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Teacher beliefs and practices: Their effects on student achievement in the urban school setting

Dissertation
Author: Sr. John Christopher Herrera
Abstract:
Increasing diversity in schools in the United States over the last few decades, combined with an emphasis on high-stakes testing, has heightened concerns about the academic performance of students of color, in particular African American students. There are concerns about the appropriateness of a Eurocentric curriculum taught by White teachers, which often limits the use of a multicultural curriculum--one that values the culture and lifestyles of diverse students. This study focused on elements within teaching practices that improved achievement among students of color. An enhanced application of the Multiple Meanings of Multicultural Teacher Education Framework (MTEF), along with assessments of teacher training instruments (Gay, 1994; Love, 2001; Ladson-Billings, 1994), helped to create the Model for Modified Multicultural Teacher Education Framework on Teacher Perception of Student Achievement that served as a guide for the investigation. The overall findings confirmed the utility of the model and the enhancements made to the multicultural assessment instruments. Depending upon what elements were chosen, between 18% and 23% of the variance explained in teacher's beliefs, attitudes and perceptions could be explained by their training, their community involvement, awareness of self, knowledge of subject and a positive approach to the institutional culture. The findings support the existing literature and adds to it a new dimension by directly focusing on teacher's perceptions, attitudes and beliefs that promote or constrain teaching and learning about urban African American students in the urban classroom.

TABLEOFCONTENTS TableofContents...............................................................................................................vi ListofFigures.....................................................................................................................x ListofTables.....................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER1:INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................1

OverviewoftheIssue..............................................................................................1 StatementoftheProblem.........................................................................................3 PurposeoftheStudy................................................................................................4 TheoreticalOrientation:MulticulturalTeacherEducationFramework..................4 ResearchQuestions..................................................................................................7 Hypotheses...............................................................................................................8 ConceptualDefinitions............................................................................................8 VariablesoftheStudy....................................................................................8 OutcomeMeasure..........................................................................................9 PredictorMeasures.........................................................................................9 OrganizationalOverview.......................................................................................11 CHAPTER2:LITERATUREREVIEW..........................................................................12 HistoricalContextofMulticulturalEducation......................................................13 MulticulturalEducationandTeacherPractice.......................................................14 BeliefSystems.......................................................................................................16 TeacherPracticesandBeliefs......................................................................17 Teacher’sBeliefsandDiverseStudents......................................................18 TeacherExpectations.............................................................................................18 TeacherPerceptionsofUrbanStudents.................................................................20

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TeacherPractices...............................................................................................................22 AchievementGap,StudentsandTeachers...................................................22 NoChildLeftBehind...................................................................................24 CulturallyResponsiveTeaching............................................................................27 Summary................................................................................................................31 CHAPTER3:METHODOLOGY....................................................................................32 ResearchQuestions................................................................................................32 ResearchHypotheses.............................................................................................33 InstrumentDevelopment........................................................................................33 SampleDesign.......................................................................................................34 Procedure...............................................................................................................34 Participants.............................................................................................................35 OperationalizationofResearchVariables.............................................................36 OperationalDefinitions..........................................................................................37 PredictorVariables.......................................................................................37 OutcomeVariable........................................................................................38 PlanofAnalysis.....................................................................................................39 AnalyticalStrategy.................................................................................................39 UnivariateStatistics.....................................................................................40 BivariateStatistics......................................................................................40 MultivariateStatistics..................................................................................40 CHAPTER4:RESULTS..................................................................................................41 SamplingProcess...................................................................................................41

viii Procedure.....................................................................................................41 Instrument....................................................................................................42 DataCollection:SampleDesignandProcess.......................................................43 Results....................................................................................................................44 InvestigationVariables................................................................................44 SampleDemographics................................................................................44 PredictorVariables.................................................................................................48 OutcomeVariables.................................................................................................48 ScaleVariables.......................................................................................................49 BivariateAnalysis..................................................................................................50 MeansDifferenceTestingwithSelectedMeasures.....................................51 RelationshipsofInfluenceonTeachers’Attitudes......................................53 MultivariateAnalysis.............................................................................................57 TestingTheoreticalAssumptionsandHypotheses.......................................57 AssessingAttitudes,PerceptionsandBeliefsaboutInnercity MulticulturalStudents..................................................................................59 CHAPTER5:DISCUSSIONANDCONCLUSION.......................................................64 Overview................................................................................................................64 Purpose...................................................................................................................64 Methodology..........................................................................................................65 ResearchFindings..................................................................................................66 TeacherEducation.......................................................................................66 YearsofExperience.....................................................................................66 RaceofTeacher...........................................................................................67 MulticulturalPreparation.............................................................................67 Hypotheses.............................................................................................................68

ix Implications............................................................................................................72 DefinitionandAssumptionsAboutMulticulturalEducation......................72 SuccessfulMulticulturalTeacherPreparationProgram..............................75 TeacherExpectationsandBeliefs................................................................77 TeacherasSelfFulfillingClassroomProphets...........................................79 CulturallyResponsiveTeaching..................................................................82 SuggestionsforFurtherResearch..........................................................................83 LimitationsofStudy..............................................................................................85 ConclusionandCommentary.................................................................................86 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................92 AppendixA:LetterfromIRB.........................................................................................102 AppendixB:SurveyInstrument.....................................................................................103 AppendixC:ScaleConstructionItems...........................................................................117

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LISTOFFIGURES Figure1.1SchematicoftheMultipleMulticulturalTeacherEducationFramework.......6 Figure3.1OperationalModelforModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducation FrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudentAchievement.........................36

Figure4.1 ScoresforScaleMeasuresbyRaceofRespondent.......................................53 Figure4.2 MeanScoresforSubScaleMeasuresbyRaceofRespondent......................55 Figure4.3 ModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationPerceptionofStudent AchievementModel.......................................................................................61

Figure4.4 FinalModelforTeacherAttitudeMeasureSpecificallyFocused onTeacher’sAttitudesBasedonGunnMeasure...........................................62

Figure4.5 AlternateFinalModelforTeacherAttitudeMeasureSpecifically FocusedonTeacher’sAttitudesTowardAfricanAmericanStudents...........63

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LISTOFTABLES Table4.1 DescriptiveCharacteristicsandDemographicsDatafor Teacher’sStudentAchievement......................................................................45

Table4.2 MeasuresofCentralTendencyandMeasuresofDispersionof SelectedStudyVariables.................................................................................47

Table4.3 Means,StandardDeviations,Cronbach’sAlphaScoresandCounts forTeacher’sBeliefs,PerceptionsandAttitudeMeasures.............................50

Table4.4 ANOVAforDifferencesamongRaceGroupsonMajorScaleMeasures......52 Table4.5 ANOVAforDifferencesamongRaceGroupsonMajorScaleMeasures......54 Table4.6 ZeroOrderCorrelationsforRelevantStudyElementsand HypothesizedOutcomeMeasures....................................................................55

Table4.7 ZeroOrderCorrelationsforRelevantStudyElementsand HypothesizedOutcomeMeasures....................................................................57

1 CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION OverviewoftheIssue NationaleducationalgoalsweredevelopedasaresultoftheEducationSummit heldneartheendofthe1980s(Pipho,1996).Thefindingsfromthesummitemphasized accountabilityandstandardsinthecoreacademiccontentareasidentifiedasthearts, civics,history,andscience.Studentachievementwasthefocusofthe1990sfor standardsbasedaccountabilitybystatesparticipatingintheeducationreformmovement (Allen,1994).Thepurposeoffocusingonaccountabilitywastourgestatestoalign curriculumandinstructionwithmoreobjectivestandards.Inaddition,theuseofdataas akeyanalyticaltoolwouldconcentrateonstudentachievementandgenerate standardizedmeasuresbywhichvalidcomparisonscouldbemade.Bythemid1990s thesestandardswereenhancedtocomplywithTitle1funding.Theproposedchanges allowedfundingforschoolsidentifiedashavingsocioeconomicallydisadvantaged students.Statesanddistrictsweremandatedtoidentifylowperformingschools.To improvethestatusoftheseidentifiedschools,stateswererequiredtodeveloprigorous contentperformancestandards,highqualityassessments,andmeasurestudent achievementannually(EdSource,2000). TheGoals2000:EducateAmericaActwasamendedin1996.TheActassisted statesinformulatingstandardsthathighlightedstudentperformancestandards.Under thislaw,theplanningandimplementationofschoolimprovementfocusedonraising studentachievementsothatitwouldmeetthenewstandards.Thesupportnotonly includedstateinitiativesbutalsothoseatthedistrictlevel.Anotherrequirementofthe

2 EducateAmericaActpromptedstatestoalignassessmentssothattheywouldbe consistentincontentandperformancestandards.Newlyformulatedprocedureshadtobe putinplacebydistrictstoserveastheaccountabilitymechanismstomonitorstudent achievementprogress(Kendall&Marzano,1997). ImplementationofstandardsbeganwiththeImprovingAmerica’sSchoolsAct (LeTendre,1996).Threetypesofstandardswererequired:(a)academiccontent standards;(b)performancestandards;and(c)proficiencylevels.Stateswerealsofaced withmorevigorousaccountabilityrequirementsbythefederalNoChildLeftBehindAct (NCLB)of2001(EdSource,2003).Thisactrequiredschoolstoraisetheperformance ofallstudentsandclosetheachievementgap(NoChildLeftBehindAct,2001). ReportsbytheNationalAssessmentofEducationalProgress(NAEP)serveas majorresourcesforcommunicatingthemovementinclosingtheachievementgap requiredintheNCLBAct.ThedatageneratedbyNAEPareusedtodevelopstatistical reportsontheassessmentsoffourth,eighth,andtwelfthgradestudentsfromstateand nationallevels.Theassessmentsfollowasubjectareaframeworkthathasbeen developedbytheNationalAssessmentGoverningBoard(NAGB).Subgroupsfromthe studentpopulationaresampledandaremonitoredbyNAEP.Thesubgroupsincludedin thesereportsarenumerous(e.g.malestudents,femalestudents,Blackstudents,Hispanic Students,Whitestudents).ItisalsotheresponsibilityoftheNAEPtoassessandmeasure studentperformancechangesovertimeacrossavarietyofacademicdomains— specifically,mathematics,science,writing,UShistory,civics,geography,andfinearts. Formalizedprimaryeducationcurrentlyfindsitselfinoneofthemostexciting timesinitsshortexistence.Atnotimeinitshistoryhastherebeenasmuchcapacityfor

3 truechange.AsschoolscometogripswiththeimplicationsofNCLB,educatorsare facedwiththestarkrealizationofagrowingachievementgapbetweenspecificsegments ofstudents.OfnoteisthegrowingdisparityfoundbetweenWhiteandAfricanAmerican students.Thisexcitementisderivedfrombeingabletoclearlyidentifyandempirically verifythedisparitiesthatexistbetweenthesegroups.Thedatahasrevealedthatfor everystudent,regardlessofrace,gender,orsocioeconomicstatus,thesinglemost importantfactorindeterminingtheirsuccessorlackofsuccessistheclassroomteacher (Stringfield,Waxman&Padron,2000).Itisnomorecomplicatedthanthat.Students benefitmorefromqualityinstructionthananyothersinglefactorastudentencounters duringtheeducationalprocess.Thedataalsosupportadisparityingraduationrates betweenthesetwogroups.Theimpactofthesedisparitiescanbeseeninthehighschool graduationrates.In2001,onaverage50%ofAfricanAmericanstudentsgraduated comparedto75%ofWhitestudents(Greene&Winters,2005),thusrevealingless preparationofAfricanAmericanhighschoolstudentsthantheirWhitecounterparts. StatementoftheProblem Theachievementgapexistsatallgradesofeducationandineverysubject.Yet, despitethefactthatresearchcontinuestoshowthateducationisacriticalfactorin improvinganindividual’slifecircumstances,thepresenceofanachievementgap remainsproblematic.Theissuehereistoidentifywhatfactorscontributetothe achievementgapproblem.Inanefforttoexploreoneofthesefactorsingreaterdepth, thisstudyproposestoexamineteacher’strainingandattitudesrelatedtomulticultural issuesasoneelementintheequation.Theaimisnottoplaceblameortosuggestblame regardingteachers;rather,theideaistoexaminethecurriculaanditsshortcomingsthat

4 canonlybeassessedbyteachersthemselvesoncetheyarriveintheclassroom.Inshort, thestudysuggeststheproblemwithstudentachievementislinkedtoimpropertrainingof teacherswithregardtomulticulturalissues,theirattitudesandbehaviorstowardthe same,alongwithlackofstrategiesprovidedbytheirtrainingforaddressingtheseissues intheirworklives. PurposeoftheStudy Thepurposeofthisstudyistoexaminetheteachingpracticesthatleadto improvedachievementamongstudentsofcolor.Thisresearchwillcenteronthepractices ofsecondaryschoolteachingpracticesinurbansettings.Uponexaminingthe instructionalpracticesfoundintheseschools,anattemptwasmadetoaddressthe overarchingquestionofwhetherornotachievementoutcomesareabyproductofpoor instructionoraretheyfosteredbyasetofpreconceivednotionsbroughtbyclassroom teachers,baseduponinadequatetrainingfordealingwithurban,economically challenged,multiculturalstudents.ThisstudyusestheCochranSmith(2003)Multiple MeaningofMulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkforassessinganddescribingthe levelofpreparationteachersinanurbanschooldistricthaveforaddressingthecomplex livesthattheirstudentsbringtotheclassroom. TheoreticalOrientation:MulticulturalTeacherEducationFramework TheimportanceofthisstudycameinpartfromitsapplicationoftheMultiple MeaningsofMulticulturalTeacherEducationFramework(MTEF)andtheassessmentof teachertraining(seeFigure1.1).Theseweremeasuredbyutilizingamodifiedversionof Love’s(2001)andLadsonBillings’(1994a)instrumentsdesignedtomeasureclassroom teachers’attitudesaboutstudentsofcolor.Inaddition,somemodificationsbythe

5 researcherwerebasedonGay(1994)andincorporatedtocapturetheessenceofthe researchquestions.Thisframeworkwillbeusefulforunderstandinghowteacherswere trained,howtheirtraininghasservedorhamperedthem,andwillallowareaswherethere couldbespecificenhancementsforteachertrainingtobepinpointed. TheMTEFframeworkarguesthatteacherpreparationmustansweroractoneight specificissuesframedasquestionsrelatedtomulticulturalism(CochranSmith,2003). Thesearehighlightedinthefollowingparagraphs.Thefirst,thediversityquestion,asks whatculturalelementsdefinethecurrentproblemsandwhatsolutionscanbedeveloped? Thesecondquestion,knownasthepracticequestion,developsspecificoutlinesofthe skillsteachersneedtobeeffectiveintheclassroom.Thisincludestheabilityto acknowledgeculturalteachingandinvolvingfamiliesandthesurroundingcommunities. Theknowledgequestionisnext.Itaddresseshowthebeliefsandvaluesheldbythe teacherequateintoeffectiveclassroompractices.Ofequalimportanceistheideology questionthataddressesone’sbeliefaboutthehistoricalrelevanceofteachingandits placeincurrentsociety.Thepersonalidealsandvaluesthatformtheseopinionsarealso averyimportantissueofaperson’sideology. Inconjunctionwiththesefirstfourelementsaretheremainingones.Ofthese,the teacherlearningquestionisessential.Itaskshowdoteachersacquiretheirpedagogical skillsandhowdotheseskillsetsfacilitatelearning?Thenextquestions,recruitmentand selectionaddressthemannerinwhichprospectiveteachingcandidatesareselectedand retainedintheworkforce.Finally,thequestionofcoherenceestablisheshowandtowhat degreetheinitialsevenquestionsareconnectedandhowmulticulturalissuesare

6 juxtaposedtootherrelevantissues.Figure1.1illustrateshowtheeightquestionsare alignedwithinthecontextoftheMTEF(CochranSmith,2003). Figure1.1.SchematicoftheMultipleMulticulturalTeacherEducationFramework. TheTeacherEducationQuestionsplacementillustratesthatdiversityissuesare centralwithintheMTEF.Multiculturaltheoristsadvocatethecentralityofdiversity issuesincurriculum.Theyalsoproposethattheseissuesbemandatedinthestudyof prospectiveteachersandincorporatedincoursesandfieldworkexperiences(Villegas& Lucas,2000). AnotherimportantaspectoftheMTEFframeworkisitssystemicnature.The modelaccountsforexternalforcesonteachersandteachereducationprograms,andhow theseinfluencetheeightquestionsisaddressed.Tothatextent,theinstitutionalcapacity, thatelementthatexaminestheorganization,supports,andconstraintsofmulticultural teachereducationinstitutionsisaddressed.Relationshipswithlocalcommunitiesare

7 concernedwithteachereducationprograms’valueandinteractionalongwiththeir contributionatvariouscommunitylevelsrangingfromlocalfamiliestoregionalareas. Finally,governmentalandnongovernmentalregulationsplayalargeroleinhowteacher preparationprogramsapproachandaddressissues.Thelargesocietycontextreferstothe social,historical,economic,andpoliticalissues,includingagendaforeducational reformsthatareentrenchedandaffecttheconditionofschools. ResearchQuestions Thegeneraloverviewofliteratureandtheresearcher’sstronginterestinthe researchtopicledhimtodevelopthreeresearchquestions.Thesequestionsserveasthe guidingforceinthisdissertation.Theyareasfollows: 1. Towhatextentdoesaneducator’sculturallyrelevantbeliefsystemaffectthe underlyingexpectationsoftheirstudent’sperformances? 2. Howdoesaneducator’sperceptionofprerequisiteknowledge(i.e.,socialskill, socialknowledge,andculturalcompetency)influenceteachingmethodologies (practice)? 3. Howdoesthesocialecologyofaneducator[(a)theirrelationshipsoutsideofthe classroomwithotherswhoarenotlikethemselves,(b)theirperceptionoftheir students’academicstrengths,(c)theirattitudestowardteachingasaprofession (d)theirpersonalpracticeofeducation,and(e)culturalcompetencylevel]affect theperceptiontheyhavetowardstudentachievement?

