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The effect of differentiated supervision on the development of tenured teacher leaders in two Central Illinois high schools

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Jeffrey W Hill
Abstract:
The focus of this study was to explore if the evaluation process of differentiated supervision contributed to the development of tenured teachers toward teacher leadership in two central Illinois high schools. A theoretical framework, the Teacher Leader Development model, was created based on Dr. Keith Leithwood's development of professional expertise framework, which describes the stages of a teacher's professional growth. The two central Illinois high schools selected had been utilizing the differentiated supervision process for a minimum of 3 years to evaluate tenured faculty. Participants in the study included teachers from two academic departments, the school administration, and a central office administrator at each school. Participants answered questions that were aligned with the three stages of the teacher leader development model: developing instructional expertise, influencing departmental instructional practices, and influencing school wide instructional practices. Documents that were pertinent to the study, such as school improvement plans, teacher professional growth plans, and district evaluation plans, were analyzed. The results from the study concluded that while each school utilized the differentiated supervision process to engage faculty in school improvement activities, teacher leadership development was not the focus and thus few teacher leaders emerged. Three teachers who had been involved with leading school wide instructional development activities emerged from the study. For the development of teacher leaders to increase specific support would be needed; a clearly defined vision for teaching and learning, time within the school day for collaboration around solving instructional issues, and networks created to provide ongoing feedback to teachers as they implement new strategies.

CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i CONTENTS ii TABLES vi FIGURES vii CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Background for the Study 4 Problem 9 Definition of Terms 11 Conceptual Framework 14 II. LITERATURE REVIEW 19 Change Theory in Schools 19 Teacher Evaluation and Professional Learning for Organizational Change 28 The Glatthorn Model 32 The Danielson-McGreal Model 33 The PBSE Model 34 The Tremont Model 36 Alignment of the Models with Best Practices 40 The Principal's Role in Differentiated Supervision and School Improvement 42 Developing Teacher Leaders—How to Sustain Professional Learning Communities 56 Literature Review Summary 65 n

III. METHODOLOGY 67 Research Design 68 Sample Selection 70 Participant Selection 72 Data Collection 73 Teachers' In-Depth Interviews 74 Teacher Interviews 74 Principals' Interviews 75 Documents 75 Data Analysis 75 Profiles 76 Thematic Connections 76 Trustworthiness 77 IV. ANALYSIS OF DATA 80 Teacher Leadership in Cross Creek High School 81 Cross Creek High School Community Description 81 Description of Cross Creek High School 82 General Characteristics of Participants at Cross Creek High School 83 Differentiated Supervision at Cross Creek High School 85 Contractual Issues Regarding Professional Growth Plans 88 Structure of Professional Growth Plans in Cross Creek High School 88 Professional goals and standards 89 Resources and support 89 Methods and strategies 89 Indicators of progress and outcomes 90 School Improvement and Differentiated Supervision at Cross Creek High School 90 Teacher Leadership, School Improvement, and Differentiated Supervision at Cross Creek High School 92 Teacher Leader Development Model 94 Stage 1 of the Teacher Leader Development Model at Cross Creek High School 94 Stage 2 of the Teacher Leader Development Model at at Cross Creek High School 101 in

Stage 3 of the Teacher Leader Development Model at Cross Creek High School 106 Cross Creek High School and Teacher Leader Development Through Differentiated Supervision 110 Summary of Teacher Leader Development at Cross Creek High School 113 Teacher Leadership in an Academic Watch List School: The Story of Westside High School 115 Westside High School Community 115 Description of Westside High School 116 Characteristic of Participants at Westside High School 117 Differentiated Supervision Process at Westside High School 118 Structure of Westside High School Professional Growth Plans 122 School Improvement and Differentiated Supervision at Westside High School 124 Teacher Leadership, School Improvement, and Differentiated Supervision at Westside High School 126 Stage 1 of Teacher Leader Development at Westside High School 128 Stage 2 of the Teacher Leader Development at Westside High School 135 Stage 3 of the Teacher Leader Development at Westside High School 141 Westside High School and Teacher Leader Development Through Differentiated Supervision 144 Teacher Leader Development at Westside High School 147 Teacher Leader Development at Cross Creek High School and Westside High School Developing Leadership in Different Settings 149 V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 155 Overview of the Study 156 Overview of Findings 157 Implications 174 Conclusions 183 Time 184 Role of the Principal 185 Structure of the Growth Plan 186 Uses of Teacher Leaders 186 Training of Administrators 187 Recommendations 187 IV

