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Teacher Motivation and Student Achievement in Middle School Students

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Stephanie S Hayden
Abstract:
Motivation has been used to encourage teachers as well as students themselves to increase students' academic performance. Although research on motivation is extensive, few researchers have examined teachers' perceptions of teacher motivation and its impact on student achievement. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify how mathematics teachers perceived the effects of teacher motivation on student achievement on the state's Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), job satisfaction influence on teacher motivation, and FCAT accountability influence on teacher motivation. The motivational theories of Herzberg, Vroom, and McClelland served as the conceptual framework.Ten mathematics teachers were interviewed. All relevant statements were coded, categorized, and grouped into cluster of themes. All participants reported that teacher motivation affected student achievement and they believed it played a role in their student's achievement. Findings provide district and community stakeholders with an understanding of the perceptions of mathematics teachers' on teacher motivation. The research findings suggested that some teachers were dissatisfied that student achievements were linked to salaries increases. The implications for positive social change include improving teacher motivation, which may lead to improved student academic achievement.

T able of C ontents

Section 1: Introduction to the Study

....................................................................................1

Introduction ......................................................................................................................1

Problem Statement

........................................................................................................2

Purpose of the Study

.....................................................................................................3

Research Questions

......................................................................................................3

Conceptual Framework

................................................................................................4

Nature of the Study

.......................................................................................................6

Operational Definitions

................................................................................................7

Assumption, Limitations, Scope and Delimitations

.....................................................8

Assumption

............................................................................................................8

Limitations

.............................................................................................................8

Scope and Delimitations

.........................................................................................9

S ignificance of the Study

.................................................................................................9

Summary

.......................................................................................................................11

Section 2: Literature Review

.............................................................................................13

Organizat ion of the Review

............................................................................................14

Teacher Motivation

....................................................................................................14

Mandate for Student Achievement

.............................................................................23

Student Achievement

..................................................................................................25

ii

Teacher Motivation Impact on Student Achievement

................................................26

Performance Pay Primer for Teacher Motivation

......................................................34

Teacher Motivation and Work Environment

..............................................................37

Teacher Morale and Student Achievement

................................................................38

Teacher Effects and Impact on Student Achievement

...............................................44

Teacher Motivation and Student Achievement on Standardized Tests

......................47

Teacher Quality and Work Motivation

.......................................................................51

Summary

........................................................................................................................55

Section 3: Methodology

.....................................................................................................57

Introduction ....................................................................................................................55

Research Questions

........................................................................................................58

Rationale for Qualitative Tradition

................................................................................58

Rationale for Choosing a Phenomenological Study Method

.........................................59

Population

.......................................................................................................................60

Role of Researcher

.........................................................................................................61

Criteria for Selecting Participants

..................................................................................62

Data Collection Procedures

............................................................................................62

In - Depth Semi s tructure d Interviews

..............................................................................63

Data S torage

...................................................................................................................64

Data Analysis

.................................................................................................................64

Methods to Address Validity and Minimize Bias and Error

..........................................65

iii

Bracketing

...................................................................................................................65

Member - Checking ......................................................................................................66

Peer - D ebriefing

..........................................................................................................66

Design of Study

..........................................................................................................66

Instrumentation

...........................................................................................................67

Summary

........................................................................................................................68

Section 4: Results

...............................................................................................................69

Introduction ....................................................................................................................69

Data Collection

...............................................................................................................69

Data Recordings

.............................................................................................................70

Research Questions

........................................................................................................71

The Findings

...................................................................................................................72

Perception of Mathematics Teachers on Teacher Motivation

........................................73

Love for Children and Passion to See Them Succeed ................................................73

Teacher Motivation and Student Achievement on Standardized Tests

..........................74

Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction

.......................................................................78

Low Job Satisfaction ..................................................................................................78

Low Salary

..................................................................................................................79

Lack of Autonomy W ithin the Classroom

..................................................................81

Feelings of Frustration

................................................................................................83

iv

Teacher Motivation and Accountability on Standardized Tests

....................................84

Unrealistic Expectations

.............................................................................................84

Profession Not Valued in Society

...............................................................................89

Underappreciated

........................................................................................................90

Summary

........................................................................................................................93

Section 5: Discussion, Implications for Practice, Limitations, and Suggestions for Future Research

.............................................................................................................................94 Introduction ....................................................................................................................94

The Research Questions

.................................................................................................95

Interpretation of Findings

...............................................................................................95

