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Teaching Middle School Jazz: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Study

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Chad Lee West
Abstract:
In my experience, many music teachers do not teach jazz ensemble, not because they do not have the musical ability to do so, but because they believe that they do not have the musical ability to do so. Subsequently, the purpose of this Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007) was to explore the previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions of middle school music teachers regarding middle school jazz education, and to do so through the lens of perceived ability to teach middle school jazz. The first phase of this study was a qualitative exploration of middle school jazz education. Qualitative findings informed the development of a survey instrument that was used to collect data from a larger population of middle school music teachers. Data from both phases were then mixed in the final analysis to provide a more complete description of the topic. Both qualitative and quantitative data indicated that listening to jazz and playing as a professional jazz musician are the previous experiences most strongly correlated with one's perceived ability to teach jazz. Qualitative and quantitative data both suggest the following relationships between participants' perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and current thoughts about teaching middle school jazz: (a) the primary responsibility of the rhythm section is to keep time, (b) a good rhythm section makes the horns sound good, (c) bass is the most important member of the rhythm section, and (d) a significant negative relationship between perceived ability and the thought that concert band is more important than jazz ensemble. Qualitative and quantitative data both suggest the following relationships between qualitative and quantitative participants' perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and current actions in teaching middle school jazz, and might be considered effective teaching practices: (a) requiring students to play a "traditional" jazz instrument in order to join jazz ensemble, (b) using major scales and pentatonic scales to teach improvisation, (c) modeling, (d) having students listen to jazz by watching jazz videos, (e) bringing in jazz clinicians to work with the group, and (f) involving students in call-and-response activities.

TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii LIST OF FIGURES xi LIST OF TABLES xii LIST OF APPENDICES xiii ABSTRACT xiv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Jazz Education 1 Jazz in Teacher Education 4 Future Directions in Middle School Jazz Research 6 Purpose Statement 7 Research Questions 8 Definitions 8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 12 Part I: Jazz Philosophy 12 Part II: Jazz Education 16 Teaching the Jazz Ensemble 17 Teacher Behaviors 17 Student Experiences 19 Social Interactions 21 Teaching of Jazz Improvisation 22 Instructional Materials 23 Predicting Improvisation Ability 25 Discussion 27 Jazz Culture 27 Jazz Teachers 28 Jazz Students 29 Future Directions in Jazz Education Research 30 Part III: Jazz in Preservice Teacher Education 33 Discussion 36 CHAPTER III MIXED METHODOLOGY 39 Purpose Statement 39 Research Questions 39 Methodological Overview 40 IV

Part I: Review of Mixed Methods Literature 41 Definition of Mixed Methods Research 41 Reason for Doing Mixed Methods Research 41 Philosophical and Historical Foundations of Mixed Methods Research .....42 Positivism vs. Interpretivism 43 Pragmatism 43 Formative Period (1959-1979) 44 Paradigm Debate Period (1985-1997) 45 Procedural Development Period (1989-2000) 45 Advocacy as a Separate Design Period (2003-present) 45 Part II: Data Collection and Analysis Procedures 46 Mixed Methods Design 46 Exploratory Design 47 Mixed Methods Data Collection and Analysis Procedures 50 Population 50 Procedure 50 Timing 51 Weighting 52 Mixing 53 Inference Quality and Legitimation 56 Conclusion 58 CHAPTER IV QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY 59 Methodological Overview 59 Part I: Research Design 59 Case Study 59 Preliminary Observations 60 Participant Selection 61 Participant Description 61 Research Sites 63 Maximum Variation 66 Data Types 66 Time line 66 Procedure 67 Observations 68 Interviews 68 Trustworthiness 70 Data Collection Triangulation 70 Rich, Thick Description 71 Member Checks 71 Investigator Expertise 72 Personal Background 72 Interviewer Rapport 73 Part II: Qualitative Analysis 73 Data Preparation 74 Coding 74 Thematic Development 75 Category Formation 76 Data Presentation 76 Conclusion 77 v