REFERENCES 191 APPENDIX A: Interview Questions 197 APPENDIX B: Illinois Professional Teaching Standards 200 APPENDIX C: Cross Creek High School Teacher Professional Growth Plan 202 APPENDIX D: Westside High School Teacher Professional Growth Plan 206 v

TABLES Table Page 1. Development of Competence in the Technology of Educational Practice 15 2. Relationship Between Development of Competence in the Technology of Educational Practice and the Teacher Leader Development Model 17 3. Comparison of Change Theories and Differentiated Supervision Process 30 4. Differentiated Supervision Model Alignment with Professional Development Standards 42 5. Cross Creek High School Professional Growth Plan Topics Aligned with Stage 1 of the Teacher Leader Development Model 98 6. Cross Creek High School Professional Growth Plan Topics Aligned with Stage 2 of the Teacher Leader Development Model 106 7. Cross Creek High School Professional Growth Plan Topics Aligned with Stage 3 of the Teacher Leader Development Model 107 8. Westside High School Professional Growth Plan Topics Aligned with Stage 1 of the Teacher Leader Development Model 130 9. Components of the Revised Teacher Leader Model Observed at Cross Creek and Westside High Schools 180 vi

FIGURES Figure Page 1. Teacher Leader Development Model 7 2. Revised Teacher Leader Development Model 177 vn

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has brought greater accountability for schools to improve student achievement. This focus on improved student outcomes, as measured by standardized test results linked to state and national instructional standards, has also put a spotlight on the continued development of teachers. To insure that all students have the same opportunities to meet the standards that have been set, "highly qualified" faculty must now be in every classroom in every school throughout the country. The United States Department of Education has asked each state to submit a plan for teachers to become highly qualified faculty, and state certification processes have mirrored this plan. Illinois has developed detailed legislation addressing the development of new teachers; extensive mentoring programs are now required; and teachers must be part of state-approved induction programs to move from basic to standard teacher certification. What seems to have gotten lost in the movement to insure that highly qualified faculty members are present in every classroom throughout the country is the develop ment of the tenured teacher. Tenured teachers make up nearly two thirds of the teachers throughout the United States, yet their development is not addressed in Illinois legislation beyond certification processes (U.S. Department of Education, 2000, pp. 29-2). While certification processes require teachers who wish to attain higher levels of certification to 1

2 take part in professional development, the teachers are not required to insure that their learning is purposefully linked with school improvement plans, and there are no procedures in place to insure that there is transfer of learning that helps students meet instructional standards. Despite the fact that the vast majority of teachers throughout Illinois and the United States have 5 or more years of experience, their development, and ultimately their influence on students and schools, appears to be ignored by legislation outside the certification processes. The legal requirements articulated through the No Child Left Behind legislation have left a void when considering the definition of "highly qualified" as it applies to tenured teachers. The State of Illinois provides detail on the components of faculty evaluation but does not connect evaluation to professional growth. The Illinois School Code addresses professional growth briefly, indicating that "districts may require faculty to grow professionally," but does not go further in defining this process for tenured faculty. The legal requirement for the professional development of tenured teachers in Illinois, however, is linked to certification as opposed to student learning (Illinois School Code § 5/21-14). In fact, the only district-level reference to tenured teacher learning is as follows: "School boards may require teachers in their employ to furnish from time to time evidence of continued professional growth" (Pub. L. No. 94-350). The requirement for tenured teacher learning is far less defined than the legal requirements for the learning of nontenured teachers. The State of Illinois requires that nontenured teachers be part of a state-approved induction program and have a mentor who has been fully trained, and the process must last the entire 4 years of the nontenure