Theme 1: Love for Students and Passion to See Them Succeed

................................95

Theme 2: Teacher Motivation Influence on Standardized Test

.................................96

Theme 3 : Job Satisfaction

..........................................................................................96

Theme 4 : Low Salary

.................................................................................................97

Theme 5: Lack of Autonomy within Classroom

........................................................98

Theme 6 : Feelings of Frustration

...............................................................................98

Theme 7 : Unrealistic Expectations

.............................................................................99

Theme 8: Profession Not Valued in Society

............................................................100

Theme 9 : Underappreciated

.....................................................................................101

Discussion

....................................................................................................................101

v

Implication for Practice

................................................................................................103

Limitation of the Study

................................................................................................106

Suggestions for Future Research

..................................................................................106

Implication for Social Chan ge

......................................................................................107

Researcher’s Reflection

................................................................................................108

Summary

......................................................................................................................110

References

....................................................................................................................111

Appendix

A: Invitation to Participate

..........................................................................126

Appendix B: Interview Guide

......................................................................................127

Appendix C: IRB Approved Letter of Invitation and Consent Form

...........................129

Appendix

D: Sample Interview Transcripts

.................................................................131

Curriculum Vitae

..........................................................................................................139

1

Section 1: Introduction to the Study

Introduction

I n south Florida , administrators from many school systems have asked teachers not to return for the upcoming school year because of the drastic cuts in funding . The result is a

negati ve effect on the morale of remaining teachers . In addition to a lack of sense of job security, multiple factors diminish teacher motivation, including (a) increased accountability for high - stakes testing, (b) low salaries, (c) lack of support from administ ration, and (d) sense of growth in the profession (Kieschke & Schaarschmidt, 2008). Teachers have proven to be the primary variable affecting student performance (Kane, Rockoff, & Staiger, 2006; Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005; Rockoff, 2004), even with th e onset of standardized testing. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (NCLB) made states and local districts accountable for all actions that produced low standardized scores on state level achievement test. Kohn (2001) stated that educators have never be en open to question the fidelity of these assessments; NCLB requires educators to teach material provided by the state and teachers are not allowed to deviate from the state standards and benchmarks given. As a result, teachers have felt a reduced ability to meet students’ needs and had a declined sense of empowerment (Faber, 1991; Troman & Woods , 2000 ). Jesus and Lens (2005) detailed a t eacher’s professional engagement constituted the best index of teacher motivation. The level of teacher engagement has st rong implications not only for professional growth and the quality of instruction but

2

also for student achievement. When teachers perform and carry out their specific job roles and duties, students produce and achieve positive results (Tucker et al., 2005) . L ow teacher morale and poor motivation has become a major problem at a south Florida school district, particularly at ABC Middle School. This qualitative study was designed to examine ABC Middle School mathematics teachers’ motivation and its impact on student achievement on the mathematics standardized achievement test, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). M athematics teachers ’

perception s

of their own motivation and the implications on student achievement were sought. Section 2 of this qualitative research study provides a detailed discussion of the related studies on teacher motivation.

Problem Statement

A decrease in reading and mathematics developmental scores on standardized tests exist ed in ABC Middle School. Since the creation of th e NCLB Act (2002) , teachers within school districts have been accountable for students' learning gains as measured by achievement levels on the FCAT, a standardized achievement test. To help improve student achievement on the FCAT, ABC Middle School implem ented the C ontinuous Improvement m odel

(CIM) . Despite the implementation of the CIM m odel, students’ developmental scores decreased. The problem has affected both students and teachers. Teachers received pay cuts, were reassigned to other schools, and were

exhausted by the mounting levels of paperwork and lack of support from administrators, and had low morale (Ross, 2011).

3

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore aspects of teachers ’

motivation at ABC Middle School

from i nterviews using open- ended questions and observations of teachers. I used the qualitative approach instead of all other approaches to highlight the shared experiences of participants

and to create a possible blueprint for reform. Teachers participated in s tructured in- depth interviews for a period of 3 weeks (between August 13, 2010, and

September 3, 2010), which detailed their experiences. The study sought to determine how teachers ’

perceived their teacher motivation and if it affected student achievement . Research Questions

The overall guiding question for this qualitative study was: How did mathematics teachers perceive the level of their motivation and its impact on student's achievement level in mathematics standardized tests (FCAT)? The study assess ed teachers’ perceptions of their motivations and provided evidence that determined whether or not teachers were intrinsically highly motivated and how such motivation may have affected students' achievement scores as compared to students whose teachers ha d decreased motivation. The following qualitative research questions were explored:

Research Question 1: How does teacher motivation influence student achievement on the FCAT?