CHAPTER V QUALITATIVE FINDINGS 78 Parti: Ambrose 79 Participant Description 79 School Description 79 Program Description 80 Previous Experiences 81 Childhood 81 College 83 Professional Gigging 84 Professional Teaching Career 84 Current Thoughts About Middle School Jazz 86 Value of Jazz 86 Jazz is Dessert 86 Jazz is Fun 88 Preparation for High School Band 88 Differences and Similarities with Concert Band 89 Teaching Happens in Concert Band 89 Being a Good Teacher 90 Understanding Jazz Style 91 Being a Good Musician 92 Jazz Teaching Thoughts 93 Instrumentation 93 Improvisation 93 Rhythm Section 94 Actions in Middle School Jazz 95 Peer Interaction 95 Rhythm Section 97 Bass 98 Piano 98 Guitar 100 Drums 101 Style 102 Articulation 102 Modeling 103 Listening 103 Improvisation 104 Literature 105 Non-Traditional Jazz Instruments 107 Student Difficulties 108 Part I Conclusion 108 Part II: Blackwell 109 Participant Description 110 School Description 110 Program Description 110 Previous Experiences 111 Childhood I l l School 112 Learning from the Professionals 115 Inservice 116 VI

Professional Development 116 Early Career 117 Mid and Late Career 118 Current Thoughts About Middle School Jazz 119 Value of Jazz 119 Spokes on a Wheel 119 Motivation 121 Mentorship 121 Musical Independence 122 Improvisation 123 Differences and Similarities with Concert Band 124 Different Roles 124 Closer to What Students Hear on the Radio 125 Jazz Teaching Thoughts 125 Overall Musicianship is Most Important 125 Be a Player Yourself 126 Adjudication 127 Instrumental Pedagogy Happens in Concert Band 128 Actions in Middle School Jazz 128 Non-Traditional Jazz Instruments 129 Style 131 Articulation 131 Similarities with Concert Band 132 Teaching the Rhythm Section 134 Magic Triangle 135 Bass 136 Piano 136 Voicings 137 Comping 137 Drum Set 138 Set-ups 138 Improvisation 139 Scales 141 Pentatonics 141 Modeling 142 Listening 142 Literature 143 Biggest Challenges 146 Part II Conclusion 146 CHAPTER VI QUANTITATIVE METHODOLOGY 148 Methodological Overview 148 Part I: Quantitative Data Collection Procedures 148 Research Design 148 Population/Sampling 149 Survey Distribution/Data Collection Method 149 Survey Development Procedure 150 Validity and Reliability 151 Expert Reviews 151 Subject Matter Experts 152 vn

Cognitive Interviews 152 Pilot 153 Delimitations 154 Part II: Descriptive Information 155 Response Rate 155 Instrument Reliability 155 Teaching Experience 156 Education Levels 157 Primary Instrument 158 Rehearsal Times 159 CHAPTER VII QUANTITATIVE FINDINGS 162 Research Question 1 162 Research Question 1 Conclusion 166 Research Question 2 167 Research Question 2 Conclusion 174 Research Question 3 175 Conclusion 178 CHAPTER VIII MIXED FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES 181 Purpose Statement 181 Research Questions 181 Timing, Weighting, and Mixing 182 Timing 182 Weighting 183 Mixing 183 Professional Background 184 Participant Description 184 Program Description 186 Previous Experiences 187 Listening to Jazz 187 Jazz in School 189 Jazz in College 192 Professional Gigging 194 Mentoring 195 Professional Development 197 CHAPTER IX MIXED FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: CURRENT THOUGHTS ABOUT MIDDLE SCHOOL JAZZ 200 Current Thoughts About Middle School Jazz 200 Value of Middle School Jazz 200 Jazz is Fun and Motivational 200 Keeps Students Interested in Music 202 Students Learn a New Skill Set 202 Jazz is Closer to What Students Hear on the Radio 204 Musical Independence 204 Values Conclusion 205 vni

General Thoughts Regarding Middle School Jazz 206 Less Pressure to Perform Well in Jazz 210 Adjudicated Events 207 Teaching Happens in Concert Band 209 General Musicianship vs. Jazz-Specific Expertise 211 Jazz Teachers Should Play Jazz 213 Improvisation 215 Preparation for High School Jazz 216 Importance of Jazz Within Music Program 217 Jazz is Dessert 218 Spokes on a Wheel 218 Rhythm Section Function 220 Most Important Rhythm Section Instrument 221 General Thoughts Conclusion 222 Chapter Conclusion 224 CHAPTER X MIXED FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: CURRENT ACTIONS IN MIDDLE SCHOOL JAZZ 226 Current Actions in Middle School Jazz 226 Instrumentation 226 Chance to Double 228 Teaching the Rhythm Section 229 Magic Triangle 230 Bass '. 230 Piano 232 Voicings 234 Comping 234 Guitar 235 Drums 236 Set-ups 237 Improvisation 239 Group Improvisation 242 Aebersold Recordings 243 Scales 243 Blues Scales 244 Pentatonics 245 Modeling 246 Listening 247 Jazz Videos 248 Bring in Professionals 249 Call and Response 249 Literature 251 Jazz Method Books 251 Rewriting Parts 253 Classics vs. New Charts 254 "Actions" in Jazz Ensemble Conclusion 255 CHAPTER XI SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 257 Purpose Statement 257 IX