3 period. All of the work done with nontenured faculty is required to be aligned with the Illinois Teaching Standards and should have incorporated time for reflection and formative assessment processes. The differences in the legislation for the professional development of nontenured and tenured faculty are clear; tenured faculty development is practically a nonissue in the legislative sense, despite the fact that tenured faculty make up roughly two thirds of the teaching workforce (Pub. L. No. 93-355). The legislation regarding tenured teacher learning would suggest there has been considerable debate about the necessity of teacher learning for tenured faculty in Illinois. The legislation appears to be a bureaucratic response to the demands placed on new teachers, yet fails to take into consideration the learning needs of teachers throughout their professional careers. The legal context that is prevalent throughout Illinois as a result of the Illinois School Code presents challenging circumstances for the superinten dent and principal who are interested in improving student achievement through con tinual faculty learning. Past efforts to legislate professional development plans that link teacher learning with student learning outcomes have failed, and as a result, the system has been organized around high learning expectations for novice performers and lower expectations for the learning of veteran teachers. The only current legislative process that addresses the learning of tenured teachers is the criteria for moving from an initial to a standard to a master's certificate. Although this process documents what teachers need to do, it does little to promote transfer of skills and knowledge to the classroom. Changes in the conditions and requirements for teacher learning in a school system are going to be driven by local school boards and the communities they represent. This change process will lay the groundwork for the implementation of supervision and evaluation strategies

that link the improvement of student achievement to teacher learning. The details of the development of tenured faculty are left to chance, and thus are open to the interpretation of the local school district. Schools are charged with interpreting how to address the development of the tenured teacher and how that development can be utilized to increase the schools' capacity to continually improve instruction. The focus of this study is how school districts use a particular method of evaluation, differentiated supervision, to inspire the development of tenured faculty toward teacher leadership. Background for the Study The development of tenured faculty is an aspect of school improvement that can have substantial impact on school culture and ultimately student achievement (Blase & Blase, 1999). Historically, tenured faculty development has been disconnected from the evaluation process, and as a result, professional development efforts either are not relevant or are not meaningful enough to inspire tenured faculty participation (Danielson & McGreal, 2000). State mandates for professional development are driven by recertification purposes that don't typically transfer to improved classroom practice or programmatic improvements at the school level. Traditional processes that seem to be effective when working with nontenured faculty become redundant for tenured faculty as they gain experience and knowledge in their craft (Brandt, 1996). Teacher evaluation systems have traditionally been implemented to meet state requirements as opposed to addressing the development of teachers. School administra tors approach their evaluation of teachers in very different ways, and each method of implementation is rooted in the manner in which administrators view the act of teaching. In many cases, the evaluation process for tenured faculty in high schools is not viewed as

5 valuable, either because it does not uncover any new findings for the teacher or because the evaluator does not have content area expertise. As a result, teachers and administra tors make evaluation an organizational ritual, with little meaning or transfer of knowl edge and skills, rather than an ongoing process for improvement. The nature of teaching, combined with the barriers of state mandates, time, and administrative training, means in general that teacher evaluation methods, when applied in a one-dimensional manner, are not effective and do not fulfill the purposes of improvement, accountability, school improvement, and certification (Hammond, Wise, & Pease, 1978). To address these deficiencies in evaluation models, differentiated models of evaluation have been advocated in most of the recent literature. These models are more consistent with adult learning theory. They are typified by collaboration between administrators and teachers, by agreeing to a standard of performance, determining a teacher's level of performance in light of the standards, developing goals, and reevaluating progress on those goals. The void in the Illinois School Code not only falls short in addressing professional growth for tenured faculty, but also ignores the literature on teacher leader development as a viable strategy for school improvement. Fullan (1991) found that "staff development cannot be separated from school development" (p. 331). Schools that are improving have found a meaningful way to develop the talents of their faculty, creating greater capacity to improve instruction through the development of teacher leaders. Teachers who are lead learners increase the school's capacity to improve instruction and are a key part of insuring that teacher learning is transferred to the classroom.

6 Several questions arise regarding the evaluation of tenured faculty: How do faculty members participate in the evaluation process, outside of being observed? What informa tion will come from the evaluation process that will motivate professional growth? How is the evaluation and growth of faculty members related to the overall goals for the school? The development of tenured teachers, however, cannot end with the improvement of their own instruction (Leithwood, 1992). The No Child Left Behind legislation created the need for tenured faculty to play a vital role in the leadership of the school. Tenured faculty play a broader role in working with newly hired teachers. New faculty members need mentors and role models during the induction phase of their employment. The No Child Left Behind legislation requires all teachers perform effectively to enhance student achievement under the pressures of accountability. School improvement teams charged with solving school-wide instructional problems need experienced faculty with the con tent and pedagogical expertise and the leadership skills to affect the achievement of all students. To maximize the human capacity of the school, tenured faculty members must be nurtured and challenged toward becoming true teacher leaders. As tenured faculty members are developed to assume leadership roles within the school, the capacity of the school to improve instruction can increase, which, in turn, may contribute to the improve ment of student learning. Differentiated supervision gives teachers the flexibility to choose areas of professional growth that will address instructional issues they are observing. Solving these problems through professional development gives the teacher new skills and knowledge that other teachers may not possess, and could put them in a position to lead within their school. As a result, a larger question still exists: does the differentiated supervision process help tenured teachers develop into teacher leaders?