Research Question 2: How does job satisfaction influence teacher motivation?

Research Question 3: How does FCAT accountability influence teacher

motivation?

4

Creswell (2003) discussed that the purpose of a phenomenological study is an opportunity that the researcher has to identify the essence of human experience with concerns to t he phenomena (teacher motivation), as described by the participants in a study (p. 15). A more detailed explanation of the methodology is included in Section 3 of this study.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual frameworks for this study was the following t heories: Herzberg’s two factor hygiene theory, McClelland ’s

a chievement/ p ower t heory, and Vroom ’s

e xpectancy t heory. Student motivation was a major focus of basic and applied research in educational psychology, but there was little research on teacher mot ivation (Butler, 2007). Herzberg’s t wo - factor hygiene (1966) and motivation theory (1989) suggested that certain factors contribute to job dissatisfaction. Herzberg’s first factor asserted that hygiene factors -- (a) organization, (b) policies and its admini stration leadership, (c) working conditions (d) salary, and (e) job security -- do not lead to higher levels of motivation , but without these factors t here is dissatisfaction. The second part of the theory stated that what educators actually do on the job and what is fabricated into the tasks that educators complete develops

intrinsic motivation within the classrooms. In other words , to be motivated to do good work, workers ( teachers ) must be happy with the job itself and the tasks that are accomplished. The

motivators include the following: (a) achievement, (b) interest in the job, (c) and growth and advancement in the current position.

5

McClelland’s (1987) theory of achievement motivation has been based on needs - motivation. This theory identified three types of motivational needs: (a) achievement, (b) authority/power motivation, (c) and affiliation motivation. W orkers and managers alike have all of the following above in varied degrees. According to McClelland (1987) the achievement person seeks achievement and job advancement. He or she needs realistic and challenging goals and a sense of accomplishment. The authority motivation worker believes that others validate their ideas and opinions a nd this makes them feel needed by others. The affiliate worker is mo tivated by the interactions with other people. Moreover, it is the relationship with these individuals, which flourishes within a team environment (McClelland , 1987). The expectancy theory of motivation asserted that motivation combines two concepts , valen ce and expectancy (Vroom, 1964). Valence refers to the preference of the individual toward a particular outcome or outcomes or the attractiveness of the outcome (Lawler, 1973; Vroom, 1964). This concept refer s

to the relative value of an individual places on outcomes. In other words, a teacher values a variety of things, which includes student performance or respect from colleagues. On the other hand, expectancy refer s to a person’s belief about the likelihood that their efforts result in the desired outcom e (Vroom, 1994). Lawler (1973) , in his analysis of the developments in motivation theory , argued that individuals expect that their efforts placed into a task lead to certain desirable outcomes. Moreover, organizational theorists such as Lawler (1973) hav e argued that individual performance in an organization is a multiplicative function of ability and

6

function. Vroom (1964) and Lawler (1973) both agree that teacher performance and ultimately student performance links to the ability of staff, the motivati on level of staff, or some combination of the two. Teachers perceive that if their own output in the form of instructional techniques influences the student achievement and lead s to the student meeting their overall goal of achievement. The intensity at wh ich teachers instruct leads

to the attainment of the students’ goal. A school climate that resembles a dictatorship guides teachers to become unmotivated and not enthusiastic about completing the requirements of the job. According to Dzubay (2001) a teache r’s attitude, performance, and overall job satisfaction changes dramatically in this type of environment described above.

Nature of the Study

This qualitative study attempted to clarify the effect of teacher motivation on student achievement on standardiz ed tests at ABC Middle School. The study conducted at a middle school in south Florida, which contained a population of 996 students in G rades 6 - 8 and with approximately 100 teachers. The research sample size consisted of 10 teachers using stratified samp ling (Fink, 2006). This included addressing the traditional achievement gaps, as well as focused attention on all students who did not perform at an achievement level of three. A more detailed discussion of teacher motivation and its impact on student achi evement was provided in S ection 3 . Using the the phenomenological approach to investigate this problem allowed the researcher to describe and understand the life experiences of the teachers.