8 Hypotheses Thefollowinghypothesesaresupportedbytheliteratureandthetheoretical perspectiveemployedinthisstudy.Theyareasfollows: Hypothesis1: Amongeducators,teacherswithhigherexpectationsofstudent prerequisiteskillsaremorelikelytohavegreaterculturalcompetency levels. Hypothesis2: Amongeducators,teacherswithlowerexpectationsaboutstudent prerequisiteknowledgetherewillbelessinstructionalteachingpractices. Hypothesis3: StudentAchievementwillbedirectlyinfluencedbythesocialecologyof theteacher. ConceptualDefinitions TheframeworkandthevariablesusedintheMultipleMulticulturalTeacher EducationFrameworkhavebeengeneratedbyboththeoryandpreviousresearch.In ordertoexaminetheproposedresearchquestions,itisvitaltoclearlydefinetheterms thatwillbeusedinthisinvestigation.Tostrengthentheexaminationoftheseconcepts, theconceptualtermsanddefinitionsofthisstudyarehighlightedbelow.Theseconcepts anddefinitionsprovideusefulinformationabouttheelementscontainedintheconceptual model(seeFigure1.1)andoffergreaterclarityastohowtheseelementscontributetothe outcomemeasures. VariablesoftheStudy Therearetwotypesofmeasuresthatareexaminedinthisstudy,predictorsand outcomesmorecommonlyreferredtoasindependentanddependentvariables.The

9 determinationoftheplacementofvariablesintospecificcategoriesisbasedonboth theoreticalconsiderationsandpreviousempiricalfindings.Amoredetailedexploration ofvariableselectionisprovidedinChapterThreeofthisdocument.Fornow,the conceptualaspectsofthesemeasuresareconsideredbelow. OutcomeMeasure Theoutcomemeasureistheteacher perceptions toward student achievement—thiswillbeassessedbyexamininghowteachersseestudents,whatthey thinkabouthowstudentslearn,andhowtheyperceivethemselvesasfacilitatorsinthe processofstudents’learning. PredictorMeasures Thereareanumberofimportantfactorsthatlendsupporttotheconceptualmodel asproposed.Thesepredictormeasuresprovideameaningfulcontextwherebytheroles oftheseelementsareintegratedintoaworkingmodeldesignedtoprovideanexplanation ofhowteacherperceptionisaffected. Listedbelowaretheconceptualdefinitionsofthepredictormeasures.Itisvital thattheconstructswithinthisresearchbedefined.Thefollowingconceptualdefinitions arespecifictothetopicofdiscussionusedthroughouttheinvestigation. Beliefs. Beliefsarethebuildingblocksofattitudes(Pajares,1992).Beliefsreferto “inferencesmadebyanobserveraboutunderlyingstatesofexpectancy” (Rokeach,1968,p.2).Beliefsareinstrumentalindefiningbehavior,organizing knowledge,andmakingdecisions.

Teachers’ Beliefs. Teachers’attitudesabouteducation,teaching,andlearningare referredtoas“teachers’beliefs.”Inthisinvestigation,teachers’attitudesare equivalenttoeducationalbeliefssinceprofessional/educationalbeliefsare stronglyandpositivelycorrelatedwitheachother(Pohan&Aguilar,2001). Teachers’beliefsaredefinedasconstructsthatprovideanunderstandingofa teacher’spractice(Nespor,1987;Richardson,1996).

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Achievement gap. Itisanideadefinedasthedifferenceinacademicachievement betweenstudentsofcolorandthoseofthedominantculture.

AYP. (Adequate Yearly Progress)—anacronymbasedonthe2001federallawNCLB, thatrequiresschoolsanddistrictstomeasureandreporttheirstudents’annual progresstowardproficiencyinEnglish/languageartsandmathematicsby2013 2014.ProgressisbasedonwhethertheschoolordistricthasmetitsAnnual MeasurableObjectivesanddemonstrated95%participationonstandardizedtests, achieveditstargetontheAPI,and(forhighschools)mettargetgraduationrates (EdSource,2007).

Culturally relative teaching—pedagogythatempowersstudentsintellectually,socially, emotionally,andpoliticallybyusingculturalreferenttoimpartknowledge,skills, andattitudes(LadsonBillings,1994b).

Culture—asocialgroup’sdesignforsurvivinginandadaptingtoitsenvironment (Bullivant,1989,p.27)

Ethnicity—theselfidentificationormembershipinaparticularracial,national,cultural groupaccompaniedbyanobservanceofthatgroup’scustoms,beliefs,and language.

Knowledge—thesumorrangeofwhathasbeenperceived,discovered,orlearned.

Race—alocalgeographicorglobalhumanpopulationdistinguishedasamoreorless distinctgroupbysomegeneticallytransmittedphysicalcharacteristics(i.e.skin color,facialform,oreyeshape).

Students of color / person of color—atermused,primarilyintheUnitedStates,to describeallpeoplewhoarenotWhite.Thetermismeanttobeinclusive.The termpeopleofcolorispreferredtobothnonWhiteandminoritybecauseit framesthesubjectpositivelyanddoesnotplacethesubjectinasubordinate position.

Student strength—referredtoastheabilityofastudenttoprovideconsistent,near perfectperformanceinagivenacademicactivity.

Relationship with Community—themeasurethatexamineshowwellteachersare connectedtothecommunitiesinwhichtheyserve.

Teaching as a profession---Teachingconsistsofabodyofspecifiedprofessional knowledge,andcodesofethics.Somegovernmentsprotectthepublicinterest throughcertifying,governingandenforcingthestandardsofpracticeforthe teachingprofession.

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Teaching practice or pedagogy—theartorscienceofbeingateacher,generallyrefers tostrategiesofinstruction,orastyleofinstruction.Thewholecontextof instruction,learning,andtheactualoperationsinvolvedtherein.

Social Ecology—isacompositemeasurethatconsistsofteacher’sinteractionswith othersbothinsideandoutsideoftheclassroom,theperceptionofstudent strengths,theirattitudetowardteaching,theirprofessionalpractices,andcultural awareness. OrganizationalOverview Thisdissertationisorganizedintofivechapters.ChapterOne,theintroduction, explainsthepurpose,rationaleandthetheoreticalcontextfortheinvestigationinto teacher’spreparation,knowledge,skillsandoverallattitudeaboutdealingwithstudents ofcolor.Chapter2examinesrelevantliteratureandincludesareviewofthehistoryof multiculturaleducation,teacherbeliefs,practices,relationshipsandexpectationsandhow thisinfluencesteachingpracticesand,ultimately,learningoutcomesforstudentsofcolor. Inaddition,thechapterhighlightstheimportanceofculturallyresponsiveteaching. Chapter3centersonthemethodologicalapproachesusedtoguidetheresearch. Thischapterincludesadiscussionofmeasures,instruments,andstatisticalmethodsused tosummarizethedata.ChapterFourfocusesontheresultswithspecificattentionto statisticalanalysis,modelandhypothesistesting.Thefinalsectionofthedissertation, ChapterFiveconsistsofdiscussionandconclusionsofthestudy.Recommendationsfor futureresearchaswellaslimitationsandimplicationsforthefindingsarehighlighted.

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CHAPTER2 LITERATUREREVIEW IncreasingdiversityinschoolsintheUnitedStatesoverthelastfewdecades combinedwithemphasisonhighstakestestinghasheightenedconcernsaboutthe academicperformanceofstudentsofcolor,inparticularAfricanAmericanstudents. ConcernsabouttheappropriatenessofaEurocentriccurriculumtaughtbyWhiteteachers oftendonotpromptsomeeducatorstoadvocatetheuseofamulticulturalcurriculumthat valuesthecultureandlifestylesofdiversestudents.Oftenwhatoccursintheclassrooms isthecurriculumgenerallydoesnotmatchthehomeandschoolculturalexperiencesof AfricanAmericanstudentswhoaregenerallytaughtbyWhiteteachers. Thisliteraturereviewisdevelopedaroundfourcentralthemes.Thechapter beginswithanhistoricaloverviewoftheliteratureregardingmulticulturaleducationand itsimpactintheclassroomsandteacherpractice.Thisinformationistoprovidefora betterunderstandingoftheabsenceofmulticulturaleducationinthecurriculumdueto highstakestestingandthelackofintegratingmulticulturaleducationintothecurriculum. Thishistoricaloverviewprovidesanexaminationoftheresultingdisparitiesinthe classrooms.Thesecondportionreviewsliteratureonteacherbeliefsandpractices, relationshipsandexpectationsandhowtheirteachingpracticesinfluencetheoutcomeof learningforstudentsofcolor.Third,thereviewexaminesteachers’expectationsand perceptionsofstudentsofcolorandhowbothimpactstudentachievements.Thefinal sectionhighlightstheimportanceofculturallyresponsiveteachinginclassroom instructionsthatareconsistentwiththeculturalorientationofethnicallydiversestudents (Gay,2000).

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HistoricalContextofMulticulturalEducation Themulticulturaleducationmovementemergedinthe1960’sand1970’s. Numerousdefinitionsofmulticulturaleducationhavebeenproposedorespousedby scholars,researchersandorganizationsoverthepast30years(Banks&Banks2009; Gay,2000;Gorski,2009; Sleeter&Grant,2007).Multiculturaleducationisa philosophicalconceptandcomplexsubjectthatencompassesawiderangeoftheoriesand goalsrelatedtotheconceptsoffreedom,justice,equalityandequity(Banks&Banks, 2001a).Itrecognizesthatschoolsandteacherscanplayanactiveroleinpreparing studentstobesuccessfulinanincreasinglydiversesociety.Gay(2004)assertsthat multiculturaleducationincludesdescriptiveandprescriptivedimensionsand“it recognizestheethnicallyandculturallydiversesocialstructuresoftheUnitedStatesand theirrelationshiptonationalinstitutions,values,beliefs,andpowersystems”.(p.33). Educators,researchersandorganizationshaveproposednumerousdefinitionsof multiculturaleducationoverthepastfortyyears.Banks&Banks(2001b)define multiculturaleducationas: anidea,aneducationalreformmovement,andaprocesswhosemajorgoalisto changethestructureofeducationalinstitutionssothatmaleandfemalestudents, exceptionalstudents,andstudentswhoaremembersofdiverseracial,ethnic languageandculturalgroupswillhaveanequalchancetoachieveacademically inschool(p.1). Oneofthefundamentalassertionsofmulticulturaleducationisthatthecharacteristicsof someschoolssystemicallyrestrictacademicsuccessforstudentswho,becauseofrace,

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ethnicity,orsocioeconomics,differfromthemainstreampopulation(Banks&Banks, 2007). MulticulturaleducationbeganasareformmovementwiththepublicationofA NationatRisk:TheImperativeforEducationalReform(NationalCommissionon ExcellenceinEducation,1983).ThiswasfollowedbyGoals2000,whichsetacademic standards,andthenthepassageofNoChildLeftBehindAct(2001)whichledtoless emphasisonpedagogy,moreemphasisonstandardsandhighstakestesting,andless attentiontomulticulturaleducation(Sleeter&Grant,2007).Asareformmovement, multiculturaleducationwantstochangetheeducationalsystemtoreflectdiversityinthe U.S.(Banks&Banks,2007;Gay2004;Nieto,2000)wasfirstviewedbyschoolsand universitiesasapartofcurriculumreform.Thisinvolveschangingtheimplicitand explicitcurricular,butalsoreconstructingpolicies,instruction,materials,and institutionalnorms(Banks&Banks,2001b;Gay,2000). Whenmulticulturaleducationisviewedasaprocess,itbuildsuponacritical pedagogythatadvocatessocialchange(Nieto,2000).Thisprocessacceptsandaffirms pluralism,butrejectsracismandotherformsofdiscriminationinschoolsandsociety. MulticulturalEducationandTeacherPractice Ournation’sschoolsarecontinuouslyexperiencingincreasingnumbersof childrenfromdifferentculturalandlanguagebackground.Oftentheraceofaclassroom teacherdoesnotreflectthosechanges(LadsonBillings,2000).Inthepast,teacherswere oftenfacedwithlimitedexperienceonhowtointegratemulticulturaleducationintothe curriculum(Sleeter&Grant,2007).Classroomteachershavelearnedtointegrate multiculturalismintothecurriculum,butareoftenreservedtousethesestrategiesdueto

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highstakestestingandpreparationsforstandardizedtesting(LadsonBillings,1994a). Banks,(2002)describesfivedimensionsofmulticulturaleducationandwhythese dimensionsweredevelopedtoassisteducatorsandotherstounderstandthecomplexityof multiculturaleducationanditsimportanceinpedagogy.Thefivedimensionsare:(a) contentintegration;(b)knowledgeconstructionprocess;(c)prejudicereduction;(d) equitypedagogy;and(e)empoweringschoolcultureandsocialculture. Thecontentintegrationdimensionisconcernedwiththeuseofvariousformsof informationemployedwithinclassroomsbyteachers.Thesetypesofinformationare derivedfromdifferentcultures.Theyinclude,butarenotlimitedto,dataandexamples usedtoexplainthekeyconcepts,principles,generalizations,andtheoriesforaparticular coresubjectareaordiscipline(Banks,2002). Theknowledgeconstructiondimensionisconcernedwithhelpingstudents comprehendtheprocessesrelatedtotheformulationofknowledge.Theknowledge constructionprocessdescribeshowculturalperspectivesandbiaseswithinadiscipline influencethemethodsinwhichknowledgeisconstructedwithinaspecificculture. Theprejudicereductiondimensiondescribesthecharacteristicsofchildren’s racialattitudesandstrategies.Theidentifiedcharacteristicsofchildren’sracialattitudes andstrategiesarethenusedtoassiststudentsinthedevelopmentofpositiveracialand ethnicattitudes.Multiculturaleducationbelievesthatstudentscandeveloppositiveracial attitudesthroughtheuseofteachingmaterialswhichrepresentrealisticimagesare reflectedinthecurriculum.Theuseofcooperativelearningexperiencesinvolving studentsofvariousethnicgroupsalsoassistsinthedevelopmentofpositiveracial attitudesandbehaviors.