My work with differentiated supervision has allowed me to observe the power of tenured teachers learning together to solve instructional issues. The tenured teacher then can contribute toward increasing a school's capacity for improving instruction and provide meaning to his or her career. I have seen how engaging tenured faculty in differentiated supervision sets a standard for the school community that everyone is a learner for the purpose of improving student learning. Learning through the differentiated supervision process can become the standard for the school and a prerequisite for teacher leadership. My experiences with differentiated supervision have led me to believe that it can be used to develop teacher leadership in schools. Figure 1 is my conceptual framework illustrating how differentiated supervision can be utilized to develop teacher leaders. / Figure 1. Teacher leader development model. Adapted from K. Leithwood (1992), The principal's role in teacher development. In M. Fullan & A. Hargreaves (Eds.), Teacher development and educational change (2nd ed., p. 93). London: The Falmer Press.

8 Despite the challenges of implementing the differentiated supervision process, it can pay big dividends as a vehicle for the development of teacher leaders. Differentiated processes set an expectation of teacher development for the tenured teacher and encour age collaborative work (Brandt, 1996). Teacher leaders then can be developed and, as a result, play an integral role in the development of schools as they assume the roles of facilitators, coaches, mentors, leaders of study groups, and curriculum leaders (Katezenmeyer & Moller, 2001). The lack of support for tenured teacher learning has a broader impact than the general professional development of each teacher. The void in tenured teacher learning and the intentional development of teacher leaders demonstrates a lack of understanding and insight as to how to create more effective high schools, and ultimately professional learning communities (Dufour & Eaker, 1998; Wenger, McDermott & Snyder, 2002). Schools that are deemed to be effective at improving student achievement function as professional learning communities, populated with teacher leaders that facilitate the vision for student learning that is created collaboratively. According to Katzenmeyer and Moller (2001), "teacher leaders lead within and beyond the classroom, identify with and contribute to the community of teacher learners and leaders, and influence others towards improved educational practice." The development of teacher leaders could assist schools in increasing the capacity for improving instruction, thus enhancing student achievement. Differentiated supervision could represent one strategy for the purposeful development of teacher leaders. This study will help us better understand the role that differentiated supervision plays in the development of teacher leadership.

9 Problem The development of the tenured teacher is a problem that has not been addressed at the policy level and, as a result, is addressed sporadically at the district and school level. While literature supports the development of teacher leaders as necessary to increase a school's capacity to improve instruction, there is much to be learned about how schools develop and utilize tenured teachers as teacher leaders and how their use contributes to more students meeting the standards set through the No Child Left Behind legislation. Designing and implementing meaningful professional development is a chal lenge in high schools, particularly due to the specialized expertise that is required in each department. Many schools have teacher leaders, but not all who have moved tenured faculty into this role do so with the intent of increasing a school's capacity to improve instruction. To further focus the problem, I am addressing the development of tenured teachers in Central Illinois high schools. High schools continue to be under scrutiny due to declining standardized test results and increased competition from other countries. The decline of the quality of American high schools has been given national attention, and this national movement to improve high schools requires that we find solutions that encourage the systemic development of tenured teachers toward teacher leadership. The gaps at the policy level contribute to the void in the development of tenured teachers, thus affecting a high school's progress toward developing quality teacher leadership. Teacher leaders, coupled with proper administrative and school board support, can move schools closer to meeting the standards of achievement that have been set through No Child Left Behind by increasing the school's capacity to improve instruction.