7

Operational Definitions

Achievement goal orientation: R epresen ted an integrated pattern of beliefs that lead to different ways of approaching, engaging in, and responding to achievement associations (Ames, 1992). Achievement levels:

Defined as the success a student achieved on the Florida Sunshine State Standards te sted on the FCAT reading, mathematics, science, and writing assessment. Achievement levels

were based both on scale scores and developmental scale scores ranged from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest; Florida Dept. of Education, 2008). Extrinsic motivation: “ M otiv ation that required outside factors for fulfillment of individuals to do activities for instrumental or other reason, for example a received reward for a completed task” (Baker, Dreher, & Guthrie, 2000, p. 141).

Goals : Specific purposes that individuals s trived for in a specific (educational) setting (Wolters et al., 1996). Intrinsic motivation: M otivation that required no external factor for fulfillment or the

non- driven based motivation whose energy was intrinsic to the nature of the organism (Deci & Ry an 1985, p. 5)

Student achievement:

Defined as a summary of cognitive measure of what a student learned as a result of many units or months of work (Guida, Ludlow, & Wilson, 1985). Sunshine State Standards (SSS) : Selected benchmarks that were adopted in M ay 1996 by the State Board of Education in Florida. All public schools expected to teach students the content found in the SSS.

8

Teacher motivation: Defined as all those inner striving conditions, including the wishes, desires, and urges to stimulate the i nterest in a learning activity (Tracey, 2000).

Teacher performance : Any set of activities or behaviors that increased teacher efficacy, high quality teaching, improved student’s achievement, and added to school improvement. Work motivation:

A set of energ etic forces that originated both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work - related behavior and determined its form, direction, intensity, and duration (Pinder, 1998, p. 11)

Assumption, Limitations, Scope and Delimitations

Assumption

One assumption was made with regard to this study.

1. It was assumed that all teachers were honest in all responses.

Limitations

1. Because this study focused on only one middle school, the data gathered was only applicable to this school or simil ar schools in terms of population and achievement.

2. The study was conducted for 4 weeks (August 13, 2010, and September 3, 2010), which limited the scope of data collection to only a 9 - week marking period, as defined by Palm Beach County Public Schools . 3. Differences in mathematics teachers’ perceptions of teacher motivation varied with respect to gender of the teachers, and years of teaching experience in content matter.

9

4. The researcher was an instructor at the research site.

5. This was a small study that focused on one school in one district. Scope and Delimitations

The scope of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher motivation and student achievement. This study was delimited to assessing students’ achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade classrooms at a middle school in south Florida; thus, the ability to generalize to the entire middle school population of Florida and beyond its borders was limited. The sample generalized to similar areas within the state.

Signi ficance of the Study

Educators throughout the United States are continuously seeking a better learning environment with academic success for all students in mind. The significance of this study concerned the perceptions of mathematics teachers’ motivation and its impact on student achievement on standardized tests might provide the information required to assist teachers in planning effective instruction.

Darling and Hammond (2006) identified several factors that explained why students succeeded: (a) high l evels of parental involvement, (b) high academic standards, (c) diagnostic assessment as a strategy for monitoring student performance, and (d) strong leadership on the part of the principal. An additional possible factor that affected the outcome of stud ent achievement was motivation of teachers. Moreover, Jesus and Conboy (2001) , Mowday, Koberg, and McArthur (1984), and Porter and Steers (1973)

argued that the impact made by decisions

10

of individual teachers was far greater than the impact of decisions ma de at the school level

Motivation of teachers plays

a key role in the learning and classroom environment. This study sought to measure mathematics teachers’ perception of teacher motivation.. The study is significant because it allows teachers to share th eir perceptions of teacher motivation and possible ways to motivate them to continue instructing students. Moreover, some teachers agree that an incentive does not necessarily increase their intrinsic teacher motivation and a need for continuous feedback f rom principals necessary. Leaders of school districts can create programs used to boost teacher morale and can decide when during the school year they should be implemented. Teacher motivation is important for the advancement of educational reforms. First, motivated teachers are likely to work for educational reform and progressive legislation. Second– and perhaps more importantly – it is the motivated teacher who guaranteed the implementation of reforms originating at the policy - making level. Finally, teacher

motivation is important for the satisfaction and fulfillment of teachers themselves. Beyond issues of personal well - being, such feelings of satisfaction are consistently associated with lower levels of organizational absenteeism and turnover (Jesus & Conboy, 2001; Mowday

et al ., 1984) ; Porter & Steers, 1973).