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Theequitypedagogyofmulticulturaleducationexistswhentheprevalentuseof teachingmethodsaddressesstudentsfromdiverseracial,ethnic,andsocialclassgroups inordertoincreasetheacademicachievementforstudents.Drawinguponthecultural strengthsofstudentsfromdifferentethnicgroupsleadstoincreasedclassroom participationandacademicachievement.Identificationoflearningstylesfordiverse groupsandtheuseofcooperativelearningtechniqueshavebeeneffectiveinteaching diverseracial,ethnic,andlanguagegroups(Gay,2000). Theempoweringschoolcultureandsocialstructuredimensiondescribesthe processthatenablesstudentsfromdiverseracial,ethnic,andsocialclassgroupsto experienceeducationalequalityandempowermentthroughtherestructuringofthe cultureandorganizationoftheschool.Multiculturaleducationadvocatesthreegoalsof thisdimensioninwhichanempoweredschoolcultureandsocialstructureexist.First,the schoolisviewedastheenvironmentforchangewhereallstudentshaveanopportunity forsuccess.Second,thedevelopmentanduseoflocalandauthenticassessmentsarefair toallstudents.Third,theschoolstaffbelievesallstudentscanlearn. BeliefSystems Thefocusonthebeliefsystemhasbeenexaminedbyeducationalresearcherswho trytounderstandthenatureofteachingandlearninginschoolsettings.Agrowing amountofliteraturesuggeststhatteachers’beliefshavegreatinfluenceonboththeir perceptionsandjudgments,andthattheseinturnaffecttheirbehaviorsintheclassroom. Teachers’beliefsandattitudesarebelievedtobemajorfactorsthatdetermineteachers’ practiceandpedagogy(Nespor,1987;Pajares,1992).Therefore,thebeliefsystemisan

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essentialpartofimprovingbothprofessionalpreparationandteachingeffectiveness (Mewborn,2002;Nespor,1987;Ruddell&Kern,1986). AccordingtoRokeach(1968),“abeliefsystemmaybedefinedashaving representedwithinit,insomeorganizedpsychologicalbutnotnecessarilylogicalform, eachandeveryoneofaperson’scountlessbeliefsaboutphysicalandsocialreality”(p. 2).Rokeachidentifiesthreesimpleassumptionsregardingbeliefs.Theyare:(1)beliefs varyincentrality;notallbeliefsareequallyimportant;(2)themorecentralabelief,the moreitwillresistchange;and(3)changeincentralbeliefsleadtooverallchangeinthe beliefsysteminordertochangeperipheralbeliefsthatleadtolesschangeinoverall systems(p.3).Theseassumptionsneedtobeconsideredwhenaddressingchangesin teachers’beliefs. TeacherPracticesandBeliefs Beliefsinfluencehowteachersmayteach(Kagan,1992).Kaganreferstobeliefs asa“particularlyprovocativeformofpersonalknowledge”.(p.65)andarguesthatmost ofateacher’sprofessionalknowledgecanberegardedmoreaccuratelyasbelief. Consequently,teachers’beliefshavegreatinfluenceonthewaytheyperceive,judge,and actintheclassroom.Teachers’beliefsoftenrefertoattitudesabouteducation,teaching, learningandstudents. Threepatternsrelatedtochangingteacherbeliefshavebeenconceptualizedby RichardsonandCalfea(1994).Thepatternsare:(1)teacherschangetheirbeliefsafter theychangetheirpractice;(2)changesinbeliefsprecedechangesinpractice;(3)the processofchangingbeliefsandpracticeisinteractive(p.90).Pohan&Aguilar(2001) statethat,“teachers’beliefsserveasfiltersfortheirknowledgebasesandwillultimately

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affecttheiractions”(p.160).Teachers’beliefshaveagreatimpactontheirpracticesin classrooms;teachers’beliefsaffectvariousaspectsofteachingandthewaytheyinteract withtheirchildren. TeacherBeliefsandDiverseStudents Teachersacrossthenationareteachingstudentsfromculturallydiverse backgrounds.Whilethestudentpopulationhasrapidlybecomediverse,theteaching workforceremainspredominatelyWhite,femaleandmiddleclass(Sleeter,2001).Many researchersbelievethatthereisastrongdisconnectbetweendiversestudents’failuresin schoolandthosewhoteachthem(Au&Blake,2003,Ukpokodu,2004).Theirresearch findingssuggesttheseteacherslacktherequisitebackgroundknowledge,skillsand dispositionstoeffectivelyteachchildrenfromvariousdiverseculturalbackgrounds.Most teachershavelimitedculturalknowledgeandexposuretoissuesofdiversityanddiverse students.Consequently,teachers’beliefsinfluencehowtheyteach(Kagan,1992;Nespor, 1987)andunderstanddiversity(Sleeter,2001). TeacherExpectations Boutte(1999)reportsteacherexpectationshavebothsubtleandpowerfuleffects onstudents.Theinterplayofthesefactorscontributestocontinuedinheritanceof privilegeforthedominantcultureandpervasivedisadvantageforpoorstudentsand studentsofcolor(Diamond,Randolph,&Spillane,2004).Oneofthepossible explanationsofthesepatternsliesinteacherexpectations. Thesignificanceoftherelationshipbetweenteacherexpectationsandstudent achievementisviewedasbothareasonandasolutiontotheachievementgap(Brophy, 2000;DarlingHammond,2000;Gay,2000;LadsonBillings,1995).Teacher

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expectations,reflectingteacherbeliefs,tendtoshapebothwhattheteacherattemptsto elicitfromthestudentsandwhatstudentsexpectofthemselves(Brophy,2000). Theliteratureonteacherexpectationssuggeststhatteacherexpectationsfor academicabilityarelowerforlowincomeandAfricanAmericanstudentsthanfortheir counterpartsinthedominantculture.Lowteacherexpectationsleadtoreductionof studentselfimageandlackofmotivationintermsofeffortinschoolandtheylead teacherstogivelesschallengingassignmentsandhavefewerteacherstudentinteractions (Diamondetal.,2004). Teacherexpectationscanbeexaminedfromtheperspectiveofindividualteacher andstudentinteractionsandhowteachersevaluateandbehavetowardstudents.Teacher beliefsaboutstudents‘capabilitiescoupledwiththeirownsenseofresponsibilityfor studentlearningimpactstudentachievement(Diamondetal.,2004).Diamondetal. posited,forstudentsinpredominantlylowincomeandAfricanAmericanschools, teachersemphasizedeficitsandhaveareducedsenseofresponsibilityforstudent learning.TheypositedthatteacherexpectationsareamorepowerfulinfluenceonAfrican AmericanstudentsandlowincomestudentsthanonWhitestudentsandthatracial stereotypesmayinfluenceteacherexpectations. BrophyandGood(1974)reportthatmanystudentsinmostclassroomsarenot reachingtheirpotentialbecausetheirteachers’expectationsarelowandreport satisfactionwithpoorormediocreperformance.Teacherexpectationsofstudent achievementareoftenbasedonbeliefsaboutraceandstudentability(Brown&Medway, 2007;Dusek&Joseph,1983;LadsonBillings,1999a,1999b).Thesocialconstructof racecanproduceattitudesandfundsofknowledgethatimpactteacherperspectivesabout

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studentsofcolor.Aspermeablementalstructures,beliefsystemsaresusceptibleto changebasedonexperience.Thedualrelationshipbetweenbeliefandpracticeisbased onbeliefsbeinginfluencedbypracticalexperiencesandviceversa(Muijs&Reynolds, 2002).GillandReynolds(1999)foundthatteacherexpectationshadadirectimpacton academicachievementbylowincomeAfricanAmericanstudents.Thissuggeststhat stigmatizedgroupssuchasAfricanAmericansarebothpronetoadverseexpectationsby teachersandlikelytohavesuchexpectationsleadtoselffulfillingpropheciesofpoor academicachievement.Lowexpectationsarelikelytohavesustainingeffectson children’sperformanceandmaybeespeciallypowerfulforyounglowincomeAfrican Americanchildrenastheyenterschool(Gill&Reynolds,1999).Consequently,these beliefsbecomethegoalsforthesestudentsandtheinstructionalcurriculumisinlinewith thoseexpectations(Brown&Medway,2007;Timperley&Phillips,2003). Despiteclaimsofhavinghighexpectationsforstudentsofcolor,teachersoften demonstratenovisiblesignsofdisappointmentwhenstudentsofcolorperformpoorly. Suchnonverbaldemonstrationssuggestthetruelevelofteacherexpectations.Ateacher’s constructofraceimpactstheteacher’sselfefficacy.Teacherselfefficacyincreaseswhen teachersaddressissuesofraceattheclassroomlevelbecausethereisareductionin teacheranxietyaboutthecapabilitiesofstudentsofcolor(Singleton&Linton,2006). TeacherPerceptionsofUrbanStudents Asstudentsenterclassroomstheyaresubjectedtoawellestablishedmainstream culture.Thiscultureconsistsofcommunicationcodes,behavioralexpectations,and assumptionsaboutthenatureofteachingandlearning(Payne,2005).Delpit(1995) believestheselinguisticbehavioralcodesrepresentthevaluesandknowledgeofmiddle

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socialclassanduppersocialclasscultures.Culturallydiversestudentsrespondtodaily activitiesaccordingtotheircultureandethnicnorms,thus,causingafailuretoestablish rational,trustingandrewardingrelationshipswithteachers(McDermott,(1987). Theperceptionsofteachersaremoreoftennegativetowardsstudentsfromlower socialclassbackgroundsduetothemismatchinthethinking,behaving,and communicatingmodesthatlowersocialclassstudentsbringtoschool(Chavez& O’Donnell,1998).Teacherstendtobeperceivednegativelyduetotheirperceptionthat lowersocialclassstudentsarelesscapableacademicallyversusstudentsfrommiddleor highersocialclassfamilies(McDermott,1987). Urbaneducationisfacedwithsimilarissuesregardingteachers’perceptionsof urbanstudents.MontineroSieburth(1989)notes,“profuseexplanationshavebeensought toaddressthe‘failure’ofurbanschoolsandthepoorperformanceofunderrepresented urbanstudents”(p.336). Volz(1998)reportsthefindingsfromaninvestigationinvolvingurbanschool educatorsregardingthechallengesandchoicescommonlycitedinurbanschools.The findingsofthestudyprovidedavarietyofimplicationsforurbaneducation.The concernsfacingurbaneducationmaynotbeasbleakasperceivedbyeducators.The responsesfromthesurveyededucatorssuggestthatthechallengesinurbaneducation maynotnecessarilyrepresenturbaneducation’stypifiedcondition. Volz’sfindingssuggeststhattheconstantdiscussionsreferringtourbanschools asplaceswherethephysicalconditionsofschoolsaredeplorable,theenvironmentis unsafe,andresourcesarenotsufficientforaqualityeducationmaygivewaytotheself

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fulfillingprophecy.Delpit(1992)states,“Weteachteachersrationalesforfailure,not visionsofsuccess”(p.246). Volz’sreviewofthedatafromtheinvestigationdeterminedthattheeducators surveyeddidnotperceivemostofthecommonlycitedchallengestobeamajorproblem intheirurbanschools.Thisfindingsuggeststhatcommonlycitedchallengesmaybe overgeneralizedduetheperceptionsattributedtourbanschools.Insummary,a significantproportionoftheeducatorssurveyedsuggestedthatteacherefficacywas weakenedandwasperceivedatalimitedconfidenceleveltoinfluencecriticalissues.It isthesetypesofperceptionswhichmaycontinuetohamperthereformsofurban education. TeacherPractices AchievementGap,StudentsandTeachers Thereisaplethoraofresearchregardingdisparitiesinachievementbetween AfricanAmericanstudentsandtheirdominantculturecounterparts(Darling Hammond,2000;EducationTrust,2004;LadsonBillings,1999a,1999b;Ogbu,1994; Ravitch,2000).Thesedisparitieshavebeenanalyzedfromnumerousperspectives, includingeducational,racial/ethnic,economic,sociological,psychological, socioeconomicstatus,gender,andcrosscultural(EdSource,2007).Roach(2005) surmisesthegoalofNoChildLeftBehind: AttheheartoftheNoChildLeftBehindisthegoalthatallchildren,regardlessof racialorsocioeconomicbackground,receiveaqualityeducationthatbringsthem toproficiencyinmathandreading.Thefocusonbringingchildrenupto proficiencylevelsandholdingschoolsaccountablefortheperformanceoftheir

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studentshasmarkedthefederalgovernment’sfirstinterventionsintoclosingthe racialacademicachievementgapsintheUnitedStates(p.33). Severalresearchershaveassertedthattheachievementgapisamanifestation ofinequitableaccesstoopportunitiestolearn(Gay,2000;LadsonBillings,1999a; LadsonBillings&Tate,1995).Inequitablelearningopportunitiesaretheresultof inadequatestructuresandsystemswithintheeducationalsystem,includingbutnot limitedtoschoolfinance,assessment,curriculum,instruction,andsupportresources (Gay,2000;LadsonBillings,1999a;LadsonBillings&Tate1995).Ithasbeenproposed thattheachievementgapbeginswhenchildrenenterschoolasaresultofthecouplingof placementandteacherjudgmentoflearningrelatedbehaviorsattributedtovarious cognitivedevelopmentlevels(Tach&Farkas,2006).However,thereislimitedresearch inthisarea. Gordon(2000)pointsouttheassociationofacademicachievementwithstudent’s homelifeandschool.Thereisevidencethatalsosuggestthatthegapmaybedueto cognitivedissonanceresultingfromthedifferencesinculturalandsocialorientation betweenhomeandschool(Ogbu,1995a,1995b;Ogbu&Simons,1994).Gordon(2000) concedesthattheeffectsofsocietiesoutsideforcesdoplaguestudentsofcolorandthese forcesdocontributetotheirpooracademicachievementrates.Inordertocounterthese outsideforcesGordonsuggestslookingtowardtheschoolsandteachersasfactorsin meetingthenewhigherstandardsforstudentsofcolor. Inaneraofaccountability,whichincludeshighstakestestingandstandards basedreform,thecountrycontinuestostrugglewithhowtoachieveeducationalequity. Thegapsinachievementappearacrosssocioeconomicstrataandrace/ethnicity

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(Marzano,2003).Underrepresentedgroups,whichincludeAfricanAmerican,Hispanic, andindigenousgroups,areachievingatlowerlevelsthanAsiansandmiddleandhigh incomeWhites(SleeterandGrant,2003). SingletonandLinton(2006)referredtotheachievementgapasaracialgapdueto thevarianceinperformancebetweenstudentsofdifferentskincolors.Theypurported thatracial,externalsocial,economic,andpoliticalfactorsareoftenblamedforthe achievementgap.Theysuggestedthattherapidchangeintheracialcompositionofthe nation’sstudentpopulationisinversetothepopulationofeducators.Inotherwords,the majorityofeducatorsareWhitewhilethemajorityofstudentsareofcolor.Therefore, organizationalstructuresandsystemsshouldbeinplacetohelpeducatorstodevelop culturalproficiencyandinstructionaleffectiveness.Thesestrategiesmaybeameansof narrowingoreliminatingthegap. NoChildLeftBehind Historically,theUnitedStates’differentgovernmentallevelshavebeen responsibleforthefunctionand/ortheinitiatingofschoolprograms.Congressinitiated fundingin1965withtheimplementationoftheElementaryandSecondaryEducationAct (ESEA),thecentralfocusforthesefundswasdirectedtodisadvantagedstudents.In 1989federalfundswereallocatedbyPresidentGeorgeBushandthenation’sgovernors toestablishgoalsforAmericanschools.TheseinitiativeswerefollowedbyPresident Clinton’sadministrationwhichcarriedonthesupportoftheBushfunding.Clinton providedfundingfortheGoals2000ActwiththeenactmentoftheEducateAmericaAct. ThemostrecentfederalfundinghasbeenallocatedthroughtheeffortsoftheNoChild

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LeftBehindAct(NCLB)whichwasenactedunderPresidentGeorgeW.Bush’s administrationin2002.TheNCLBactisareauthorizationoftheESEA(Toppo,2002). Theimpactofeachoftheabovefederalprogramshaveencountereddifferent educationalissues.Theconcernofthisportionoftheliteraturereviewistoexplorethe issueoftheNCLBAct’simpactonteachers.TheNCLBActisatwelveyearprogram anditsgoalisclosingtheachievementgap.Thisgoalistobeaccomplishedbygiving eachstatethepermissiontoestablishthepassinggradesontests.Thesegradesthenare thedeterminantsfortheallocationofrewardsandsanctionsforschooldistrictsand ultimatelyindividualschools.ItistheU.S.DepartmentofEducations’responsibilityto monitorthetestingpoliciesofeachstate.Thismonitoringofthestatesprovidedthe cornerstoneof“accountability”forGeorgeW.BushandNCLBlegislation. TheBushadministrationhadreviewedtheeffortsofESEA.TheESEAof1994 wasalsoconcernedwithaccountabilitymeasures.Theprocessinvolvedstatesdefining “annualyearlyprogress”(AYP)ofschoolsandschooldistrictsbywayof“continualand substantialyearlyimprovement”withregardtothenumberofstudentswhoachievedthe proficientlevelontheidentifiedassessmentfortheidentifiedstateordistrict.Therefore, AYPisrelatedtomeetingperformancegoalsandstatestandardsasdeterminedbythe state(Noll,2004). InareportfromAzzam,PerkinsGough,andThiers(2006),educators’ recommendationsandconcernswheredocumentedinanarticleTheImpactofNCLB.All 50stateswererepresentedinthestudyconductedduring20042005.Atotaloftwo hundredninetynineschooldistrictsparticipatedinthesurvey.Fromthesedistrictsthe reportprovidedtheimpactofNCLBonUSeducators.Fourconclusionswereprovided:

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(1)teachingandlearningarechanging;(2)scoresonstateachievementtestsarerising; (3)theeffectsofNCLBareholdingsteady;and(4)NCLBishavingthegreatesteffecton urbanschooldistricts(Azzam,PerkinsGough,andTheirs,2006). Thefindingsregardingtheconclusionthatteachingandlearningarechanginghas providedpositiveresults.Tobeginwith,effortsarebeinginitiatedtoaligncurriculum andinstructionwithstateacademicstandardsandassessments.Schoolsareusingtest datainordertotargetinstructionsothatitmeetstheneedsofstudents.Significant effortsarebeingcarriedoutbyschoolsbywayofmonitoringteacherpractices,urging classroomteacherstoemploypacingguides,andthehiringofinstructionalcoachesto observeclassrooms.Alargepercentageofschooldistrictsreportthatelementaryschools havededicatedmoretotimetotheteachingofmathandreadingbyreducingtheamount oftimespentonothersubjects.Teachers’qualificationshavealsobeeneffectedby requiringteacherstocompleteadegreeinthesubjecttheyteachortocompleteadditional coursework. Thesecondconclusionisthatscoresonstateachievementtestsarerising.This riseintestscoreshasbeenattributedtorequirementsofAYPalthoughschooldistrict policiesandprogramshavehadmoreofimpactontheincreasedscores.Lastly,statesare takingstridestochangepoliciesinordertoincreasethenumberofstudentsbeing classifiedas“proficient”onstatetests. Third,theeffectsofNCLBareholdingsteadyaccordingtothesurveydata.The numberofschoolsidentifiedasneedingimprovementhasnotchangedsignificantly. Thisresultisattributedtofederalandstaterulesbeingchangedwhichhavesimplifiedthe