Research Questions 257 Previous Literature 258 Method 259 Mixed Methodology 259 Qualitative Methodology 261 Quantitative Methodology 261 Mixed Findings with Discussion 264 Participant Overview 264 Participant/Program Discussion 266 Previous Experiences 267 Previous Experiences Discussion 269 Current Thoughts About Middle School Jazz 270 Current Thoughts Discussion 272 Current Actions in Middle School Jazz 274 Current Actions Discussion 276 Implications for Practice 279 Suggestions for Future Research 282 Final Thoughts 283 APPENDICES 287 REFERENCES 328 x

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE FIGURE 3.1: MIXED METHOD TIMING 48 FIGURE 3.2: MIXED METHODS MIXING 56 FIGURE 4.1: TIMELINE 67 FIGURE 11.1: MIXED METHODS DESIGN 260 XI

LIST OF TABLES TABLE TABLE 6.1: TEACHING EXPERIENCE 156 TABLE 6.2: EDUCATION LEVEL 158 TABLE 6.3: PRIMARY INSTRUMENT 159 TABLE 6.4: ENSEMBLE TYPE 160 TABLE 6.5: LEVEL TAUGHT 161 TABLE 7.1: PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES 165 TABLE 7.2: MOST PREPARED 166 TABLE 7.3: VALUE OF JAZZ 169 TABLE 7.4: MOST VALUE 170 TABLE 7.5: THOUGHTS ABOUT JAZZ 173 TABLE 7.6: ACTIONS IN JAZZ 177 XII

LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX APPENDIX A: INTERVIEW 1 PROTOCOL 287 APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW II PROTOCOL 288 APPENDIX C: INTERVIEW III PROTOCOL 289 APPENDIX D: INITIAL CODING SCHEME 290 APPENDIX E: SECOND CODING SCHEME 297 APPENDIX F: THEMES 299 APPENDIX G: EMAIL INVITATION LETTERS 301 APPENDIX H: MATRIX 305 APPENDIX I: MENC CONTRACT 308 APPENDIX J: IRB APPROVAL 312 APPENDIX K: SURVEY INSTRUMENT 314 xin

ABSTRACT In my experience, many music teachers do not teach jazz ensemble, not because they do not have the musical ability to do so, but because they believe that they do not have the musical ability to do so. Subsequently, the purpose of this Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design (Creswell & Piano Clark, 2007) was to explore the previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions of middle school music teachers regarding middle school jazz education, and to do so through the lens of perceived ability to teach middle school jazz. The first phase of this study was a qualitative exploration of middle school jazz education. Qualitative findings informed the development of a survey instrument that was used to collect data from a larger population of middle school music teachers. Data from both phases were then mixed in the final analysis to provide a more complete description of the topic. Both qualitative and quantitative data indicated that listening to jazz and playing as a professional jazz musician are the previous experiences most strongly correlated with one's perceived ability to teach jazz. Qualitative and quantitative data both suggest the following relationships between participants' perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and current thoughts about teaching middle school jazz: (a) the primary responsibility of the rhythm section is to keep time, (b) a good rhythm section makes the horns sound good, (c) bass is the most important member of the rhythm section, and (d) a significant negative relationship between perceived ability and the thought that concert band is more important than jazz ensemble. xiv

Qualitative and quantitative data both suggest the following relationships between qualitative and quantitative participants' perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and current actions in teaching middle school jazz, and might be considered effective teaching practices: (a) requiring students to play a "traditional" jazz instrument in order to join jazz ensemble, (b) using major scales and pentatonic scales to teach improvisation, (c) modeling, (d) having students listen to jazz by watching jazz videos, (e) bringing in jazz clinicians to work with the group, and (f) involving students in call-and-response activities. xv