10 Scholarship in three broad areas will support this study. First, I will outline the practice of differentiated supervision as it is used in schools to promote tenured teacher development. Evaluation systems that are differentiated give teachers more opportunities for collaboration and help them address instructional problems through job-embedded professional development (Elmore, 2002). The opportunities given through differentiated supervision can lay the foundation for teacher leadership opportunities for tenured teachers. The second broad area for review is that of professional development. Many systems of professional development in schools today do not address the needs of the tenured teacher or the adult learner (Elmore, 2002). Professional development literature identifies delivery models and the manner in which tenured teachers should be engaged in the process so that their learning is transferred to the classroom. In the case of the development of teacher leaders, professional development will need to include the leader ship skills needed to engage other teachers in dialogue about instruction. The idea of job- embedded, collaborative professional development is a change from past practice that has preoccupied scholars from the 1980s but still has not taken hold as standard practice in schools. In my analysis of the scholarship related to professional development and differ entiated supervision, I have looked for cases where the two processes are meaningfully linked. Schools many times link professional development to school improvement plans that have little meaning for the classroom teachers. From an evaluation perspective, areas for progress are often identified without the follow-up learning opportunities for teachers to improve their practice. I will be looking for differentiated supervision that is supported

11 with professional development in a purposeful way and analyzing how those systems affect the development of teacher leaders in high schools. The third broad area is that of teacher leadership itself. While schools use the term "teacher leadership" to fit a variety of duties that teachers participate in, there is a segment of literature that defines teacher leadership as participating in the improvement of instruc tion beyond heir own classrooms. This study will look at how schools develop teacher leaders and whether they have had an effect on the improvement of instruction. While the review of literature supports job-embedded professional development and differentiated supervision systems, less literature is available that details a process for school administra tors to increase instructional leadership capacity in their school through the development of teacher leaders. A thorough investigation is needed to understand the following questions: 1. How do teacher leaders at Stage 1 of the teacher leader development model develop instructional expertise? 2. How do teacher leaders at Stage 2 of the teacher leader development model develop the ability to improve instruction in their departments? '3. How do teacher leaders at Stage 3 of the teacher leader development model influence school-wide instructional practices? 4. How does the differentiated supervision process provide opportunities for tenured faculty to develop as teacher leaders? To thoroughly investigate these questions, a review of literature was done in the areas of organizational change as it relates to (a) evaluation of tenured faculty, (b) differ entiated supervision and evaluation models, (c) the special needs of high school teachers, and (d) teacher leadership.

12 Definition of Terms The following terms will be used throughout the study: Differentiated supervision: The process of evaluating faculty members using different methods based on their level of expertise and the stage of their career. In a typical differentiated supervision system, tenured faculty members are evaluated based on their professional growth. Nontenured faculty members are evaluated based on more traditional methods, using direct observation and observation conferences for feedback. Tenured faculty who are not meeting the district professional standards are also evaluated differently, using direct observation and observation conference methods in a process that resembles that of the nontenured faculty, but focusing on a specific teaching competency that has been identified by the administration (Danielson & McGreal, 2000). Professional development: The training that teachers undertake to help improve specific aspects of their responsibilities as teachers. These responsibilities include the variety of behaviors required to teach. Planning and preparing lessons, managing the classroom environment, developing instructional strategies, selecting assessment methods, using assessment data to shape instruction, and using technology are all examples of areas in which a teacher may participate in professional development (Hammond & Sykes, 1999). Tenured teacher: A teacher who has been determined by the district's adminis tration to be meeting the professional standards set by the school district. Tenured faculty members have rights to teaching positions in the district as long as their performance continues to meet the school district's standards. Tenured teachers not meeting the district's standards must undergo an intensive remediation process prior to dismissal,

13 whereas nontenured teachers may be dismissed at the end of a school year without cause (Illinois School Code, 1976, Chapter 1). Teacher leader: Teachers who assume a variety of responsibilities for the improve ment of the school. Teacher leaders participate in decision making, facilitate greater effi ciency thorough management of daily administrative tasks, and function as instructional coaches. According to Katzenmeyer and Moeller (2001), teacher leaders are teachers who lead within and beyond the classroom, identify with and contribute to a community of teacher learners and leaders, and influence Others toward improved educational practice. Professional learning community: The culture of a school in which collaboration, risk taking, data-driven decision making, and collective inquiry are valued and practiced (DuFour & Eaker, 1998). Schools that have a strong professional learning community put student achievement at the center of solving instructional problems and break down teacher isolation through planned collaboration (McLaughlin & Talbert, 2006). Professional learning communities set aside time in a purposeful manner for teacher collaboration, thus embedding the expectation for collaboration throughout the school (Dufour & Eaker). Collaboration: The practice of teachers meeting with each other to solve instruc tional problems or issues that have arisen. Teacher collaboration can be planned or spontaneous. Teacher collaboration is most beneficial when it has the support of school administration and when it is structured so that teachers can collaborate without sacrific ing their own time to accomplish the tasks at hand. Schools that have made collaboration an organizational value have found methods for building teacher collaboration into the weekly or monthly calendar and have designated agendas to be accomplished with the collaborative time given (Dufour & Eaker, 1998).