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processformoreschoolstomeetAYP.Holdingsteadyarethepercentagesofstudents whohaveparticipatedintheschoolofchoiceandtutoringprograms. Fourth,theNCLBishavingthegreatesteffectonurbanschooldistricts.The researchfoundthatfiftyfourpercentofTitleIschoolsareinneedofimprovement.Of theseTitleIschoolsninetypercentarelocatedinurbandistricts.NCLB’sincreased impactonurbandistrictsisattributedtoseveralfactors.Urbandistrictsarerepresented bylargenumbersofsubgroupsandthesediversegroupsarealsoheldaccountablefor AYP.Theachievementlevelsoftheseurbandistrictswereaffectedbythehighnumber ofstudentslivinginpoverty.Qualificationlevelsforurban,suburban,andruralteachers weresimilar,withurbanteachersreporting88%highlyqualified.Inaddition,urban, suburban,andruralschooldistrictsreportedoverallgainsinstudentachievementandall threeschooldistrictlevelsgainsweresimilar.Thisreportalsocontainedconcernsfor NCLB.Thoseconcernsincludealackoffunds,theneedforadditionalstafftocomplete NCLBaccountabilityrequirements,teacherstress,andlowteachermorale.Manyofthe respondentsreportedaconcernabouttheaccountabilityrequirementsforspecific subgroupsandforthegoalthatallstudentsreachproficiencyby2014. CulturallyResponsiveTeaching Manyresearchershaveexploredpedagogicalapproachestointegratingcultural heritageandpriorexperiencesofminoritystudentsintothelearningenvironment (DarlingHammond,2002;Gay,2002).AccordingtoGay(2002),thesepedagogical approachesgenerallyutilizedifferentnamestopresentthesameideaaboutthe importanceofmaking“classroominstructionmoreconsistentwiththecultural orientationofethnicallydiversestudents”(p.29).Gay(2000)pointsouteffective

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teachingisinclusiveofconsiderationfortheculturalhistoryofthestudents.This concernforpersonalizingtheinformationtaughttostudentscommunicatesan appreciationfortheperspectivesofvariousethnicexperiencesandidentities.Inorderto facilitatetheincreaseinacademicachievementlevelsofdiversestudents.Teachersneed to“deliberatelycreateculturalcontinuity”(p.25).Gayreferstotheseteachersas demonstrating“culturallyresponsiveteaching”(CRT)asameansofdescribing instructionalbehaviorsthatareresponsivetotheculturalneedsofstudents.Gaydefines culturallyresponsiveteachingsasamultifacetedapproachtoteachingandlearningand identifiessixcomponents:(a)validating;(b)comprehensive;(c)multidimensional;(d) empowering;(e)empowering;(f)transformative;and(g)emancipatory. AccordingtoGay,thesecomponentsofculturallyresponsiveteaching “simultaneouslydevelopalongwithacademicachievement,socialconsciousnessand critique,culturalaffirmation,competenceandexchange;communitybuildingand personalconnections;individualselfworthandabilitiesandanethicofcaring”(p.43). Culturallyresponsiveteachingisaconceptualframeworkthatcanbeutilizedin providingeffectiveinstructioninallsubjectareaswithculturallydiversestudents. ThefirstcomponentofCRTis“validating”.Thiscomponentcommunicatesthe strengthsofdiversestudents’culturalheritage.Itacknowledgesthelegitimacyofthe culturalheritagesofdifferentethnicgroupsaslegaciesthataffectstudents’dispositions, attitudes,andapproachestolearning.Somuchthatteacherslooktobuildmeaningful bridgesbetweenhomeandcommunityinordertomakeschoolexperiencesmeaningful. The“validating”componentofCRTincorporatesavarietyofinstructionaltechniques thatarerelatedtodifferentlearningstyles(Banks,2006),andinstructsstudentstoknow

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andpraisetheirculturalbackgroundsaswellasothers.Finally,the“validating”method ofCRTincorporatesmulticulturalinformation,resources,andmaterialinallthesubjects andskillsusuallytaughtinschools(Gay,2000,p.29). ThesecondcomponentofCRTis“comprehensive”.LadsonBillings(1992) describesculturallyresponsiveteachingasinstructionthatincorporateslearningforall aspectsofthelearnerwhichincludesaffective,communal,mental,andpoliticalaspects oftheknowledge,skills,andattitudes.Expectationsandskillswithinthisapproachare notseparateitemsthataretaughtinisolationbutareinterwovenasone.Thisapproachis inclusivethroughoutallcurriculumcontentandclassroomprocesses.Withinthis approachstudent’sworkasateaminwhicheachindividualtakesresponsibilityfor other’slearningsuccess. CRTasamultidimensionalapproachtoinstructionencouragescurricular alignmentacrossdisciplines.Multidimensionalculturallyresponsiveteachinginvolves examininganextensivearrayofaffectiveandmentalprocessestogetherwithfactswith thepurposeofkeepingcurriculumandinstructioncongruentwithethnicdiversity. Studentsareallowedtoquestiontheaccuracyofculturalfactsintroducedduring instructionwhichprovidesopportunitiestorefineone’sownculturalvalues. Multidimensionalteachingrequiresteacherstouseawiderangeofculturalknowledge, experiences,perspectivesandcontributionsbasedonthecurriculumcontent,learning context,classroomclimate,studentteacherrelationships,instructionaltechniquesand performanceassessments(Gay,2000). Culturallyresponsiveteachingisempoweringwhichfacilitatesstudents’ academicachievementlevelsanditpromotesthedevelopmentofgoodcitizenship.The

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empoweringaspectofCRTenablesstudentstocultivatepersonalintegrityandacademic success.Studentswhoareempoweredareconfident,competent,andambitious.Theyare risktakersandwillingtopursueacademicsuccessatitshighestlevel.Shor(1992) highlightstheeffectofempoweringeducation,henotes, Thegoalsofthispedagogyaretorelatepersonalgrowthtopubliclife,todevelop strongskills,academicknowledge,habitsofinquiry,andcriticalcuriosityabout society,power,inequalityandchange.(pp.1516). Shor(1992)furtherstresseshowstudentsaretheprimarysourceandcenter, subjectsandoutcomes,consumersandproducersofknowledge.Thisaspectofculturally responsiveinstructionclearlyplacesthestudentatthecenterfromwhichalllearning evolvesandseekstoextracttheinternalpowertolearn. AccordingtoBanks(1991),culturallyresponsiveteachingistransformativein thatithelps“studentstodeveloptheknowledge,skillsandvaluesneededtobecome socialcriticswhocanmakereflectivedecisionsandimplementtheirdecisionsin effectivepersonal,social,politicalandeconomicaction”(p.131).Thetransformative agendahastwofolds:itconfrontsthemainstreamviewoflearninganditdevelopssocial consciousnessinstudentssothattheymightapplyknowledgewhilecombatingvarious formsofoppressionsuchasracismandprejudice.Studentsareencouragedtotransform classroomknowledgeinwaysthataddresssocietalissuesandstudentsaremotivatedto searchfortangiblesolutions. Finally,CRTisemancipatory.Thisinstructionalcomponentliberatesstudents fromtheconstraintsofhegemonicwaysofknowing(Asante,1991/1992;Erickson,1987; Lipman,1995;Pewewardy,1994;Phillips,1983).Inotherwords,theveilofauthorityis

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liftedandstudentsbegintoseethemselvesasobtainingandtransmittingknowledge. Studentsseethemselvesasscholars.Theyareemancipated,areabletohaveinsighton howtoapplyknowledgetotheworldoutsidetheclassroom.Studentsrecognizethatthey havetheabilitiestogainknowledge.Theydonotlooksolelytotheteachertoprovide answers,butratherrealizethatknowledgeisavailabletoanyonewhodesiresitandthey areinspiredtoseekoutwhateverknowledgetheyneed.Studentsbecomeeffective contributorsinthedevelopmentoftheirownlearning(Crichlowetal.,1990;King& Wilson,1990;LadsonBillings&Henry,1990).Thisnewfoundlearningcannowbe convertedtoprojectswhichheightenthelevelsofacademicachievement. Summary TheliteraturereviewinChapter2hasexaminedthemannerinwhichateacher’s beliefs,perceptions,expectations,andpedagogyimpactthelearningprocessfor multiculturalstudents.Thereviewprocesshasrevealedthecomplexitiesinvolvedin creatingthecircumstancesthatwillallowteacherstosuccessfullyeducatestudentsina multiculturalsetting.Awelldesignedpreparationprogramthatencompassesthesteps outlinedintheliteratureshouldprepareteachersforthechallengestheywillfaceinthe classroom.Toinsurealongtermchangeinpedagogy,continuedopportunitiesmustbe madeavailableforteacherstobetrainedonissuesfoundinmulticulturalinstitutions.In ordertoexaminebeliefstructures,atoolwasdesignedtoproducedatathatwouldallow teacherstoexaminecurrentbeliefsandpractices.

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CHAPTER3 METHODOLOGY Thepurposeofthisdissertationistoexaminetheinfluenceofteacher’s perceptiononstudentachievement,specificallyamongurban,innercityAfrican Americanhighschoolstudents.Thestudyisanexploratoryonefocusedonidentifying thefactorsthatexplainthevariabilityofteachers’beliefs.Teacherswillcompleteaself reportinstrumentwhichwillquantifytheirbeliefsacrossthreedifferentdomains; knowledge,teaching,andsocialrelationsinandoutsideoftheclassroom.Tothat extentthischapterwillexplorehowthisissuewillbeaddressed.Morespecificallyitwill identifytheresearchquestionsandhypotheses,discusshowtheelementswithinthe modelwillbemeasured—includingthedesignofthequestionnaireandtherationalefor usinganonlineinstrument,andendwithsomeideaoftheparticularanalysesthatwillbe usedtoaddressthequestions. ResearchQuestions Thereviewofliteraturereviews,plusmyinterestsguidedmetodevelopthethree questions.Thesequestionsareinfluencedbymyattempttoaddresssomesocialissues thatIidentifiedasmajorgamesintheextantliterature.Fromtheseproblematicfindings Ihavederivedthefollowingquestions,theyare: 1. Towhatextentdoesaneducator’sculturallyrelevantbeliefsystemaffectthe underlyingexpectationsoftheirstudentperformances?

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2. Howdoesaneducator’sperceptionofprerequisiteknowledge(i.e.,socialskill, socialknowledge,andculturalcompetency)influenceteachingmethodologies (practice)? 3. Howdoesthesocialecologyofaneducator[(a)theirrelationshipsoutsideofthe classroomwithotherswhoarenotlikethemselves,(b)theirperceptionoftheir students’academicstrengths,(c)theirattitudestowardteachingasaprofession (d)theirpersonalpracticeofeducation,and(e)culturalcompetencylevel]affect theperceptiontheyhavetowardstudentachievement? ResearchHypotheses Inordertoaddresstheresearchquestions,threehypothesesweredeveloped. Eachhypothesisexaminesanaspectofthecurrentquestions.Thefollowinghypotheses aresupportedbytheliteratureandthetheoreticalperspectiveemployedinthisstudy. Theyareasfollows: • Hypothesis1:Amongeducators,teacherswithhigherexpectationsofstudent prerequisiteskillsaremorelikelytohavegreaterculturalcompetencylevels. • Hypothesis2:Amongeducators,teacherswithlowerexpectationsaboutstudent prerequisitesacknowledgetherewillbelessinstructionalteachingpractices. • Hypothesis3:Studentachievementwillbedirectlyinfluencedbythesocial ecologyoftheteacher. InstrumentDevelopment Thedatausedinthisstudywillbebasedonthefindingsderivedfromanonline instrumentthatusedamodifiedversionofbothLove(2001)andLadsonBillings(1994b) instrumentsfocusedonrelevantteachingpracticesandteacherbeliefsandtheirinfluence

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onstudentachievementoutcomes.Theseinstrumentshavebeencombinedandmodified tomatchthespecificationsintheMTEFFramework(CochranSmith,2002).The instrumentwillconsistoftheapproximately80items(seeAppendixA).Theseitems correspondtotheMTEFframeworkandbringthoseconceptsintomeasuredterms. Additionalmaterialaddedtoenhanceandupdatetheinstrumentswillalsobe examined.Reliabilitytestingwillbedoneonallscalesandscalesfromtheoriginal instrumentsaswellasonthenewscalesdevelopedforuseinthisstudy. SampleDesign TeachersfromalargeMidwesternurbanschooldistrictwillbesampled.Initially thesamplewillbestratifiedintoschoolswithlargenumbersofstudentsofcolorand thosewithfewstudentsofcolor.Fiveschoolsfromthepopulationwithlargenumbersof studentsofcolorwillbeselected.ThesehighschoolsserveprimarilyAfricanAmerican studentsandaresisterschoolsfromwithinthesameschooldistrict.Thecriterionfor participationisthatoneiscurrentlyteaching;thisincludesbutisnotlimitedtoclassroom teaching,librarymediaspecialists,counselors,principals,andinstructionalcoaches. Becausethisstudyisexploratoryinnaturetheselectionofasmallnumberofschoolsis inorder.ThisstudywilluseDillman’sTotalMethod(2001)inanefforttoreachits targetgoalsof200teachers.Iwillfirstpilottestthestudyandutilizethefeedbackto refinetheinstrumentasisrequiredinthismethod. Procedure Initiallyteacherswillbecontactedviadistrictwideemailservice.Permissionto employthedistrictwideemailwassecuredthroughthedistrict’sChiefofOperations. TherewillbeanactivelinktotheKansasStateUniversitysurveysystem.TheKansas

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StateUniversitywebsitewillprovideultimateprivacyforallparticipants.Nopersonal identificationwillbesoughtorused.ResponsestotheKStatesystemwillbeencrypted ensuringthattherespondentremainanonymous.Datawillbeprovidedtotheresearcher onlyasaresultsfileinthecommadelimitedformatadoptabletovariousstatistical softwareprogramsonavarietyplatforms.Thedatagatheredwillbesecuredandthiswill bemaintainedbytheKansasStateUniversityComputingandNetworkServicesofthe IndustrialTechnologydivision. Participants Potentialparticipantswillbeaskedtocompletetheselfreportquestionnaire reflectingtheirteachingphilosophy.Thiswillbeaccompaniedbyaletterfromthe InstitutionalReviewBoardstatingtheirrightsandprivileges(seeAppendixA). Participantswillbeinformedthatthisisavoluntaryactivityandprovidedinformation regardingtheconfidentialitymeasurestakentosecuretheiridentityandthedataderived fromthestudy.Oncetheteachergiveshisorherconsentthepurposeofthestudywill alsobeprovidedalongwithbriefexplanation.Teacherswillbetoldthatdatacollected fromthesurveywillbeusedtobetterassistintheinstructionalpracticesofthedistrict’s teachingstaffandthatitwillbeanalyzedasagroup.Inclosing,teacherswillbethanked fortheirparticipationandfollowingtheproceduresofthesurvey.Teacherswillbeasked torateavarietyofitemsonafivepointLikertscale,rangingfromstronglyagreeto stronglydisagree.Theseitemscanbefoundinthestudyquestionnairefoundin AppendixB.

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OperationalizationofResearchVariables InordertoprovideabetterunderstandingoftherelationshipswithintheMTEF theelementscontainedwithinthemodelareidentifiedaspredictorandoutcome measuresratherthanbythetheoreticalconstructsofthemodelitself.Recall,thatthe modelisaninteractiveonethatusesanecologicalframework.Thisconstructionallows fortheinclusionofdemographicelementsalongwithspecificelementsthatare hypothesizedtocontributedirectlytotheoutcomemeasureofteacherperceptionof studentachievement. Figure3.1.OperationalModelforModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationFramework onTeacherPerceptionofStudentAchievement.

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OperationalDefinitions Theitemsusedinthisinvestigationhavefoundsupportfromprevious investigations(LadsonBillings,1994b;Love,2001;Love&Kruger,2005;Winfield, 1986).LadsonBillings’andLove’sinvestigationsusedqualitativeapproachestohelp establishthecontextuponwhichthesemeasureswereconstructed.Stillothers(Ladson Billings,1994;Love,2001;Love&Kruger,2005)usedaquantitativeapproachand verifythescalesandtheirutility.Thereportedreliabilityscoresforthescalesranged betweenα=.72toα=.89.Thesemeasureswillbereassessedwiththenewsample.Of coursethenewitemswillalsohavetheirreliabilitytestedaswell.Allitemsarebasedon fivepointLikerttyperesponses(StronglyAgree,Agree,Undecided,Disagreeand StronglyDisagree).Theitemswillbesummedandmeanscoresusedtoderivean individual’soverallscoreonaparticularconcept.Thespecificquestionsusedto constructthescaleitemarelistedinAppendixC. PredictorVariables Beliefs—asmeasuredinthisinvestigationwillbebasedon(Love,2001)thirteenitems verifiedascriticalforunderstandinghoweducatorsdevelop.Thescalewillbe summedandthemeanscoreutilized.