This study contributes to the body of knowledge needed to address this problem by assessing the relationship that exists between teacher motivation and achievement levels in middle school students. The underlined influence of such research study broadens the outlook of stakeholders and districts to see that teacher motivation plays a

11

role in the increase or decrease of achievement levels of students across the nation. Consequently, teachers perceive that motivation is an important factor when it comes to the achievement of students within their classroom. Further training in pre - service programs must be added to incorporate professional developments course on teacher motivation.

Summary

The purpose o f this study was to examine the perceptions of mathematics teachers’ motivation. Research supports the concept that motivation is an essential element in any classroom which must be exhibited by the teacher as well as the students for achievement. Section 1 included (a) a description of the problem, (b) purpose of the study, (c) research questions and theoretical framework, and (d) significance of the study. Section 2 provides a review of the research literature related to the research study and includes l iterature related to the use of different methodologies considered for investigation of the topic. Section 2 also includes a review of literature on the impact of teacher motivation on student achievement. Section 3 provides a description and justification of how the research design fit the problem examined. Additionally, section 3 presents the context of the study, ethical precautions taken, rationale for selecting participants, researcher’s role to the participants and to the data, and an explanation of data collection procedures and analysis. Section 4 presents the results of the study, and section 5 summarizes interpretations of the research findings, puts forth the implications for practice and social change, and offers recommendations for further study .

12

Section 2: Literature Review

Organization of the Review

This section provides an extensive review of current and relevant literature concerning the main features as they related to a phenomenological study , a history of teacher motivation, impact of tea cher motivation and student achievement, and teacher motivation and the role i t played in student achievement on standardized tests. This section include s

a review of research literature on teacher effects, teacher morale, and teacher motivation and its im pact on student achievement. To conduct the search for this review, I reviewed books and journal articles, as well as conducted web - based searches

of scholar ly

databases such as Academic Search Premier, other EBSCO databases, and Google Scholar. With the use of an Internet search, I incorporated key terms to limit each search. For example, the key words motivation, teacher motivation, teacher motivation and student achievement , and teacher motivation and standardized tests. A report published by the Assoc iation of California School Administrators (2000) stated that in the preceding

two

decades of education reform, teachers were viewed as central to both the problems of education and the solutions. According to sociologists, current school environments are

a reward - scarce setting for professional work, and often seem to work against teachers’ best efforts to grow professionally and improve students’ learning (Peterson, 1995). Much of teachers’ work is carried out in self - contained classrooms that isolate th em from the support of their colleagues. Because of this organizational structure, teachers are difficult to supervise, do not receive regular

13

feedback from others, and often find it hard to collaborate. Perhaps as a result of these circumstances, the research showed that many good teachers left the teaching profession in the first three years (Frase, 1992). Clearly, educational leaders need to find ways to keep teachers in the profession and keep them motivated. Therefore, a review of history of teacher m otivation and its impact on student achievement provides an insight into addressing the research question: How did mathematics teachers who participated in this in this research study perceive their teacher motivation and its impact on student achievement level on mathematics standardized tests (FCAT)?

Teacher Motivation

The basis of teacher motivation , according to Herzberg’s two - factor theory were those intrinsic motivating factors that determined the degree of job satisfaction and job contents and extrin sic motivating factors were those that determined the degree of the job dissatisfaction as it related to the job context (Herzberg,

as cited in Stembridge, 1989). Teacher motivation accounted for the drive, energy, and commitment an individual had to prom ote teaching as sustainable professional activity with a sense of purpose and mission which was mindful of the social context in which teachers operated (Morgan et a l ., 2007). Morgan et al. (2007) proposed that teacher motivation drawn from various areas ( including psychology, sociology, and classroom research). In a description of teacher motivation , Morgan et

a l . explained that teachers considered the familiarity of the content they taught and if it was challeng ing

to teach. Moreover, the teachers also co nsidered going beyond their call of duty, enrolled in courses outside of the traditional professional development requirements for the profession or renewed licensure. These teachers that