14 Professional development plans: Documents that guide individual teacher professional development activities for a designated period of time. Professional development plans identify the area for improvement, what new learning will take place, how the learning will affect student outcomes, and a timeline for learning and implementation. Professional development plan structures can range from broad to specific, depending on the school district (Burke, 1997). Peer coaching: A professional development activity in which teachers give each other feedback on their teaching. Usually it is based on observing each other's classes, but peer coaching can also take other forms, such as discussing a difficult issue that is affecting professional performance or how to handle a student issue that has arisen in class. Peer coaches may receive formal training as part of a professional development system, or they can simply be teachers who are seen as leaders among faculty and administration (Costa & Garmston, 1993). Conceptual Framework The teacher leader development model is a conceptual framework that illustrates the development of teacher leaders using the differentiated supervision process. Leithwood's (1993) six levels of teacher development (Table 1) help us understand how teachers develop throughout their career and how teachers' needs change depending on the stage of their careers. The teacher leader development model anticipates the changing needs of teachers by using differentiated supervision to inspire growth, evaluating experienced teachers based on their professional growth as opposed to using traditional evaluation processes for less experienced teachers.

15 Table 1 Development of Competence in the Technology of Educational Practice Stage Development 1. Developing survival skills 2. Becoming competent in the basic skills of instruction 3. Expanding one's own instructional flexibility 4. Acquiring instructional expertise 5. Contributing to the growth of colleagues' expertise 6. Participating in a broad array of educational decisions at all levels of the educationsystem Partially developed classroom management skills Knowledge of and limited skill in using teaching models No conscious reflection [[on what?]] Summative student assessment Well developed classroom management Well developed use of teaching models Habitual application [[of what?]] through trial and error Some formative student assessment Automatized classroom management skills Growing awareness of need for other teaching models and expansion of repertoire Formative and summative assessment covering a range of instructional goals Classroom management integrated with program Skill in application of a broad range of teaching techniques High levels of expertise in classroom instructional performance Reflective about competence Ability to assist others in acquiring instructional expertise through planned learning or mentoring experiences Is committed to school improvement Accepts responsibility for fostering that goal through any legitimate opportunity Able to exercise leadership, both formal and informal, with adults inside and outside of the school Has a broad framework from which to understand the relationship among decisions Is well informed about policies at many different levels Source: Adapted from K. Leithwood (1992), The principal's role in teacher development. In M. Fullan & A. Hargreaves (Eds.), Teacher development and educational change (2nd ed., p. 93). London: The Farmer Press.

Full document contains 219 pages
Abstract: The focus of this study was to explore if the evaluation process of differentiated supervision contributed to the development of tenured teachers toward teacher leadership in two central Illinois high schools. A theoretical framework, the Teacher Leader Development model, was created based on Dr. Keith Leithwood's development of professional expertise framework, which describes the stages of a teacher's professional growth. The two central Illinois high schools selected had been utilizing the differentiated supervision process for a minimum of 3 years to evaluate tenured faculty. Participants in the study included teachers from two academic departments, the school administration, and a central office administrator at each school. Participants answered questions that were aligned with the three stages of the teacher leader development model: developing instructional expertise, influencing departmental instructional practices, and influencing school wide instructional practices. Documents that were pertinent to the study, such as school improvement plans, teacher professional growth plans, and district evaluation plans, were analyzed. The results from the study concluded that while each school utilized the differentiated supervision process to engage faculty in school improvement activities, teacher leadership development was not the focus and thus few teacher leaders emerged. Three teachers who had been involved with leading school wide instructional development activities emerged from the study. For the development of teacher leaders to increase specific support would be needed; a clearly defined vision for teaching and learning, time within the school day for collaboration around solving instructional issues, and networks created to provide ongoing feedback to teachers as they implement new strategies.