Teachers’ Beliefs. Teachers’attitudesabouteducation,teaching,andlearningare referredtoas“teachers’beliefs.”aremeasuredontheoriginalsevenitems developedbyLove(2001)thatfocusedonhowstudentcultureinfluencesthe teacher’sbeliefs.

Culturally relevant teaching—willbemeasuredbyascalevariablecomposedofa twentythreeindependentmeasures.Theseitemswillbescoredfrom1to5. Someoftheitemswillbereversedcodedwhenneeded.Themeanscorewillbe assignedtoindividualtoderivedtheirfinalscore.

Culture—thesumtotalofthebehaviorsandbeliefscharacteristicofaparticularsocial, ethnic,oragegroup—inthiscasetheawarenessteachersdisplayaboutthe

38

studentcultureinwhichtheywork.Therearesevenitemsthatwillassessthis feature.

Knowledge—consistsofascaleitemcomposedoffivespecificitemsfocusedonthe knowledge.Theseitemsarescoredfrom1to5.

Student strength—referredtoastheabilityofastudenttoprovideconsistent,near perfectperformanceinagivenacademicactivity.Thisisbasedonsixitemsthat capturetheessenceofstudentneedsandstrength.

Teaching as a profession---Teachingconsistsofabodyofspecifiedprofessional knowledge,andcodesofethics.Thereareeightuniqueitemsthatconstructthe scaleforthisitem.

Teaching practice or pedagogy—theartorscienceofbeingateacher,generallyrefers tostrategiesofinstruction,orastyleofinstruction.Thewholecontextof instruction,learning,andtheactualoperationsinvolvedtherein.Thescaleis madeupofnineitemsfocusedonthespecificteachingpracticesandpedagogical styles.

Relationship with Community—themeasurethatexamineshowwellteachersare connectedtothecommunitiesinwhichtheyserve.Thisscaleiscomposedof twelveitemsthatassessessuchthingsashowmuchteachersnowaboutthe communitytotheirlevelofparticipationincommunityactivities.

Social Ecology—isacompositemeasurethatconsistsofteacher’sinteractionswith othersbothinsideandoutsideoftheclassroom,theperceptionofstudent strengths,theirattitudestowardteaching,theirprofessionalpractices,andcultural awareness.Thisisaconceptualelementthatcanbeassessedbylookingatthe individualintermsoftheoverallcontext.Itisalatentconstructbutonethatis easytoobservethroughitsobservedmeasures.

OutcomeVariable Teacher perceptions toward student achievement—thiswillbeascaledvariable addressedbycombiningaseriesofrelatedquestionsonattitudetoward achievementanddevelopinganoverallcompositescore.Theoriginalmeasure consistedofsevenitems.Anadditionalsevenitemshavebeenaddedtofocuson thespecificofteacher’sperceptionstowardAfricanAmericanstudents,the primaryfocusofthisinvestigation.

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PlanofAnalysis Theinitialaimofthisprojectistoobtainsomeunderstandingoftherelationship betweenteacher’sperceptionsanditsinfluenceonacademicachievementamongstudents ofcolor,morespecificallyAfricanAmericaninnercityurbanyouth.Iamparticularly interestedinhowteacher’sperceptionsareformed,sustained,supportedandactedupon eitherconsciouslyorunconsciously.Iamalsointerestedinapplyingtheideasfoundin theMTEFmodeltoseeiftheyareinfactasrelevanttoteachersastheinitialtheoretical constructsuggests. InordertotestthequestionsandhypothesesIintendtobeginwithsimple descriptivestatisticsthatwillhelpmetoexplainandaccuratelydescribethesample.I willthenutilizevicariatemeasuressuchasANOVAandcorrelationstohelpmeto determinehowthevariablesfittogetherandtotesttheinitialpostulatesoftheMTEF model.Inaddition,Iwillalsousemultivariatetechniques,suchasregressiontoanalyze howtheelementsinthemodelfittogethertoformacohesiveexplanation. AnalyticalStrategy Theanalysisinthisprojectwillbedividedintothreeparts.Thefirstpartwill examinetheindividualelementsanddescriberelationsamongtheseelements.The secondpartwillfocusontestingsimplequestionsposedbythisstudy.Finally,thelast portionwillbefocusedonaddressingthecomplexhypothesisaimedathighlightingthose elementsthatinfluenceateacher’sperceptionofstudentachievement.Allofthese strategiesaredesignedtoprovidereasonable,logicalandclearanswerstothequestions posedbythisdissertation.

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UnivariateStatistics Inthisstudy,simpledescriptiveanalysesofthesamplewillbeconducted.Basic frequencydistributionsandmeasuresofdispersion(mean,medians,modes,standard deviations,andvariances)willbeexamined. BivariateStatistics Thenatureofthisstudywillrequirethatthemeandifferencesbetweenthegroups ofteachersbeexaminedindetail.Additionalmultivariateexploratoryanalysiswillbe conductedtoseeiftherewillbeanydifferencesassociatedwiththeoutcomemeasure. Whentwoormoregroupsareexamined,itwillbenecessarytouseFactorialAnalysisof Variance(ANOVA)alongwithappropriateposthoctestsanddataplotstoexplainthe meandifference. MultivariateStatistics Socialscienceandeducationalresearchrequirethatresearchersusemore sophisticatedtechniquesthatanswerquestions,testhypotheses,andexplaintheresearch model(Field,2009;Warner,2008).Amultipleregressionanalysisusingordinaryleast squaresisappropriateformodeltesting(Warner,2008)andwillbeusedtoexplainthe varianceinteacher’sperceptionsofstudentachievement.

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CHAPTERIV RESULTS Thischapteriscenteredonexplainingthecurrentinvestigationfindingsrelatedtothe outcomeandpredictorvariablespostulatedtoberelatedtoteacher’sbeliefsandpracticeson multiculturalstudentachievement.Thechapterisdividedintothreesectionsandfocuseson thecentralthemeofthisdissertationteacher’sbeliefsandpracticesregardingmulticultural studentachievementinurbanschoolsettings. Thefirstsectionoffersadetaileddescriptiveanalysisofthesamplepopulation. Sectiontwoaddressesthedatausingsimplebivariatemeasuresincludingresultsfrommeans differencetestingandcorrelationswhereappropriate.Thefinalpartisconcernedwith highlightingtherelationshipsbetweenoutcomemeasuresandpredictorvariablesutilizing hypothesistestingstatisticsaimedattestingthegeneraltenantsoftheModified MulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudent AchievementModel. SamplingProcess Procedure TheprocedureforconductingthisstudywaspartiallyderivedfromtheDillman (2000)TotalDesignMethod(TDM).Inthismethod,theoriginalquestionnairewas presentedtoafewteacherstodetermineifthequestionswereclearandeasytounderstand. Utilizingtheirfeedback,theinstrumentwasexpandedtoaskmoredetailedquestionsand otherseeminglynonrelatedelementswereremoved.Inaddition,itwasdeterminedthatit wouldbenecessarytouseanonlinesurveycontainingdetailedinstructionsregardingthe

42

expectationsforansweringthequestions.Theuseofanonlineinstrumentwould guaranteetheanonymityofthesubjectstherebyincreasingtheirparticipationand willingnesstoanswerquestionsthatsomemightpotentiallyrefuseifencounteredina facetofaceencounter. Instrument Theinstrumentconsistedof104closedquestionsincludingfivemajoropenended questionsassessingteacher’sgeneralknowledgeaboutmulticulturaleducation.Therewere fiveopenedendedquestionsforwrittenresponses,andtheywere:(a)Pleasegiveyour definitionofwhatMulticulturalEducationmeanstoyou;(b)Indicatesomeitemsthat youthinkareessentialfordevelopingasuccessfulMulticulturalteacherpreparation program;(c)Pleasecompletethefollowingthought—myprimaryreasonforteachingin anurbanpublicschoolis;(d)CanyouthinkofanycharacteristicsthatAfricanAmerican youngstersasagroupbringtotheclassroom;(e)Whatkindsofthingshaveyoudonein theclassroomthathavefacilitatedtheacademicsuccessofAfricanAmericanstudents? Participantswereassuredoftheconfidentialityoftheirresponsesandwerepromisedthat theirresponseswouldinnowaybelinkedtothem. Demographicmeasuresexaminedinthisstudyincludedage,race,gender,teaching endorsement,formaleducation,lengthoftimeteaching,andspecificmulticulturaltraining, alongwithahostofothermeasuressuchasdesignedtocaptureattitudesandbeliefsabout multiculturaleducation,multiculturalstudents,andwhatitislikeforteacherstobeinan urbansetting.Therewerealsoquestionsthatspecificallyaddressedteacher’sreasonfor beingattheirparticularschool,numberofcoursestheyhadinmulticulturaleducationatboth theundergraduateandgraduatelevel,andhowpreparedtheteachersthoughttheywerefor

43

theenvironmentinwhichtheyworked.Otherquestionsincludedinformationon pedagogicaltechniquesandmeasuresemployedintheclassroom. Twentytwoitemsrelatedtobeliefs,preparationandgeneralattitudetoward multiculturalstudentsandmulticulturaleducationwereexaminedandplacedinappropriate scalesforlateruseinmultivariateanalysis(Gunn,1994).Thesecondseriesofquestions focusedonteacherbeliefsystemsweregleanedfromtheearlierworksofLove(2001)and LoveandKruger(2005)andconsistedof48items.Theitemsusedinthisinvestigation havealsoreceivedsupportfrompreviousinvestigationsthatutilizedqualitative approachestohelpestablishthecontextuponwhichthesemeasureswereconstructed. Stillothers(LadsonBillings,1994;Love,2001;Love&Kruger,2005)useda quantitativeapproachandverifiedthescalesandtheirutility. DataCollection:SampleDesignandProcess Theinitialdesigncalledforapproximately200teachers;however,thelengthy approvalprocessonthepartoftheschooldistrictsapproachedforthisstudycauseddelaysin thestartofdatacollectionbysomethreeweeks.Despitethisdelay,itwasnevertheless possibletogarneranacceptableresponserate.Thatinformationisreportedhereandreflects theshortonlinestatusoftheinstrument.Thequestionnairewasavailableforapproximately twoweeks—15days.Therewere153instrumentsthatwerereturned;103werecompletely filledandtheremaining50werepartiallyfilledwithmostcontainingbasicdemographicdata andsomeinformationonteacherattitudes—thecentralfocusofthisstudyandthegroupfor whomthesubsequentanalysesweredone.Theoverallresponserateforthesurveywas 67.0%,wellwithintheacceptableratingsforonlinesurveys.

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Results InvestigationVariables Thepredictorvariableswereeducationalattainment,yearsteaching,ageofteacher, andaseriesofscaledmeasuresbasedonpreviousinvestigations(multiculturalpreparationof teachers,idealpreparationandthelevelofmulticulturaleducation),relationshipwith community,knowledgebase,selfawareness,beliefssystemsandinstitutionalcapacity.The outcomemeasure,inthisinvestigationistheteacher’sperceptionaboutstudentachievement. Frequencydistributionstoreportdescriptivestatistics,percentages,aswellascorrelationand ANOVAtechniqueswereusedtoanalyzeandinterpretthedata.PASW(Version17.0 formerlySPSS)wasusedtodescribeandanalyzethedataonceitwastransformedfromthe onlinesurveysystem. SampleDemographics Demographicdatarevealedthatthesampleconsistedof40.4%malesand59.6% females(seeTable4.1).Theracial/ethniccompositionofthesamplewassomewhatless reflectiveofthegeneralpopulationoftheUnitedStatesbutmorecloselyalignedwiththe currentpopulationstructurefoundamongteachers.WhitesorEuropeanAmericans comprisedthelargestgroupwith80.1%ofthesample.BlacksorAfricanAmericanswere thenextlargestgroupat13.2%.TheproportionofHispanic/LatinoAmericans(2.6%)was lowerthanexpected.Theremaininggroups,AsianAmericans,NativeAmericans/American IndiansandOthersroundedoutthecountatacombined4.0%,closetothepopulation projectionsforthesegroups.

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Table4.1

DescriptiveCharacteristicsandDemographicDataforTeacher’sStudentAchievement Inventory

Variable CodingScheme n

f

Gender Female 90

59.6

Male 61

40.4

Race AsianAmerican 2

1.3

AfricanAmerican 20

13.2

HispanicAmerican 4

2.6

NativeAmerican 1

0.7

EuropeanAmerican 121

80.1

Other 3

2.0

Endorsement Secondary 143

95.3

Other 7

4.7

EducationLevel Bachelor’s 55

36.9

Master’s 56

37.6

Master’s+30 29

19.5

Specialist 7

4.7

Doctorate 2

1.3

AcademicArea Administration 5

3.4

Art 7

8.2

Biology/GeneralScience 10

6.8

Business 6

4.1

Chemistry 4

2.7

CommunicationArts 6

4.1

Counselor 3

2.1

English 17

11.6

Family&ConsumerSciences 10

6.8

FineArts/Music 6

4.1

ForeignLanguages 7

4.8

LiberalStudies/Leadership/ROTC 8

4.8

Math/Physics 22

15.1

PhysicalEducation 4

2.7

SocialSciences 15

10.3

SpecialEducation 13

8.9

Speech/Debate 3

2.1

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Mostoftheteachersinthisinvestigationhadasecondaryendorsement(95.3%).The levelsofeducation,althoughgreaterthanthegeneralpopulation,werenottoodifferent fromeachother.Alittlemorethanonethird(36.9%)hadaBachelor’swhilemorethan onehalfhadaMaster’sor30hoursbeyondtheMasters(57.1%).Theremaining6.0% wereeitherSpecialistsorhadDoctoratedegrees.Therewereavarietyofacademicareas representedinthisinvestigation.Thenaturalsciencesandmathematics(24.6%)leadthe groupwithalmostonequarterofalltheteacherssurveyedwithhumanities(e.g.,English, ForeignLanguages,CommunicationandSpeech)closelyfollowingwithmorethanone fifthoftheteachers(21.9%).Bothsocialsciences(10.3%)andspecialeducation(8.9%) hadrespectableshowings.Theremainingfieldsmadeupathird(34.3%)ofallthe teachersinthestudy.Althoughnotreportedinatablealmost98.0%oftheteachersin thissamplewereeducatedatinstitutionslocatedintheMidwest.Infact,mostwerefrom institutionsofnogreaterthan250milesfromthesiteofthisinvestigation. Theageofrespondentsrangedfromaminimumof24yearstoamaximumof64 years.Themeanageforteacherswas42years(M=42.50,SD=11.46).Themedianage wasslightlylowerat42.00years(seeTable4.2).Anotherimportantvariablewasthe numberofyearsofteachingexperiencereported.Therangeforyearsofteachingvaried from1to42years.Theaveragenumberofyearsteachingwas13(M=13.12,SD= 10.02),themediannumberofyearsteachingwas(MD=10.00).Incontrasttotheteaching experienceswasthenumberofMulticulturalEducationCourseHoursatboththe UndergraduateandGraduateleveltakenbyteachersinthisstudy.Therangefor Undergraduatecoursehourswas05,andforGraduatehours09.Thesecredithours translatedouttoroughly2to3coursesdependingupontheinstitutionandhowcredithours

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wereallocated.ThemeannumberofhoursforUndergraduateswas(M=1.08,SD=1.24) greaterthanthatforGraduatehours(M=0.93,SD=1.38).Whatwassurprisingwasthat mediannumberofcoursewasonlyone(MD=1.00).Thedataforworkshopandseminar hoursrevealedthatonehalfoftherespondentshadatleastonehouroftrainingandone halfdidnot(MD=1.00).Themeandatawerequitedifferent.Ingeneral,respondents reportedatleastM=1.93(SD=1.38)hoursofworkshopparticipation.Thatnumberrises toM=12.56(SD=53.17)hoursforseminarparticipation—althoughitissomewhat anomalousbasedononeoutlierrespondent. Table4.2

MeasuresofCentralTendencyandMeasuresofDispersionofSelectedStudyVariables

Variable(range) Mean StdDev Median

n

Age (2464)

42.50

11.46

42.00

147

YearsTeaching (142)

13.12

10.02

10.00

150

UndergraduateCourseHours:Multicultural Education(05)

1.08

1.24

1.00

99

GraduateCourseHours:Multicultural Education(09)

0.93

1.38

1.00

95

WorkshopHours:MulticulturalEducation (09)

1.93

2.26

1.00

98

SeminarHours:MulticulturalEducation (0500)

12.56

53.17

1.00

97

NOTE:Thenumberofseminarhoursreportedforonerespondentwas500andisconsideredanoutlier. Themediannumberofhoursof1.00stronglysuggestedthatfewteachersinthisstudyhavehadthe opportunitytogainmorethan5hoursonaverage.Theoutlierwasnotremovedforthistablebutfor subsequentanalysesthisvariablewasremoved.

