforce is required. Although Glisson & his colleagues (2006) have studied organizational culture and climate in the field of child welfare and juvenile justice system, there has been little done to examine the effects of organizational culture and climate on workforce retention and how these factors impact the quality of child welfare services in New York State. This study seeks to address this

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void through a systematic examination of the concepts of organizational culture and organizational climate and the affects these have on employee retention in child welfare at the line of inquiry. The following chapter will provide a comprehensive review of the organizational culture and climate literature, focusing on defining what organizational culture and climate are, how they are measured, and what their effects are on the organization. This is followed by a description of the conceptual framework and hypotheses.

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2. Literature Review

2-1. Review of Organizational culture

The concepts of organizational culture Organizational culture has been conceptualized in a variety of ways. Most typically, researchers trace the concept back to Schein’s prominent study (1985) where he posited that organizational culture is linked to the basic assumptions held by members of an organization. Core assumptions among members are linked to values and behavioral norms, and in turn, these shared values and beliefs are expressed as observable patterns of behavior within an organization (Schein 1985, 1991). Rousseau (1990) describes organizational culture as a layered construct, with an outer layer represented by shared behavioral expectations and norms, and an inner layer represented by values and assumptions. In addition, Rousseau (1990) postulates that the outer layer is more conscious than the inner one. Hofstede (1997, 1998) defines organizational culture as the collective mental programs that distinguish the members of one organization from another. He divides organizational culture into a visible component manifested by behaviors underpinned by an invisible structure of values (Hofstede, 1997, 1998). Cooke and Szumal (1993) define organizational culture as the normative values, assumptions, beliefs and shared behavioral expectations held by an organization’s members. Deep aspects of culture including the values, beliefs, and assumptions are held by organizational members (Denison, 1996; Stackman, Pinder, & Connor, 2000).

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Organizational culture is complex, consisting of multiple conceptual layers that can be interpreted differently from a variety of theoretical perspectives. Nonetheless, theoretical definitions of organizational culture are generally congruent with Schein’s conceptual framework based on assumptions, values, behavioral norms, and patterns of behavior. Theoretical consensus is also found in Rousseau’s explanations of the “inner layer” (1990, p. 155), Hofstede’s “invisible part” (1998, p. 480), Denison (1996, p. 621) and Stackman et al.,’s (2000, p.39) “deep aspects” of organizational culture. Some scholars consider shared behavioral expectations and norms to be more crucial in organizational functioning than are core assumptions in organizational culture (Ashkanasy, Broadfood, & Falcus, 2000; Hemmelgarn, Glisson, & Dukes, 2001; Hofstede, 1998). They assert that core assumptions in an organization may reflect only the manager or leaders’ values, while shared behavioral expectations and norms are shared among employees in an organization. Employees experience common behavioral expectations and norms that are shaped by a shared understanding of the reality in which they work. The assertion that shared behavioral expectations and norms can be independent of the leader’s value or core assumption, however, is not shared by Schein whose concept of organizational culture includes leadership and management (Schein, 1985). Although organizational culture has been studied in the organizational and management literature since the 1980s, there is still no agreement on what would be the best way to measure organizational culture (Ashkanasy et al., 2000; Cooke & Lafferty, 1987; Glisson, 2007; Hawkins, 1997; Martin, 1992; O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991, Rousseau, 1990). On the one hand, some researchers have debated about whether