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Jazz Education In 1985, Bash and Kuzmich published a comprehensive review of the extant research on jazz education. Bash and Kuzmich describe these topics as "jazz education" research; however, many of them address jazz education only indirectly. For instance, the historical and sociological studies, reference materials, and anthologies reviewed by Bash and Kuzmich perhaps contribute more to the field of musicology than to music education. Further, the studies dealing with pedagogy, curriculum, experimental designs, and performance analysis deal almost exclusively with such issues from a collegiate or professional perspective, providing little transferability to middle school jazz education settings. Since then, some of the jazz education research has focused on philosophy (e.g., Elliott, 1983; 1986; 1987, 1995), social justice/critical theory (e.g., Prouty, 2002; 2005; 2008), and the role of gender (e.g., McKeage, 2004; Wehr-Flowers, 2007). For instance, Javors (2001) examined college jazz performance programs in relation to non- institutionalized forms of learning jazz. He describes the two systems of jazz instruction as ".. .two disparate value systems related to jazz performance: that encompassed within professional practice and that encompassed within academia" (p. 33). Others such as Prouty (2002; 2005; 2008), Whyton (2006) and Mantie (2007) have examined this seeming divide from a critical theory perspective. Prouty contends 1

that often the institutionalized narratives of jazz education are granted a position of primacy over the non-institutionalized forms of jazz instruction (Prouty, 2005, p. 100). Prouty (2008) argued that such institutionalized practices perpetuate and reify oppressive power relations between various entities (e.g., western art music tradition versus jazz, the educational institution versus the jazz performance community, teacher versus student, and administrator versus teacher). Jazz education researchers have also begun to examine the role of gender in school jazz participation and process. McKeage (2004) examined the relationship between gender and jazz participation. She found that female jazz students' reasons for quitting jazz were affected by their primary instrument selection (more often than not females chose instruments that were not a part of the "traditional" jazz ensemble instrumentation), (b) institutional obstacles (e.g., lack of female jazz role-models), (c) feeling more comfortable in traditional ensembles, and (d) an inability to connect jazz experiences to career aspirations. Similarly, Wehr-Flowers (2007) explored the relationship between gender and jazz participation through the lens of Bandura's (1986) Theory of Self-Efficacy: If we accept that jazz education belongs in our music curriculum, we must expect to expose pre-service music teachers to the performance practices of jazz and the methods and materials of jazz education. If we believe that jazz education is integral to music education, then we must also accept that studying jazz has the same importance for male and female students, (p. 2) Much of the jazz education research has focused on ways in which professional jazz musicians learned to improvise (e.g., Berliner, 1994; Fraser, 1983) and have developed their cultural identities (e.g., Ake, 1998; Berliner, 1994; Stebbins, 1964). Many other jazz education researchers have studied the teaching and learning of jazz 2

among college students. Researchers have described the curricular structure of undergraduate jazz performance degree programs (e.g., Brenan, 2005), designed curriculum for teaching improvisation (e.g., Paulson, 1985), examined factors that influence the success of high quality college jazz performance programs (e.g., Day, 1992), tested the effectiveness of selected pedagogical techniques (e.g., Flack, 2004; Madura, 2008; May, 2003;.Morrison, 2008), and explored the relationship between jazz ensemble experience and aesthetic response among college performers (e.g., Coggiola, 2004; Fredrickson & Coggiola, 2003). Many more studies than are listed here have been published on the teaching of jazz to college students. However, such studies have only marginal relevance to middle school jazz education. Bowman (1988) questions whether it is appropriate to teach improvisation the same way to beginning and university level students. To understand the jazz teaching and learning processes of children and adolescents, we must look at the studies that have addressed middle school and high school jazz education. Such studies have primarily focused on the teaching the school jazz ensemble (e.g., Grimes, 1988; Montgomery, 1986), and the teaching of jazz improvisation (e.g., Bash, 1983; Ciorba, 2006; Grimes, 1988). While some of these studies provide rich and valuable information, many of them offer only descriptive statements about the most surface aspects of school jazz ensembles such as conducting habits (Montgomery, 1986), count-off techniques (Grimes, 1988), and time spent playing (Birkner, 1992). Further, only three studies were found that addressed middle school jazz education (i.e., Coy, 1989; Knight, 1993; Leavell, 1996). Researchers such as Goodrich (2005) have noted the scarcity of middle school jazz education research: 3