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PredictorVariables TheconstructoftheModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkon TeacherPerceptionofStudentAchievementModelconsistsof48variablesthatcomprise aseriesoffoursubscalesthatcovertheareasoriginallyhypothesizedinChapterThree. Theconstructsmeasuredarescoredfrom(1)StronglyAgreeto(5)StronglyDisagree. ThespecificsubscalesofCommunication,KnowledgeBase,SelfAwarenessSystems, andInstitutionalCapacitycorresponddirectlytothemodelpresentedinFigure3.1. Additionalpredictorvariablesincludedteacherexperiences—yearsofteaching,their traininginmulticulturaleducation,andtheirage.Inaddition,gender,levelofeducation, andnumberofadditionaltrainingcoursestakenbyteacherswillalsobeconsideredinthe developmentofthefinalmodel.Someoftheelementshadtobeeliminatedbecauseof largeamountsofmissingdatacausedinpartbysomerespondentsnotcompletingthe questionnaireorskippingoversomeparts.Missingdataisalwaysaprobleminonline surveys.Nevertheless,eachoftheseelementswillbeevaluatedforrelevancetothe outcomemeasure—thescalescoreofteacher’sattitudes,perceptionsandbeliefsabout AfricanAmericanstudentachievement.Thefollowingsectionaddressestheconstruction ofthescalesandtheirrespectivestatisticalrelevance. OutcomeVariables Theconstructofteacher’sattitudes,beliefsandperceptionconsistedof30 variables,withafiveitemresponsescale.Therearethreesubscalesassociatedwiththis variable.Theyare:Attitudestowardteaching(α=.674,M=2.84,SD=0.81);theIdeal natureofteaching(α=.717,M=2.10,SD=0.51);andthebeliefsaboutstudent achievementheldbyteachers(α=.913,M=2.39,SD=0.77).Thesemeasureswere

49

combinedintoanoverallscaleforassessingteacher’sattitudes,beliefs,andperception aboutstudentachievementinaninnercity,urban,institutionthatishometo predominantlystudentsofcolor. ScaleVariables Inordertoconductananalysesoftherelationshipsbetweentheconstructinthe theoreticalmodelthreescalesweredeveloped.Theyare:theTeacher’sBeliefsand AttitudesScale(TEACHBELIEF);Teacher’sPerceptionandAttitudeScale (ATTBELIEF);andtheTeacher’sSpecificBelief,AttitudeandPerceptionaboutAfrican AmericanStudents(AABELIEFS).Thesescalesandtheircentraltendenciesare presentedinTable4.3.Allofthescaleshadmissingdata.Usingalistwisedeletion processthemissingdatawereexcludedfromscaleconstructionasreflectedinthe differentnofcasesreportedinthetable.Thescalesaresummativeandhavebeen dividedbythenumberofitemsrepresentingeachscale.Inadditiontothedemographics ontheobservablestudyvariablestherewereseveralvariablesthathadtobeconstructed fromexistingmeasures.Theconstructionofthesevariablesmirroredthatusedinthe originalstudiesuponwhichtheywerebased.Inadditionnewvariablesconstructedin supportofthemodelwerealsotested.Theresultsofreliabilitytestsforthesevariables arereportedinTable4.3.ThegeneralrangeofCronbach’salpha(α)scoresrangedfrom α=.722toα=.836—allwithinplausibleacceptability.Thefirstseriesofreliability scoresarefortheTeacherAttitudesandBeliefs(Chronbach’sα=.836)basedonthe Gunn(1994)study.Thisscaleconsistsof30variablesdisbursedacrossfoursubscales. TheTeacher’sPerceptionsscale(Cronbach’sα=.767)basedonLove(2001)is composedof48variablesandcanbebrokendownintosixsubscalesthatmimicthe

50

domainsnecessaryfortestingtheModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationFramework onTeacherPerceptionofStudentAchievementModelinitiallydiscussedinChaptersOne andThreeofthisdissertation.Thesubscalesscoresweresomewhatproblematicforthis scale.However,therelativelylowreliabilityscoresdonotinanywaydetractfromthe overallusefulnessandimportanceofthisscalemeasure.Thesubscalesarenotreported heresinceonlytheoverallscoreisrelevant.Thefinalelement,theTeacher’sBeliefs aboutAfricanAmericanStudents,isoneoftheuniquecontributionsofthisstudy.It consistofsixelements,focusedexclusivelyonteacher’sattitudestowardAfrican Americanstudents,yieldedaCronbach’sα=.722,wellwithinacceptableranges. Table4.3

Means,StandardDeviations,Cronbach’sAlphaScoresandCountsforTeacher’sBeliefs, PerceptionsandAttitudesMeasures

Variable Mean StdDev α N

Teacher’sPerceptions&Attitudes (Gunn,1994)[ATTBELIEF]

2.36

0.40

0.836

108 Teacher’sBeliefs&Attitudes (Love2001)[TEACHBELIEF] 2.10 0.51 0.767 107 Teacher’sPerceptionsofAfricanAmericans [AABELIEF] 2.58 0.72 0.722 107 NOTE:TheactualvariablesusedtoconstructthesescalescanbefoundinAppendixA. BivariateAnalysis

Inanefforttotesttheefficacyofthevariablesinthemodeldifferenceofmeans testingandzeroordercorrelationswereconductedbetweenthosemeasuresthoughtto contributetothefinalproductandsomeinitialdemographicmeasureswhichwere believedtohaveexplanatorypower.Thepurposeofmeanstestingandcorrelation analysesistoshowtherelativestrengthamongthestudyvariablesandtoaidin

51

determiningwhichvariablesultimatelyhaveanimportantroletoplayinhelpingto elucidatepossibleanswerstothestudy’sinitialquestions. MeansDifferenceTestingwithSelectedMeasures Theideathatgenderdifferencesplayanimportantroleinhowteacher’sperceive theirstudentsandtheirachievementsissometimesconsideredacriticalelementin classroominteraction.Totestthisassumptiondifferenceofmeanstests(ttests)were conducted.Inthecurrentinvestigationtherewerenosignificantdifferencesfound betweenmaleandfemaleteachersonanyofthecriticalpredictororoutcomemeasures. Toputitmoresuccinctly,teacherstendtohaveasimilarsetofattitudes,perceptionsand beliefsaboutstudentachievementwhenissuesofsexdifferenceareconsidered.Menand womentendtohaveaconsistencyacrossthecurrentstudymeasures. Furtherexplorationofdifferencesbetweenandamongteacherswasexamined acrossracegroups.Thespecificscaledvariables(ATTBELIEF,TEACHBELIEFand AABELIEFS)weretestedalongwiththesubscalevariables(COMM,KNOW,SELFand CULT)acrossracegroups.Theracevariableisrecodedintothreegroupsfromits originalsixinordertocreateatleastthreegroupsforwhichthereatleastfiveormore membersinthegroupmakingposthoccomparisontestingpossible.TheAnalysisof Variance(ANOVA)resultsarereportedinTable4.4andTable4.5.Themeanscore differencesacrossracearefoundinFigure4.1andFigure4.2. TheANOVAforthescaledscorevariablesrevealedonlyonesignificant differencebetweenracegroupsfortheteacherspecificbeliefs,attitudesandperceptions aboutAfricanAmericanstudents(AABELIEF).Therelationshipbetweenraceandthe scaledscoreAABELIEFshowedthattheeffectofracewassignificantF (2,104) =3.542,p

52

<.05.PosthocanalysisusingtheTukeyHSDandScheffétestscriterionforsignificance revealedthattheaveragescoreontheAABELIEFscoreformembersoftheOtherrace group(M=1.94,SD=.956)wassignificantlylowerthanthatforWhites(M=2.65,SD= .688)butnotforBlacks(M=2.62,SD=.956).Inotherwords,othersweresignificantly differentintheiroverallscoresfromWhitesbutnotfromBlacksdespitetheminor changesinmeanscores. Table4.4

ANOVAofDifferencesamongRaceGroupsonMajorScaleMeasures.

Variable

Sumsof Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Teacher’sAttitude Between.231

2

0.116

1.243

Within 11.158

120

0.093

Total 11.389

122

Teacher’sPerception Between.242

2

0.121

0.756

Within 16.840

105

0.160

Total 17.083

107

TeacherSpecificBeliefs, Between 3.598

2

1.799

3.542*

Attitudes,&Perceptions Within 52.808

104

0.508

aboutAfricanAmericans Total 56.405

106

*p<.05,**p<.01,***p<.001.

Acontinuationoftheanalysisforthespecificsubscaleelements(COMM, KNOW,SELFandCULT)revealednosignificantdifferencesonanyofthemeasures acrossalltheracegroups(seeTable4.5).Themeanscoresfortheseelementsbyrace wereillustratedinFigure4.2.

53

RelationshipsofInfluencesonTeacher’sAttitudes Oneissuetoaddressinthisstudyiswhetherornotordinarymeasuressuchasa teacher’srace,age,andyearsofteachinghaveaneffectontheiroverallattitudetoward studentachievement.Whileitispossibletosuggestsuchthings,itisbesttoexaminethis issuewithempiricaldata.Initialcorrelationswererunwheretheseissueswerehighlight. TheresultscanbefoundinTable4.6. Figure4.1.MeanScoresforScaleMeasuresbyRaceofRespondent

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Table4.5

ANOVAofDifferencesamongRaceGroupsonMajorSubScaleMeasures.

Variable

Sumsof Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Relationshipwith Between.263 2 0.132 0.690 Community[COMM] Within 22.672 119 0.191 Total 22.935 122

KnowledgeBase Between.190 2 0.095 0.419 [KNOW] Within 26.974 119 0.227 Total 27.164 121

SelfAwarenessand Between.836 2 0.418 2.239 BeliefSystem[SELF] Within 22.224 119 0.187 Total 23.060 121

InstitutionalCapacity Between 0.929 2 0.464 1.243 [CULT] Within 44.823 120 0.374 Total 45.752 122 *p<.05,**p<.01,***p<.001.

Theinitialdesignofthisstudyistoexamineteacher’sattitudeandperceptions aboutinnercity,urban,AfricanAmericanstudents.Thesimplezeroordercorrelations controllingfortwotailedsignificanceindicatedthattheiryearsofteachingandageofthe teacherhadastrongandsignificantcorrelation(r=.680,p<.01)andthatagewasalso significantlyrelatedtoattitudesandperceptionsaboutAfricanAmericanstudents(r= .259,p<.01).Inaddition,teacher’sbeliefsandteacher’sperceptionmeasuredontwo independentscaleswerefoundtobehighlycorrelated(r=.371,p<.01).Thescalefor attitudesandperceptionsaboutAfricanAmericanstudentswasalsofoundtobestrongly correlatedwithteacher’sbeliefs(r=.228,p<.05)butnotwithteacher’sperceptions(r =.123,p<n.s.).

55

Figure4.2.MeanScoresforSubScaleMeasuresbyRaceofRespondent.

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correlationsrevealedthatthespecificdomainscananddoplayanimportantroleinthe developmentofthefinalmodelasoriginallydescribed. Thenextseriesofcorrelationsexaminedthespecificsubscaleelementsfor teacher’sperceptionsandattitudes(COMM,KNOW,SELFandCULT)alongwiththe outcomemeasuresofteacher’sattitudes(ATTBELIEF)andthespecificattitudestoward AfricanAmericanstudents(AABELEIFS).Thespecificsubscalescorresponddirectlyto theelementscontainedintheModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkon TeacherPerceptionofStudentAchievementModel.Theremainingvariablesarethose hypothesizedtohavesomerelationshiptotheoutcome. Zeroordercorrelationsformodelelementsrevealedthattherelationswiththe communitywassignificantlyrelatedtoteacher’sknowledgebase(r=.251,p<.01)and selfawarenessandbeliefsystems(r=.205,p<.05).Thesameconstructwasstrongly butnotsignificantlyrelatedtotheteacher’sperceptionofstudentachievementwiththe generalmodel(r=.170,p<n.s.)butwasrelatedtothespecificmeasurerelatedtoward teacherperceptionofAfricanAmericanstudentachievement(r=.344,p<.01). Theselfawarenessandbeliefsystemsvariablewasfoundtobesignificantly relatedtotheteacher’sknowledgebaseasonemightexpect(r=.344,p<.01).This measurealsohadasignificantrelationshipwiththespecificmeasureaboutperceptionof AfricanAmericanstudents(r=.245,p<.05). Elementsofinstitutionalculturewerefoundtobesignificantlyrelatedtoteacher awareness(r=.327,p<.01)andteacher’sattitudesandperceptionsaboutstudent achievementingeneral(r=.297,p<.05).Thesecorrelationscoreshelpedtodetermine whichvariablesshouldremaininthefinalequationtotesttheefficacyoftheModified

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MulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudent AchievementModel. Table4.7

ZeroOrderCorrelationsforRelevantStudyScaledandSubScaleElementsand HypothesizedOutcomeMeasures

Measure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Age 1.00 YearsTeaching .680** 1.00 Communication[COMM] .092.079 1.00 KnowledgeBase[KNOW] .172.118.251** 1.00 SelfAwareness[SELF] .161.151.205*.344** 1.00 InstitutionalCapacity[CULT] .007 .036 .020.150.327** 1.00 Teacher’sPerception .052 .033.170.148.074.297* 1.00 BeliefsaboutAfricanAm .259**.211*.344**.245*.068.030.123 1.00 *p<.05.**p<.01.NOTE:Thevariablenamescorrespondingtothenumbersrefertothepositioninthe table(1)age;(2)yearsteaching;(3)communication;(4)knowledgebase;(5)selfawarenesssystems;(6) institutionalcapacityandculture;(7)teacher’sperception;and(8)teacher’sbeliefsandperceptionsabout AfricanAmericanstudents.NOTE:MeasureforTeacher’sBeliefdisplayedacrossitsfoursubscale components.

MultivariateAnalysis TestingTheoreticalAssumptionsandHypotheses ThissectionisbasedonthegeneraladaptationoftheModifiedMulticultural TeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudentAchievementModelto thestudyhypotheses.Themodelisexaminedasitrelatestoboththegenericstudent performancemeasuredbytheinstrumentandAfricanAmericanstudentperformance enhancementaddedtospecificallyaddresstheissuesrelatedtourbaninnercityAfrican Americanstudentsandtheunderlyingexpectationsregardingexpectationsoftheir performance. Threehypothesesweredevelopedinordertoanswertheresearchquestions.Each hypothesisexaminedanimportantaspectofthecurrentresearchquestions.Thediscussion

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reviewseachoneofthehypotheses.Hypothesesoneandtwocalledforcorrelation analysiswhilehypothesisthreerequireduseofmultivariateanalyses.Inanefforttomaintain efficiencyeachhypotheseswasrevisitedtodeterminehowtheanalyseseithersustainedor negatedeachhypothesis. Hypothesis1 Amongeducators,teacherswithhigherexpectationsofstudentprerequisite skillsaremorelikelytohavegreaterculturalcompetencylevels. Thefirsthypothesispredictedthatteacherswithahighlevelofexpectationsoftheir studentswouldbetheonesmostlikelytoexhibitgreaterculturalcompetencyscores.Inthis case,thoseteacherswhohadstrongscoresontherelationshipwithcommunitymeasure wouldalsohavestrongscoresofstudentachievementperceptionmeasures.Theoverall resultsrevealedacorrelationof(r=.170,p<.07).Sincethehypothesiswaswritten assumingthegeneralperceptionofstudent’sexpectations,itmustbeacceptedandthe alternativerejected—teacherswithhigherexpectationsdonotseemtohaveanygreater culturalcompetencythanthosewithlowerexpectations. WhenthesameissueisconsideredspecificallyusingthemeasureforAfrican Americanstudents,theresultsrevealasignificantandstrongcorrelationscore(r=.344p< .01).Althoughthisfindingisimportant,itisnottheoneoriginallyhypothesized.Therefore, theresultsarenotusedtoaddressthehypothesisbuttheyareincludedhereforfurther discussion. Hypothesis2: Amongeducators,teacherswithlowerexpectationsaboutstudent prerequisiteknowledge,therewillbefewerinstructionalteachingpractices. Thesimplewordingofhypothesistwobelievesthecomplexitynecessarytooffer ananswer.Themeasuresusedtoaddressthisquestionweretakenfromtherelationship