14

went beyond the call of duty were interested in utilizing whatever i t took, to meet their students’ instructional needs. According to Whatley (1998) teachers have certain motivations in choosing the profession of being an educator. These motivations include: (a) “love” of, or desire to work with, children, or adolescents; (b) the perceived worth or value of teaching to others; (c) a desire to help other people; (d) dissatisfaction with a previous career; (e) the benefits of teaching (convenience such as work schedules, work hours and vacations, and salary). The literature also suggested that variations in motivations to teach existed between different groups such as , minority groups (Dilworth, 1991; Gordon, 1993), those with differing levels of academic achievement (Hart & Murphy, 1990; Weiner, 1992; Whately, 1998), those with different nationalities (Yong, 1995), and second - career teachers (Crow , Levine, & Nager, 1990) ; Serow, 1993). Ames and Ames (1984) proposed that teachers pursue “ability - evaluative” goals to demonstrate high ability or masked low ability. In addition , models of reflective practice assume that teachers function best when they learn and acquire competence (Henderson, 1992; Pollard, 2002). Pelletier, Seguin- Levesques, and Legault (2002) reported differences in teachers’ self - determination, a form of motivation similar to mastery orientation. I n the 1980s, state governments and local school districts enacted an array of incentive plans designed to recruit, reward, and retain the best teachers. Merit pay and career ladders were intended to provide financial incentives, varied work, and advancement opportunities for seasoned teachers. Teachers discover the true love of teaching and even go on to complete higher degrees in the educational field. With time

15

comes the realization that opportunities in teaching ev entually lose their way to resentment and loss of motivation. According to Johnson (1986), measures developed to boost teacher motivation based on three theories of motivation and productivity: (a) expectancy theory, (b) equity, and (c) job enrichment the ory. The expectancy theory Johnson (1986) explained that [teachers] were likely to strive in their work if there was an anticipated reward that they valued, such as a bonus or a promotion, than if there were teachers which were no longer wanted to teach an d that was why Frase (1992) discovered that what Johnson saw in the early 80s had changed. Frase (1992) offered a reason to explain why external rewards are insufficient to sustain teacher motivation. There is overwhelming research evidence

that alludes t o the fact that individuals enter the educational field to help young people learn and their most gratifying reward is to accomplish this goal. Work- related factors were important to teachers because it allowed them to practice their craft successfully (se e also Frase 1989; Lortie 1976; Mitchell, Ortiz, and Mitchell 1987). Frase (1989) found that two set of factors that affected teachers’ ability to perform effectively were work context factors such as (the teaching environment, and work content factors - te aching).

A supportive work environment that promoted teacher job effectiveness, job satisfaction and retention were important. Problems ar o se between teachers and parents especially with how the principal handle d discipline problems with students and this issue had an adverse effect on the entire school community. Having a sense of empowerment and autonomy increased job related responsibility and helped teachers feel satisfied with their jobs.

16

Davis and Wilson (2000) concluded that teachers given more resp onsibilities over schedules, discipline, and students’ placement indeed improved the educational environment and therefore enhanced the teacher’s motivational level. Overall teachers wanted to feel that they indeed made a difference within their classrooms . Teacher mentoring programs was a supportive way that helped reduced teacher attrition and increased teacher retention (Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004). Ingersol and Kralik (2004) suggested that conclusive the addition of programs of this magnitude helped new t eachers adapt to a school culture and learning environment.

Marzano (2003) concluded that effective teachers employed effective instructional strategies, classroom management techniques, and classroom curricular design in a fluent, seamless fashion. Covino and Iwanicki (1996) studied behaviors of effective, experienced teachers, who identified the construction of what they meant by the term effective teaching and in summation they agreed in some ways that there was a positive correlation between how import ant explicit directions given to students and student engagement within the classroom. The teachers also summarized that when this was done then they believed that more content was covered and the students felt the classroom was warm and friendly. In a M arch 2004 issue of Teaching Quality in the Southeast: Best Practices and Policies , the editor noted:

We learn from our case studies that No Child Left Behind helped human

resources in districts pay more attention to the importance of recruiting and

retaining effective teachers and sent this strong message to communities.

Full document contains 147 pages
Abstract: Motivation has been used to encourage teachers as well as students themselves to increase students' academic performance. Although research on motivation is extensive, few researchers have examined teachers' perceptions of teacher motivation and its impact on student achievement. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify how mathematics teachers perceived the effects of teacher motivation on student achievement on the state's Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), job satisfaction influence on teacher motivation, and FCAT accountability influence on teacher motivation. The motivational theories of Herzberg, Vroom, and McClelland served as the conceptual framework.Ten mathematics teachers were interviewed. All relevant statements were coded, categorized, and grouped into cluster of themes. All participants reported that teacher motivation affected student achievement and they believed it played a role in their student's achievement. Findings provide district and community stakeholders with an understanding of the perceptions of mathematics teachers' on teacher motivation. The research findings suggested that some teachers were dissatisfied that student achievements were linked to salaries increases. The implications for positive social change include improving teacher motivation, which may lead to improved student academic achievement.