Studies of feeder programs are lacking in the research literature, particularly with regards to the jazz idiom. The feeder program in this study was a contributing factor to the overall success of this high school jazz band. Studies of beginners who play jazz are also absent in the literature. More in-depth investigation is needed to provide teaching information for directors who start beginning jazz players in addition to directors who teach at the junior high and high school levels (p. 226). The three studies that have addressed middle school jazz education have examined (a) student perceptions of the beginning jazz education process (Leavell, 1996), (b) factors that affect students' abilities in jazz (Knight, 1993), and (c) the effect of certain multisensory instruction techniques on beginning improvisation instruction (Coy 1989). While these quantitative studies deduce valuable strands of information regarding observable actions and processes of middle school jazz education, none of them explore the previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions of middle school jazz teachers. Jazz in Teacher Education While studies have shown that music teacher educators and inservice music teachers agree that jazz should be an integral part of undergraduate music teacher preparation (Balfour, 1988; Fisher, 1981; Hepworth, 1974; Jones, 2005; Knox, 1996; Payne, 1973; Thomas, 1980), the same studies have also shown that music teachers often enter the profession feeling unprepared to teach jazz. Not surprisingly, inservice band directors seek professional development opportunities in the areas of teaching the jazz ensemble and teaching improvisation (Bauer, Forsythe, & Kinney, 2009). Concerned, The International Association of Jazz Educators (IAJE) assembled a panel at their 1999 Conference in Anaheim, California to discuss music teacher education curriculum and its relevance to preparing future music teachers to teach jazz. When asked if teacher education programs prepared preservice teachers to teach jazz, jazz educator, 4

David Caffey responded that these programs may prepare those who are interested, but do not make jazz preparation a degree requirement, thus failing to reach those who need it most: .. .there are students not interested in jazz—perhaps it was just never presented to them; or they play an instrument that does not easily fit into traditional jazz instrumentation. These Music Education majors probably won't be prepared to teach a junior high or high school-level jazz band. (Caffey, Lindeman, Montgomery, Sher, & Garcia, 1999, p. 39) This statement is backed by research suggesting that some music teacher education programs do not require (Hennessey, 1995; Jones, 2005; Knox, 1996; Payne, 1973; Thomas, 1980) or even offer (Balfour, 1988; Hepworth, 1974) jazz courses in the music teacher education curriculum. Among colleges that do offer or require jazz for music education majors, there is only speculation about what those courses should be. While some speculate that music education majors should be exposed to Jazz Band Methods, Jazz Improvisation, Jazz Band, and Jazz History (Fisher, 1981), as well as Jazz in General Music, Jazz Keyboard, Jazz Arranging, Jazz Combo, Jazz Combo Pedagogy, and Jazz Vocal Technique (Fisher, 1981; Jones, 2005) and even Jazz Philosophy (Elliott, 1983; Jones, 2005), there exists no evidence that any of these courses actually prepare future music teachers to teach jazz. Further, Knox (1996) found no significant relationship between a music teacher's participation in college jazz courses and decisions of whether or not to incorporate jazz ensembles into his/her program. The fact that music teacher educators have recognized that their institutions often fail to meet the jazz needs of music educators, and yet are hesitant to sacrifice courses from the music education program to make room for jazz courses (Thomas, 1980) 5

perhaps speaks less of their lack of commitment to jazz education and more of the fact that undergraduate music education curriculums are already overburdened. Further, the profession has no research that can point to what experiences specifically prepare music teachers to teach jazz. If our profession knew more about what experiences music teachers most attribute to their preparation to teach jazz, music teacher educators might be more willing and able to make room for those experiences in an already overburdened undergraduate curriculum. That jazz education researchers know little about (a) middle school jazz education; (b) previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions of music teachers who teach middle school jazz; (c) case studies showing the complexities of middle school jazz education; and (d) the experiences that most prepare music teachers to teach jazz is nothing new. In fact, Bash and Kuzmich (1985) called attention to this 25 years ago when they called for jazz education research to address issues more directly relevant to school music education and music teacher education (p. 24). There is much speculation in the jazz education literature about what previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions are required or desired to teach middle school jazz ensemble. However, after a review of the extant literature, I have found no studies that specifically address these constructs. In my experience, many music teachers do not teach jazz ensemble, not because they do not have the musical ability to do so, but because they believe that they do not have the musical ability to do so. So, one of my research interests was how the perception of ability to teach middle school jazz interacts, or not, with previous experiences in jazz, and current thoughts about and actions in teaching middle school jazz. Future Directions in Middle School Jazz Research 6