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betweentheoverallmeasuresofteacher’sbelief(ATTBELIEF)andcontrastedwiththeir specificteachingpracticemeasuredherebytheirscoreonthespecificpracticeofteaching pedagogyobtainedfromtheresultsoftheirreportedknowledge.Theresultantcorrelation (r=.148p<.125)wasnotsignificant,suggestingthatthishypothesiswasalsonot rejected. Again,theresultsforthespecificscalefocusedexclusivelyonAfricanAmericans revealedsignificantresults(r=.245,p<.05).Theseresultsshowadifferencebetween howthesampleviewedthetotalstudentpopulationversustheirviewofAfricanAmerican students. Hypothesis3: StudentAchievementwillbedirectlyinfluencedbythesocialecologyof theteacher. Thenextstepwastoapplytheconstructsinastructuralcausalmodelthatfocusedon theinterrelationshipsbetweenandamongthecomponentsoftheModifiedMulticultural TeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudentAchievementModel usedinthisinvestigation.Aswithanytheorybuildingitwasimportanttoexaminethe simplerelationshipsfirst.Thiswasdoneviatheuseofcorrelationanalysiswherespecific elementsrelatedtothemodifiedmodel. AssessingAttitudes,PerceptionsandBeliefsaboutInnercityMulticulturalStudents Thevariablesselectedforthecausalanalysismatchthetheoreticalassumptionsfor inclusioninthemodelusedinthisstudy.Variablesselectedwerebasedonthreethings:(a) theoreticalimport—howimportantthevariablewastotheconceptbeingmeasured;(b) variablestrength—whetherthevariableexhibitedamoderatetostrongrelationshipwiththe outcomemeasure;and(c)thegenerallogicnecessaryfortheorybuildingandconnectionof

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ideas—somethingessentialinanappliedinvestigationsuchasthisone. Themethodusedforexaminingthetheoreticalconstructwascausalmodelingorpath analysis.Pathmodelingderiveditsabilitytousearobuststatisticaltechniqueinamore adaptivemannerthanonewouldtraditionallyuseregressionanalyses(seeFigure4.3).Path Analysisisanextremelyusefulproceduretousewhenoneisattemptingtheorybuilding orsimpleexplanation.Traditionalmethodsforconductingpathanalysisinvolved constructingaseriesofmultipleregressionanalyseswitheachpreviouselementbeing designatedasanoutcomemeasureuntilthefullmodelwastestedandthefinaloutcome measurewasthehypothesizedmeasure.Acausalmodelisadiagramdrawnto graphicallyrepresentproposedrelationshipsbetweenvariablesindicatingcauseand effectwithdirectionalarrowsaccompaniesthenumerousregressionprocedures. InthisstudytheAnalysisMomentsandStructure(AMOS)programwasusedto conductpathanalysis.AMOSisamodelfittingapproachthatestimatesparameters throughmaximumlikelihoodestimationtechniques(MLE).Theiterativeprocessusedin MLEisextremelyadvantageousallowingforallthepathsandtheestimatesofallthe pathcoefficientssimultaneously.Ithelpstoproducethemostefficientanswerbasedon thedataparticularlywhenthesizeofthesampleissmalltomedium. EachoftheelementscorrespondedtoaparticularaspectoftheModified MulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudent AchievementModel.Therewasalsoaspecificvariableassignedtoeachofthecomponents. Thefigurebelowprovideda“bestguess”estimateofhowthemodelcanbeusedin determiningteacher’sattitudes,beliefsandperceptionstowardAfricanAmericaninnercity, urbanstudentachievementpotential.

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Figure4.3. ModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacher PerceptionofStudentAchievementModel.

TheoutcomeofthepathanalysisisfoundinFigure4.4.Ascanbeseen,allthe variablesselectedproducedsignificantfindings.Inotherwords,theoverallteacher perceptionofstudentachievementcanbedemonstratedbyexaminingthevariables relationshipwithcommunity(β=.11,p<.05),knowledgebaseofteacher(β=.11,p<.05), teacherselfawarenessandbeliefsystems(β=.11,p<.05)anunderstandingofthe institutionalcapacitytoaddressissues(β=.36,p<.001).Theseresultsallowmetoexplain about18%(R 2 adj =.18)ofthevarianceinteacher’sperceptionofstudentachievementas conceptualizedhere.Thesignificantpathcoefficientsandthestrongdirectrelationshipsalso posittheideathattheModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacher PerceptionofStudentAchievementModelapplicationasusedhereisappropriate

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Figure4.4.FinalModelforTeacherAttitudeMeasureSpecificallyFocusedonTeacher’s AttitudesBasedonGunnMeasure . COMM KNOW .04 SELF .03 CULT .18 ATTBELIEF.25 .16 .20 .36 -.11 S1 M1 C1 .11 .11

NOTE:Allpathsshownaresignificantatthep<.05level. AnadditionalandveryimportantstepintheorybuildingaboutAfricanAmerican studentachievementwastheabilitytoapplythesamemodelutilizingthesamepredictors withanoutcomemeasurespecificallyfocusedonAfricanAmericanstudents(seeFigure 4.5).Tobegintherewasastrongandsignificantrelationshipbetweenunderstandingand havingarelationshipwithcommunity(β=.40,p<.001)andknowledgebaseofteacher(β= .18,p<.01)whenaddressingAfricanAmericanstudentachievement.Equallyimportant wasthefindingthatselfawarenessandbeliefsystemsofteacherswasnegativelyrelatedto theirperceptionaboutAfricanAmericanstudentachievement(β=.18,p<.01).Inother words,teacherwhohadlessselfawarenessabouthowandwhattheydoandthinkabout AfricanAmericanstudentachievementwerelikelytohavealowerimpactonstudent achievement.Thesamerelationshipwasfoundforteacher’sknowledgeaboutthe

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institutionalcapacityforinfluencingchange(β=.07,p<.05).Theoverallresultsfromthis modelrevealedanR 2 adj =.23,orabout23%ofthevarianceexplainedinteacher’sperception ofAfricanAmericanstudentachievementasconceptualizedhere. Figure4.5AlternateFinalModelforTeacherAttitudeMeasureSpecificallyfocusedon Teacher’sAttitudesTowardAfricanAmericanStudents. COMM KNOW .04 SELF .03 CULT .23 AABELIEFS.25 .16 .20 -.07 -.18 S1 M1 C1 .40 .18

NOTE:Allpathsshownaresignificantatthep<.05level. Thesizableamountofvarianceexplainedpointstowardstheimportanceofthe theoreticalconstructconceivedinthisdissertation.Thespecificmeaningsandimplications ofthesefindingsarediscussedingreaterdetailinChapterFive.

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CHAPTERV DISCUSSIONANDCONCLUSION Overview Thischaptersummarizesthepurposeofthestudy,methodology,discussionof researchfindings,andconclusionwiththelimitationsofthestudyandrecommendationsfor futureresearch.Thefocusofthisstudyistounderstandteacherbeliefsandpracticesandit effectsonstudentachievementinurbanschoolsettings.Theanalysisofthischapter examinestheobjectiveresponsesoftheteachersaswellascapturedtheirpersonaland professionalvoicesarediscussedthroughoutthechapter. Purpose Thepurposeofthisstudyistoexaminetheteachingpracticesthatleadto improvedachievementamongstudentsofcolor.Thisresearchwillcenteronthe practicesofsecondaryschoolteachingpracticesinurbansettings.Uponexaminingthe instructionalpracticesfoundintheseschools,anattemptwillbemadetoaddressthe overarchingquestionofwhetherornotachievementoutcomesareabyproductofpoor instructionorisitfosteredbyasetofpreconceivednotionsbroughtbyclassroom teachersbaseduponinadequatetrainingfordealingwithurban,economicallychallenged, multiculturalstudents? Thetopicofteacher’sperceptionsasitrelatestomulticulturalstudentshas experiencedtworesurgencesintheresearchliterature.Therecontinuestobeapaucityin theresearchliteratureconcerningAfricanAmericanstudentsparticularlyperceptions abouttheirachievementpotential.Theprimaryobjectiveofthisexploratory

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investigationwastoprovidebaselinedataaboutteacher’sperceptions,attitudesand beliefsaboutmulticulturalstudentsingeneralandAfricanAmericanstudents specifically. Methodology Thesampleforthisstudyconsistedof107educatorswhoselfselectedto participateinanonlinesurveyfocusedonattitudesandbeliefsaboutmulticulturalstudent achievement.Thesurveywasavailableforapproximately15days.Theinstrument containedapproximately80closedquestionsandfiveopenendedquestions.Allfocused onteacherperceptions,attitudes,beliefsandapproachestomulticulturaleducationand students. Theinstrumentconsistedofapproximately80closedquestionsincludingfivemajor openendedquestionsassessingteacher’sgeneralknowledgeaboutmulticulturaleducation. Therewerefiveopenedendedquestionsforwrittenresponses,andtheywere:(a)Pleasegive yourdefinitionofwhatMulticulturalEducationmeanstoyou;(b)Indicatesomeitems thatyouthinkareessentialfordevelopingasuccessfulMulticulturalteacherpreparation program;(c)Pleasecompletethefollowingthought—myprimaryreasonforteachingin anurbanpublicschoolis;(d)CanyouthinkofanycharacteristicsthatAfricanAmerican youngstersbringtotheclassroom;(e)Whatkindsofthingshaveyoudoneinthe classroomthathavefacilitatedtheacademicsuccessofAfricanAmericanstudents? Participantswereassuredoftheconfidentialityoftheirresponsesandwerepromisedthat theirresponseswouldinnowaybelinkedtothem.

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ResearchFindings Thegeneralfindingsrevealedsomeinterestinganddisturbingissuesregarding attitudestowardmulticulturalstudentachievementandexpectationsforperformance. ThesewererevealedthroughavarietyofmeasuresandweretestedutilizingaModified MulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudent AchievementModeldevelopedforthisdissertation.Someoftheissuesinthismodel,as itrelatestomulticulturalstudents,arediscussedbelow. TeacherEducation MostoftheteachersinthesamplehadgreaterthanaBaccalaureatedegree,in fact,morethan60%did.Withawelleducatedsampleitwasexpectedthattheseteachers wouldalsobewelltrainedinmulticulturalissues.Suchwasnotthecase.Infact,a significantnumberofthesamplereportedashavingonlyoneundergraduateorgraduate courseinmulticulturaleducation.Thelownumbersofrespondentswithonlyonehourof multiculturaleducationmadesubsequentcorrelationanalysisproblematic,atbest.The supplementaleducationalmeasuresofthenumberofhoursinmulticulturalworkshopsor seminarsonmulticulturaleducationdidnotyieldgreaterresults.Inthecaseoftheone respondentwhoreportedhavingmorethan500hoursofmulticulturaltrainingonly servedtoinflatethemeannumberofhoursoftrainingforourteachers.Whenthese elementswereremovedfromthesamplethemeannumberandmediannumber convergedaroundone. YearsofExperience Oneelementthatcannotbeoverlookedistheroleyearsofexperienceplaysinthe formulationofpractices,beliefsandideology.Inthisstudytherangeofyearsof

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experiencewentfromlessthanoneyeartomorethanfortyyears.Mostoftheteachers couldbeconsideredseasonedteacherswithamedianoftenyears.Theaveragenumber ofyearsteachingwasstronglyandsignificantlycorrelatedtoattitudes,perceptions,and beliefsaboutAfricanAmericanstudentsbutnottomulticulturalstudentsingeneral. RaceofTeacher Althoughraceofteachersisgenerallynotconsideredtobethemostcritical variableinmostinvestigationsfocusedonmulticulturalstudentstudiesitisalways consideredassalient.Thesamecanbesaidofteachersinthisinvestigation.For exampletherewasasignificantANOVAforraceandspecificbeliefs,attitudes,and perceptionaboutAfricanAmericanstudents.Eventhoughthefindingswerenotall significantthedifferencesbetweenscoresforWhiteteachersandteachersofcolorwere striking,especiallywhenvisuallyrepresentedasshowninthemeanfiguresthat accompaniedtheanalysis. MulticulturalPreparation Aseriesofinterestingfindingsthatreflectonmorethanthenumberofhours,or numberofcourses,takenweretheteacher’sperceptionsabouttheirownpreparationfor multiculturalteaching.Aseriesofquestionsemployedinthecurrentinvestigation helpedtohighlightthesefindings.Forexampleinthescalethatmeasuredteacher’s beliefabouttheirpreparationtheresultingCronbach α =.674revealedthatmostteachers wereconsistentintheirbeliefaboutfeelingpreparedtoteachinamulticulturalsetting. Theironicfindingthatmostbelievedthattheyhadadequatetrainingforteaching multiculturaleducation( α =.913)stoodinstarkcontrasttosmallnumberofactualhours ofspecificmulticulturaltrainingthatmosthadreceived.Theinconsistencyshown

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betweenthebeliefsaboutone’sabilityandtheresultswhichwouldsuggesttheneedfor improvementisoneofthefindingsthatpresentsitselfasproblematicbutnotsurprising forthoseinvolvedinmulticulturaleducationissuesinpublicschools. Thisdissertationmakescontributionstothefieldbycreatingandtestinganew elementaimedatexplicatingtherelationshipbetweenteacher’sbeliefs,attitudesand perceptionsastheyrelatespecificallytoAfricanAmericanstudents.Theconscience decisiontonameandhighlightspecificmeasuresgearedatAfricanAmericanstudentis uniqueinitsownright.Thequestionscanbeusedinfutureinvestigationswithother studentsofcolorgroupsasaresult. Thefindingsfromthisscaledvariablewhenaddedastheoutcomemeasureinthe ModifiedMulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudent AchievementModelenhancedtooverallvalueofthemodel.Whilethisachievementis noteworthytheseparateelementsthatcomprisethescaleitemsareinterestingintheir ownright.Thefindingsclearlyindicatethatfutureresearchersmustincludemeasures thatfocusonspecificgroupsespeciallyifthegroupisunderrepresentedintheresearch literature.Thepurposeofthisstudywastoexaminetheteachingpracticesthatleadto improvedachievementamongstudentsofcolor.Thisresearchcenteredonthepracticesof secondaryschoolteachersinurbansettingsandhowtheseskillsetsfacilitatelearning.The explorationnatureofthisinvestigationallowedforboththeoreticalandappliedperspectives tobeused. Hypotheses Hypothesis1:Amongeducators,teacherswithhigherexpectationsofstudent prerequisiteskillsaremorelikelytohavegreaterculturalcompetencylevels.

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Hypothesis1isbasedonthepedagogyteacherspresentintheclassroommoreoften referredtoasculturallyresponsiveteaching.Culturallyresponsiveteachingdevelops academicachievement,socialconsciousness,culturalaffirmation,competenceandexchange, communitybuildingandpersonalconnectionsandindividualselfworth.Teachers’beliefs haveagreaterimpactontheirpracticesintheclassrooms,yetteachers’beliefsaffectvarious aspectsofteachingandhowtheyinteractwithstudents.Thefindingsinthisinquiryfound thatculturallyresponsiveteachersheldbothpositiveandnegativebeliefsaboutAfrican Americanstudents.Teachersreportedthattheyhavefacilitatedacademicsuccesswhentheir lessonswererelevantanddirectlyrelatedtostudent’slearning.Oneteachercommentedthat:

IhavehighexpectationsandIdon'tlowerthem.Itrytoteach AfricanAmericanstudentsthesameskillsIwouldteachanyother students,becausetheywillbecompetingwithotherswhohave thoseskills.

Othercommentsrelatingtoculturallyrelativeteaching: ItrytoteachtothemultipleintelligencesasmyAfricanAmerican studentshaveamorediversifiedtalentsetforcompletingtasksor explainingtheirlearning.

Broughtincontentthattheycouldrelateto,andbringingincontent thatIknowtheywouldhavesomebackgroundknowledgewith. Providingassignmentsthatallowthemtodrawfromtheirown experiences.

Cooperativelearningactivities,authenticassessments,multiple intelligences,teachtodifferentmodalities,andprovide differentiatedinstructionstrategies.

Teacherswhodidnotunderstandtherelevanceofincludingculturallyrelevant pedagogyinthedeliveryofcurriculumwhenteachingAfricanAmericanstudentscommented thatthey:

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Teachtothestatestandardsandabidebythedistrictcurriculum. Botharepreparedatthecorrectproficiencylevelforeachgrade level.”

Nothingspecial.

Treatedthem"likeeveryoneelse.

Ihavetriedtoteachaboutthehistoryofsomeoftheculturalthings thatareimportanttothem,suchasrapmusicandwhereitcame from,andhavetaughtaboutthecontributionsofAApeopleand cultureineveryareaofoursociety.

TheaforementionedresponsesareillustrationsofwhyAfricanAmericanstudents finditdifficulttolearnandprogressinschools.Teacherslacktherequisitebase knowledge,skillsanddispositionstoeffectivelyteachchildrenfromdiverse backgrounds.Itcanbeassumedfromtheoverallcommentsdiscussed,manyteachers believethattheyareusingtheirbestteachingskillsets,butalsonotrealizingtheir teachingstylesarenotindirectlinewiththelearningstylesofstudentsofcolor. Hypothesis2:Amongeducators,teacherswithlowerexpectationsaboutstudent prerequisiteknowledgetherewillbelessinstructionalteachingpractices. Teacherswhotendtoexpectlessfromtheirstudentsoftenappeartoengagetheir studentsless,engageinlessinnovativepractices,havestereotypicviewsoftheirstudentsand tendtobelievethatstudentsaregenerallynotcapableofmeetingtheirstandards.Someofthe directquotessupportthesefindings.Teachersstated: Ignorance,andlackofcommonsense. negativeattitude.

Talkingloud.

Violence.