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quantitative, qualitative, or a combination of both is a preferred methodology. For example, Ashkanasy et al. (2000) point to the importance of quantitative measurements, emphasizing that well-designed surveys increase our understanding of organizational culture by focusing on observable and measurable levels of culture as suggested in Schein’s conceptualization of culture (Ashkanasy et al., 2000). Rousseau asserts that because organizational culture is a complex, multilevel construct containing core assumptions, values and norms, and patterns of behavior, it may be studied using methodologies most appropriate to the level being examined (Rousseau, 1990). Hawkins (1997) maintains that a triangulation method combining qualitative as well as quantitative data is needed to understand organizational culture, because while quantitative data provide a standardized means of culture assessment, qualitative data provide a deeper and richer contextual meaning to describe organizational culture. Martin (1992) also criticizes overreliance on quantitative methods of organizational culture measurement, because inherent methodological biases fail to account for the deep, complex aspects of organizational culture. He argues multi-method methodologies are needed in organizational culture studies, including qualitative data and methods. Traditionally, researchers have used anthropological methodologies to examine organizational culture, while researchers studying organizational climate have taken their methodologies more from the field of psychology (Denison, 1996). Therefore, the initial stages of culture research have been primarily case studies (Hofstede, 1998). However, the qualitative approach has been criticized because of its vulnerability to subjectivity and accompanying problems in reliability measurement and lack of generalizability, even though it provides a contextually rich understanding of organizational culture. As

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Hawkins (1997) notes both quantitative and qualitative methods are needed for the fully understanding of organizational culture because together they provide a standardized means of assessment as well as a methodology to recognize and describe the richer contextual meanings of organizational culture. Since organizational culture has become a popular issue in management literature, scholars have increasingly used questionnaires to measure behaviors, values, expectations of individuals in their attempts to understand organizational culture, especially as it relates to organizational performance. Relevant recent literature appears to suggest scholarly agreement that quantitative studies are most useful in assessing observable and measurable organizational culture, while qualitative studies are most useful to assess deeper and more complex aspect of culture (Martin, 1992; Rousseau, 1990; Schein, 1990). Recently researchers have proposed using scales developed specifically for the measurement of organizational culture, such as the Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) by Cooke and Lafferty (1987), Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) by O’Reilly, et al. (1991), and Organizational Social Context (OSC) by Glisson (2007). These three quantitative measurements commonly used in the organizational culture literature are described in the next sub-sections: Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI), Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), and Organization Social Context (OSC).

Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) is a quantitative instrument of 96 items which measures 12 sets of distinct behavioral norms that: 1) influence how organization members interact with one another; and 2) how they approach tasks associated with the

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three general types of organizational culture: Constructive, Passive/Defensive and Aggressive/Defensive (Cooke & Lafferty, 1987; Cooke & Szumal, 2000). The OCI measures behavioral norms within the two broad dimensions of whether behavioral norms are people-oriented or task-oriented, and whether behavioral norms address satisfaction or security needs. Based on these two dimensions, the 12 sets of behavioral norms measured by the OCI are categorized into Constructive culture, Passive/Defensive culture, and Aggressive/Defensive culture - a typology described by Cooke & Lafferty (1987) and Cooke & Szumal (2000) as noted above. Constructive culture refers to the degree to which members are encouraged to interact with people and engage in tasks that help members meet higher order satisfaction needs such as achievement, self-actualization, humanistic-encouragement, and team building norms. Passive/Defensive culture refers to the degree that members are involved in interacting with people and how they approach tasks so that their own security needs are not threatened. Passive/Defensive culture is characterized by norms of approval, conventionality, dependency, and avoidance. Aggressive/Defensive culture refers to the extent to which members use forceful responses to protect their status and security needs. Aggressive/Defensive cultures are characterized by norms of opposition, power, and competition norms. Cooke and Szumal (2000) further explain how culture works within an organization through the review of previous studies using OCI analysis. They introduce the concept of antecedent variables (i.e., structure, systems, technologies, and skills) that directly influence employee behavioral norms on a day to day basis but yet may not reflect the core assumptions and values of organizational management. Because

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behavioral norms are determined by the organizational conditions and realities that are influenced by these antecedent variables, and because behavioral norms are shaped through the day to day collective learning processes of worker interaction in an organization, a disconnection often develops between worker’s values and leader’s assumptions (Cooke & Szumal, 2000). This explains why the operating culture in an organization may not correspond with either the leaders’ core assumptions or employees’ values, and why culture does not always directly result in an expected degree of organizational effectiveness. Cooke and Szumal (2000) suggest that leaders seeking to promote constructive culture within an organization must bring their own assumptions and goals into line with behavioral norms demonstrated by organization members before changes in structures, technologies, and skills or qualities can be successfully introduced.

Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) The Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) is another questionnaire used to obtain quantitative data. This instrument consists of 54 value items designed to measure individual and organizational values and explores the relationship between preference for organizational values and preference for individual personality values (O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). According to Ashkanasy et al. (2000) in their review of 18 culture measures published in articles between 1975 and 1992, the OCP is the only instrument to provide details about reliability and validity. To measure organizational culture based on values, O’Reilly and his colleagues examined 54 value statements from 826 respondents working in six accounting firms and

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one government agency (O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). An organization’s culture can be characterized by innovation and risk taking (factor 1), attention to detail (factor 2), orientation toward outcome or results (factor 3), aggressiveness and competitiveness (factor 4), supportiveness (factor 5), emphasis on growth and rewards (factor 6), collaborative and team orientation (factor 7), and decisiveness (factor 8) (O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991. p.502). These factors show patterns of person- organization fit when measuring organizational culture. For example, individuals with a high need for achievement tend to show strong preference for aggressive, competitive and outcome-oriented cultures. Individuals with a high need for autonomy tend to show preference for innovative culture and negative responses to a culture that emphasizes teamwork. These patterns of person-organization fit in the OCP are similar to the 12 sets of norms in the three general types of organizational culture as explained in the previous sub-section on the OCI. For example, constructive culture is also characterized by self- actualizing norms that encourage individual development and innovation when the individual identifies with higher-order satisfaction needs. On the other hand, Passive or Aggressive/Defensive culture is characterized by conventional and dependent norms that stress following the rules when the individual identifies with lower-order security needs. In addition, the analysis of 54 values statements shows person-organization fit and relevant organizational outcomes are correlated. For example, person-organization fit is a significant predictor of normative commitment, job satisfaction, and intention to leave (O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991, p. 504).

Full document contains 156 pages
Abstract: Background & Purpose. Employee's turnover in child welfare agencies negatively influences remaining employees, clients, and organization itself as well as losing skilled or trained employees. For example, employee's high turnover tends to be cyclical, in that high turnover gives additional workload burden to remaining employees and causes lack of continuity of services for vulnerable children and families. Moreover, child welfare agencies have to bear financial costs, including hiring and training. Although current literature increasingly emphasizes the importance of organizational factors in employee's turnover issues, more empirical research is needed to be conducted to understand organizational effects on employee's turnover. This study pays specific attention to the employee's turnover that arises, because of organizational culture and climate among organizational factors. Method. Survey data were collected from 766 respondents of caseworkers and supervisors in public child welfare agencies from 25 counties in the State of New York. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statement using a 5-point Likert scale at the Workforce Retention Study survey, covering various characteristics of organizational culture and climate. The outcome variable, an employee's turnover, is measured by the employee's intention to leave as the precursor of actual turnover. The independent variable, organizational culture is measured in three aspects, i.e., Achievement/Innovation/Competence (AIC), Cooperation/Supportiveness/Responsiveness (CSR), and Emphasis on Rewards (ER). And organizational climate is measured in four aspects, i.e., Role Clarity (RC), Personal Accomplishment (PA), Emotional Exhaustion (EE), and Workload (WL). Findings. Almost 63 percent of the sample indicated an intention to leave their current jobs. Regression analyses indicated that organizational culture and climate are significant predictors of employee's turnover. Among organizational culture and climate variables, Emphasis on Rewards (ER) and Emotional Exhaustion (EE) were appeared as significant determinants of employee's intention to leave in public child welfare agencies. These findings suggest that public child welfare employees who have clearer and more effective incentives and rewards for a job well done or who have more sufficient emotional energy for the job show less intention to leave their current jobs. Implications to social work, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future studies are discussed.