While the field of middle school jazz education remains a relatively blank slate, a case study that explores the complex and multidimensional process of middle school jazz education could serve as a springboard for future researchers. Goodrich (2005) recommends that case study research be conducted in a variety of jazz education contexts and settings: "Other case studies of other jazz ensembles, including ensembles at other levels and in other contextual settings, may yield different information and should be done" (p. 226). Since Goodrich's dissertation was a case study of a high school jazz ensemble (the only case study found of a jazz ensemble) and he recommended that future studies be conducted on beginning jazz ensembles, it seemed timely to conduct a study on middle school jazz education. The current study offers a glimpse into the complex and multidimensional process of middle school jazz education and examines it through the lens of perceived ability to teach middle school jazz. To address this most comprehensively, this study triangulates both qualitative and quantitative data to form a mixed methods study, which is fully described in Chapter III. Purpose Statement This study addresses middle school jazz education. The purpose of this Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design (Creswell & Piano Clark, 2007) was to explore the previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions of middle school music teachers regarding middle school jazz education, and to do so through the lens of perceived ability to teach middle school jazz. The first phase of this study was a qualitative exploration of middle school jazz education for which observation, field note, interview, and artifact data were collected. Findings generated from the qualitative study 7

informed the development of a survey instrument that was used to collect data from a larger population of middle school music teachers. The second phase of this study was a quantitative description of middle school music teachers' previous experiences with jazz, perceived ability to teach middle school jazz, and current thoughts and actions regarding middle school jazz based on the findings generated from the initial qualitative phase of the study. Data from both phases were then mixed in the final analysis to provide a more complete description of music teachers' previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions regarding middle school jazz. Research Questions The first phase of this study included the following qualitative research questions: (a) How do these music teachers perceive their previous experiences to have prepared them to teach middle school jazz ensemble?, and (b) How do these music teachers describe their current thoughts and actions regarding middle school jazz ensemble? Quantitative research questions included the following: (a) What is the relationship between previous jazz experiences and perceived ability to teach middle school jazz? (b) What is the relationship between perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and self- reported thoughts regarding middle school jazz? and (c) What is the relationship between perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and self-reported actions regarding middle school jazz? The following mixed methods question was addressed in the final analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data sets: To what extent and in what ways does the quantitative data triangulate the qualitative findings? Definitions 8

Actions: The word, actions, as in current actions in middle school jazz, is used throughout this document to encompass the myriad of possible teaching and non- teaching actions that these music teachers use to teach middle school jazz. In short, it is a term to describe what they do when teaching middle school jazz. Experienced Teacher: People may come to different conclusions regarding what constitutes an "experienced" teacher. In this paper, "experienced teacher" refers to teachers who have been in the profession for over 30 years. Knowledge: The word, knowledge refers to both content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge; that is, an understanding of both the subject matter of one's field and how to make that subject matter accessible to others. Middle School: While there are a variety of structures for what constitutes a "middle school," in this paper the term is used to describe grades 6-8. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: While it seems logical that teachers would need to know their subject area (content knowledge), Shulman (1986) argues that effective teachers also need to possess pedagogical content knowledge; that is, having a content-specific understanding of how to teach the subject. The most regularly taught topics in one's subject area, the most useful forms of representations of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations—in a word, ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others. Pedagogical content knowledge also includes an understanding of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or difficult; the conceptions and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them to the learning of those most frequently taught topics and lessons. (Shulman, 1986, pp. 9-10) 9

In this study, pedagogical content knowledge refers to music educators' ways of conceiving of the subject of jazz and then methodically presenting it to their students. Perceived ability: Respondents were asked to self-rate on a scale from 1-10 their ability to teach middle school jazz. The term,perceived ability, is then used to describe respondents' own perception of their ability to teach middle school jazz. It is possible that some low-ability participants might have perceived themselves to be high ability, and vice-versa. Thus, the results should be interpreted with the assumptions of this construct in mind. School jazz: The term, school jazz, refers to jazz taught within grades P-12. Since it is unlikely that jazz education is prevalent in the lower grades (for instance P-3), it seemed more appropriate to use the term, school jazz, to refer to jazz education in grades P-12. Skills: The word skills refers to the teacher's ability to package his/her knowledge into a set of practices, or what Feiman-Nemser (2001, p. 1018) refers to as a beginning repertoire of classroom enactment. Skills could include the teacher's ability to use certain instructional techniques, activities, explanations, or analogies to promote learning. Thoughts: The word thoughts, as in current thoughts about middle school jazz, is used throughout this document to encompass the myriad of possible thoughts, values, beliefs, feelings, assumptions, notions, etc. that these music teachers hold about middle school jazz education. 10

Values: The word, values, as in music teacher values of middle school jazz, is conceived of in this paper to be a component of thoughts about middle school jazz. A music teacher's values of jazz are considered to be part of his/her thoughts about middle school jazz, and are examined separately as a sub-unit within the broader realm of thoughts about middle school jazz. Chapter II, Review of Literature, summarizes the extant jazz education literature regarding (a) jazz education philosophy, (b) primary and secondary jazz education, and (c) jazz within music teacher education. 11

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This review of literature is divided into three parts. Part I of the chapter titled, Jazz Philosophy, situates jazz education within the philosophical writings of Elliott (1983, 1986, 1987, 1995). Part II of the chapter titled, Jazz Education, presents the literature that can broadly be considered "jazz education" research. Part III of the chapter titled, Jazz in Preservice Teacher Education, presents the research on jazz education within preservice teacher education programs. Part I: Jazz Philosophy If philosophy guides our actions it seems appropriate to discuss jazz philosophy in a study about thoughts and actions in jazz education. As such, Elliott (1983) surveyed Canadian music educators about the status of post-secondary jazz education in Canada. From that data, he formulated a philosophical position that discussed jazz education as aesthetic education. Elliott posits the need for such a philosophical argument: It is our belief that the relative failure of jazz education to fulfill its potential as an effective and integral aspect of music education is due in large measure to the absence of a cogent position on the nature and value of jazz and jazz-related music and, in turn, on the nature and value of jazz education. Implicit in this position, of course, is the suggestion that jazz, and jazz-related music is, in some respect, a special style domain, which past rationales and present music education foundations have not adequately served. The implication is intentional. However, it would be inaccurate to infer that our purpose here is to conceive a completely unique or chauvinistic rationale advocating the separation of jazz education and music education. On the contrary, by refining and expanding the current philosophical foundations of music education we intend to build a theoretical position on the nature and value of jazz education that will facilitate the full realization of its potential and its place in aesthetic education... .(p. 165) 12

Full document contains 364 pages
Abstract: In my experience, many music teachers do not teach jazz ensemble, not because they do not have the musical ability to do so, but because they believe that they do not have the musical ability to do so. Subsequently, the purpose of this Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007) was to explore the previous experiences, and current thoughts and actions of middle school music teachers regarding middle school jazz education, and to do so through the lens of perceived ability to teach middle school jazz. The first phase of this study was a qualitative exploration of middle school jazz education. Qualitative findings informed the development of a survey instrument that was used to collect data from a larger population of middle school music teachers. Data from both phases were then mixed in the final analysis to provide a more complete description of the topic. Both qualitative and quantitative data indicated that listening to jazz and playing as a professional jazz musician are the previous experiences most strongly correlated with one's perceived ability to teach jazz. Qualitative and quantitative data both suggest the following relationships between participants' perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and current thoughts about teaching middle school jazz: (a) the primary responsibility of the rhythm section is to keep time, (b) a good rhythm section makes the horns sound good, (c) bass is the most important member of the rhythm section, and (d) a significant negative relationship between perceived ability and the thought that concert band is more important than jazz ensemble. Qualitative and quantitative data both suggest the following relationships between qualitative and quantitative participants' perceived ability to teach middle school jazz and current actions in teaching middle school jazz, and might be considered effective teaching practices: (a) requiring students to play a "traditional" jazz instrument in order to join jazz ensemble, (b) using major scales and pentatonic scales to teach improvisation, (c) modeling, (d) having students listen to jazz by watching jazz videos, (e) bringing in jazz clinicians to work with the group, and (f) involving students in call-and-response activities.