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gramer[sic]isnotalwayscorrect. MyAA[sic]studentsareallverydifferent,buttherearesome thingssuchasclothingstylesandmusicthataresimilarandadda "colorful"element,andthereseemstobemorehonestyinthe mannerinwhichtheyexpressthemselves.

Confrontation,insecurity.

Hypothesis3:StudentAchievementwillbedirectlyinfluencedbythesocial ecologyoftheteacher. Thegeneralideathatteachersandtheenvironmenttheycreateintheclassroomis capturedinthishypothesis.Thegeneralsenseofself,thewaytheythinkaboutothers, thewaytheyprojectthemselvestothestudentsisveryimportanttohowteacherscometo formtheirideaofmulticulturalstudents.Inaddition,theexposurethatateacherhasto thecommunitiesinwhichtheyteachandliveareimportantconstructs.Theoverall background,education,training,experiencesandgeneralattitudetowardstudentsand theirworkasteacherswereimportantconsiderationsinthedevelopmentofandfindings forthishypothesis. ItisthecommunityIgrewupinandhadgoodexperiences.Ilivein thesamecommunitythatIteachin.

Iattendedanurbanpublicschool,IamcomfortablehereandIfind themixofculturestobemorestimulatingthanatamore homogenousschool.

toprovideservicetothecommunityviamyprofessionaltraining.I verymuchwouldhaveagreedwiththestatement"Ifnotme,who?" toteachurbanstudents.However,astheyearunfoldsIrealizeIam notadequatelyprepared.

Iamabletoconnectwiththestudents,parents,andcommunityand haveinvestedalargeamountoftimeandwanttoseeourkids succeedinthefuture.

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AsaSocialStudiesteacherIhavehadalifelongloveof understandingotherculturesandenjoylearningaboutthem.I believethatdifferencesshouldbecelebrated,buttoleranceisa beginningandinurbanschoolsthisismuchneeded.

ItiswhereIbelong!

Implications Theresearchfindingsfromthisinvestigationhavesignificantimplicationsregarding teacherattitudesandbeliefsinteachingAfricanAmericanstudentsinurbanclassroom settings.Thefindingsrevealedfiveemergingthemesbasedonopenendedquestions teachersrespondedtointhesurvey.Thefirsttwothemesfocusedonmulticulturaleducation. Thereisevidencethatteachershaddifficultiesdefiningandunderstandingmulticultural educationandessentialsfordevelopingasuccessfulmulticulturalteacherpreparation program.Third,teacherexpectations,beliefpracticesandcharacteristicsofAfricanAmerican youngstersasagroupandwhattheybringtotheclassroom.Thefourththemediscussed teachersasselffulfillingprophetsandrelatingtheirreasonsforteachinginanurbanpublic school.Thefinalthemefocusedonculturallyrelativeteachingandhowteachersfacilitated theacademicsuccessesandfailuresofAfricanAmericanstudents. DefinitionandAssumptionsaboutMulticulturalEducation Multiculturaleducationhastakenonmanyformsintheclassroomsaswellasinthe curriculum.AccordingtoBanks,ifmulticulturaleducationisviewedasareform,a movementandaprocess,whydoclassroomteachersfinditdifficulttoimplementthese notionsintotheircurriculum?SincethepassageofNoChildLeftBehindAct(2001),which hasledtolessemphasisonpedagogy,moreemphasisonhighstakestesting,andlesson multiculturaleducation,manyteachershidebehindthenotionthatthereis“littleroom”to

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“add”tothecurriculum.Thefindingsrevealedteachershaddifficultiesdefining multiculturaleducation.Teachersstatedthatmulticulturaleducationmeans: Whenrepresentativehouseholdhaveauniqueforeignculturewhichis practiced!Thestudentcomestoschoolinfluencedbyhis/herhome practiceduniqueperspectiveincontrast/complimentwithotherforeign culturedstudents.

MulticulturalEducationisusingexamplesofallculturesknownto maninthelessontomakethelessonrelevantforstudents.These examplescreatequestions,allowingstudentsmoreknowledge abouttheworldinwhichtheyliveandmustcompete.

MulticulturalEducationmeansdifferential.Allstudentscometous withvaryingdegreesofknowledge,experiences,culturesand insights.Aseducators,weneedtohaveatoolboxinwhichtopull frominordertohelpallstudentsexperience.

MulticulturalEducationisthestudyofwesterncivilizationandthe culturalforcesthatimpactU.S.,society.

AvarietyofraceandeducationalmakeupfromSpedtoBrilliant.

Aprogramthat1)providesavarietyofculturallydiverse representationalmaterialand2)workswith,notagainst,oratleast acknowledges,possibleculturallybasedneedsinlearningstyles.

ItmeansthatIwillhavestudentsthatcomefrommanydifferent backgrounds.

Educatingstudentsontheircultureinadditiontothoseofothers.

Givenkidswithwidelyvaryingideasofwhatasuccessfuladultis supposedtobelike,I'mabletoconnectwitheachoftheminaway thattriggerstheirbeliefthatI'manadultwhocaresforthem,with somethingtogivethatwillhelpthemsucceed.

Ichoosemusicfromavarietyofcultures,andhavemystudents performinmanydifferentlanguages.Idon'ttargetanethnicgroup Idonotchoosetocramethnicitydownanyone'sthroat. Multiculturalisnotsynonymouswithethnicity.

MulticulturalEducationisusingexamplesofallculturesknownto maninthelessontomakethelessonrelevantforstudents.These

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examplescreatequestions,allowingstudentsmoreknowledge abouttheworldinwhichtheyliveandmustcompete.

Teacherswhousedifferenttechniqueswithminoritystudents.

Banksdiscussedthatoneofthefundamentalassertionsofmulticulturaleducationis thatsomeschoolssystemicallyrestrictacademicsuccessforstudentswho,becauseofrace, ethnicity,orsocioeconomics,differfromthemainstreampopulation.Classroomteacherswho havelearnedtointegratemulticulturalismintothecurriculumdidnothavedifficultiesdefining norintegratingmulticulturalintheircurriculum.Teacherswhointegratedmulticultural educationintheircurriculumnoted: Aguaranteedandviablecurriculumprovidingtheneedsofall studentsregardlessofrace,gender,ethnicbackgroundand languages.Thiswouldalsoincludeteachingstudentsthevalueof beingdifferentandbeingsensitivetothesedifferences.

MulticulturalEducationiswhenthesubjectareaislookedupon throughtheeyesofdifferentcultures.Thejoboftheteacheristo presentthematerialsinwaysthatotherculturesmyviewthe subject.

Reducingoreliminatingbiasineducationbasedonculture, educatingallstudentstothefullestoftheirability,becomingmore awareofculturaldifferencessoinstructionbecomesmore relevance,allstudentshavearigorouscourseofstudies.

Multiculturaleducationmeansacommitmenttopresentinga varietyofculturalworksandviewpointsinthelargercontextofthe highschoolcurriculum.

MulticulturalEducationiswhenaneducatorpresentsseveral viewpointsfromvariousracestohisorherstudentsinorderto educatethemondifferencesandsimilaritiesbetweenraces.

Drawinglifeperspectivesandwaysoflivingandsocializingfrom manyculturesasitappliestothesubjectIteach.

MEisanapproachtoeverythingeducationalthatexhibitsa sensitivityandtolerancetoculturesaswellanawarenessofcultural differencesthatcanenhanceorimpedelearning.

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SuccessfulMulticulturalTeacherPreparationProgram Pajares(1992)posited,“understandingthebeliefstructuresofteachersandteacher candidatesisessentialtoimprovingtheirprofessionalpreparationandteachingpractices”.(p. 307)Teachertrainingprogramsinthelasteightyearshaveprovidedpreservicestudents opportunitiestotakemulticulturalcoursestopreparethemtoworkindiverseclassrooms. Withtheincreasingnumbersofstudentsfromdifferentculturalandlanguagebackground, oftentheraceoftheclassroomteachersdoesnotreflectthosechanges(LadsonBillings, 2000,).Itisimperativethatsuccessfulmulticulturalteacherpreparationprogramsare preparingteacherstoworkandteachstudentsfromdifferentculturalandlanguage backgrounds.Theteacherswereaskedtoindicatetheessentialelementsfordevelopinga successfulmulticulturalteacherpreparationprogram.Often,theirresponsesreflectedtheir lackofunderstandingthedefinitionandtheimportanceofmulticulturaleducationtraining program. Teachersmustbetaughtthepropermindsetfordealingwith studentsfromallcultures.

Ithinkyouneedsomeonewithamulticulturalbackgroundtoteach it.

Teachersneedtobeawarethattheircultureisnottheonlyone. Theyneedtounderstandthatweasasocietyarebetteroffwhen peopleattempttounderstandandcommunicatewitheachother.

Backgroundknowledgeinvaryingcultures.

Nocollegepreparationcanmodeoreducateaneffective multiculturalteacher.Amulticulturalteachercanteachanysubject. Adistrictmustidentifytheappropriatepersonalityinateacherand beallowedtohavethatgiftedteacherpresent.

Agoodsociologyclass,inclusionofawidevarietyofculturesusing primarydocuments,visualpresentationsthatexposestudentstoa widevarietyofcultures.

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RubyPayne'sinformationabouteconomicsandwhystudentsreactthewaythey doisinvaluableandallteachersshouldhavethatinformationwhenworkingwith urbanstudents.Relationshipsandhowtobuildthem. Allowingteacherstochooseethnicgroupsthatinterestthemforstudies.Learning aboutvariouscultures,rituals,etc. Geography,customs,economicsystems,formofgovernmentandreligious beliefs. Groupsestablishesnorms:suchasbeingnonjudgmental,speakingyourtruth without1. Howtomotivatethemulticulturalstudent.2.Understandingofthe socioeconomicsofthecommunityand/orgenerationalpoverty.3. Incorporatingdifferentiatedinstruction.4.Goodclassroom managementworryofretaliationfromothers.” Teacherswhopromotedmulticulturaleducationandunderstoodtheimportanceof developingasuccessfulmulticulturalpreparationprogramscommented: AsuccessfulMulticulturalteacherpreparationprogramcould include,thehistoryofaspecificeventinadditiontomulticultural literature.Andaartcomponentallowingonetogainadifferent perspectiveofasinglehistoricalevent. Anessentialitemtoateacherpreparationprogramwouldbea majorpointinhistory,fromthefollowingperspectives,European, AfricanAmerican,Indian,Irish,andHispanic. Facilitationtraining,researchskills,questioningskills,mediation skills,awarenessofWhiteprivilege,understandingofcrosscolor prejudice. Professionaldevelopmentaboutvariousculturesandhowto addressdifferentcultureswithintheclassroom. Studentteacherexperienceintheurbanclassroomsetting.Teachers tobeneedtoseewhatcanbeaheadofthemintheclassroom.They needastrongmentorteacherduringthisexperience. Anuptodatetextbook.Plentyofwebsitesthatcanhelpeducate theeducatorondifferentcultures.Administratorsthatareflexible enoughtoallowtheeducatorto"thinkoutsidethebox.” DIVERSITYTRAININGisthemostessentialelement.Ihavebeen adiversitycoordinatorfor10yearsandtheoneelementmissingin

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ourdistrictwasalwaysthetrainingelement.Trainingoneteacheris notgoodenough. Experiencesindifferentsettings(Urban,Suburbanandrural districts)bothstudentteaching,observationsandpracticum). Researchingculturesandtheirimpactoneducationintraditional settings(methods)andhowtheyshouldbedifferentiated. TeacherExpectationsandBeliefs “Wehaveveryfew,andIdon'tlookatmykidsasbeingAfricanAmerican—“ Teacherexpectationsandbeliefshavegreatimpactandinfluenceonstudentsthey teach.Teachersoftenhavelimitedexperiencesininteractingwithdiversestudentsand evenlessexperienceintherequisitebackground,knowledge,skillsanddispositionsto effectivelyteachstudentsfromdiverseculturalbackgrounds.Theteacherswereaskedto thinkofanycharacteristicsthatAfricanAmericanyoungstersasagroupbringtothe classroom.Theirassumptionspaintadifferentpictureofthestudentstheyteachandthe teacherexpectationsandbeliefstheyhaveaboutAfricanAmericanstudents.Their responsesrevealedthesestudentsdobringtheirculturalbackgroundintotheclassroom, mostdidnotknow“howtoteachtothestudentskills”orbelievedthatthestudentswere “ignorantandlackedcommonsense.”Otherrevealingcomments: Aculturalidentitythatacceptssubstandardperformancebecause ofwheretheyarelocated.Anidentitythatisresistanttochange becauseofperceivedculturalbias. Notassuch.Someofourstudentsbringincertaincharacteristics butthesearebasedmoreuponareaculturethanontheirrace. Wouldn'titbestereotypingifIcould? Idon’tliketocharacterizeallAfricanAmericansbutdifferent groupsbringgoodandbadthings.Ifeelthattheybringahistorical cultureandperspectivetotheclassroom. Nonecometomind...studentsarestudents.

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Can'tthinkofanydifferentcharacteristics,asIhaven'tworkedwith manyothergroups. TheonesI'vehadwerenotnoticeablydifferentinbehaviorfrom thewhitestudents.ButIonlyworkwithstrongstudentsinPhysics. So,strongstudentsofdifferentracesseemtohavesimilarwork habitsandattitudes. Wehaveveryfew,andIdon'tlookatmykidsasbeingAfrican American. Literacydeficit,lackoftrust,needtounderstandotherculturesand ethnicgroups.LoveoffamilyandGod.Eagernesstolearnif providedguidanceandanopportunitytoworkwithothers.Aneed tohaveinputintheirlearning. Otherthancolorofskin,AfricanAmericankidsarelikeallmy kids.Somearenoisy,somearequiet,somefeelsecureinschool, othersdon't.Kidsarekids;somehavefamilysupport,manydonot. Povertyismoreofanissuethancolor. TherecertainlyisaLACKOFEFFORTthatsomestudentsbringto school.ThatIhavetophysicallywalkbyandhelpthemopentheir notebooktotakenotesorgetthemontask,orremindthemtobring awritingutensilishardformetounderstand. Confrontation,insecurity;Loudnonattentive;Violence.

IdonothavetypicalAfricanAmericanstudentsinmyclasses.I havesuburbaniteblacksthathaveescapedtheurbanenvironment. Thesignificanceoftherelationshipbetweenteacherexpectationandstudent achievementissuccess.TeacherswhohavehighexpectationsforAfricanAmerican studentacademicsuccessevaluatetheirsenseofresponsibilityforstudentlearningand achievements.TheirexpectationsandbeliefsaboutAfricanAmericanstudentswhobring theircharacteristicsintheclassroomnoted: ThinkAfricanAmericanstudentsbringlotsofdifferent personalitiestotheclassroomwhichmakestheclasstimemore enjoyable,especiallywhenyouarehavinglargegroupdiscussions.

Excitement.Ithinkthatmystudentsarealwaysbringingsomething newtotheclassroom.Myjobistofigureouthowtoincorporate thatintomylessons.

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Knowledge;boisterousness,collegiality,emotion,strongbeliefs.

Creativity;humor,creativityetc.

Thedesireto"know"theirteacher. IlikehavingtheminmyclassroomasIcanrelatetothem.Ithink theycontributealottomyclassasmanyofthemkeeptheclass frombeingstalebythewiderangeofpersonalities.Theyallowthe classtobecomefun,aswellasthelearning. Theirabilitytobringsocialaspectsofcommunicationand engagementisapositiveimpactinmyclassroom. Ithinktheybringanelementofculturallyacceptablenoiseandjoy tomyclassroom.Theyalsobringasenseof"somebodylovesme" becausewhoeverisraisingthemhashighexpectationsforthem. Relationshipswithteachertolearn;excitedtoberespectedtodo innovativeteaching.

Boisterousbehavior,funyetguardedattitudes.Theydonotbuild trustwithadultseasily.Butonceyouhaveearnedtheirtrust,you havetheirloyaltyandrespect.

Theydon't"BS"withmeasmuchandIlikethat.Theyareupfront andmorevocalthanthestudentsIdealtwithwhenIsubbedina SuburbanDistrict.

Theclassatmosphereismuchdifferent.Thereisalotofslang, humor,roasting,andvolume.IhadtovisitwithseveralAfrican Americancoworkerstounderstandwhatmystudentsreallymeant. IfeellikeIinteractbetterthisyear.

TeachersasSelfFulfillingClassroomProphets Isintelligencesomalleablethatteachers’expectationforurbanstudentscannotbe raised?Teacherswereaskedtheirthoughtregardingtheirprimaryreasonforteachingin urbanpublicschools.Theirincludedbutwerenotlimitedto“Imaybetheonlyhope someofthesechildrenhaveforaproductive,stablefuture,”to“tobeagoodrolemodel andprovidestabilityinstudents'lives.”IfAfricanAmericanstudentsaretobesuccessful

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andproductivecitizens,theyneedteacherswhowanttoteach,guide,andnurturethem throughtheireducation.Otherresponsesincluded: ItwasnotanurbanpublicschoolwhenIstartedsoIcan'tsayIhad anyintent. Itwasavailable;becausetherewasnootherjobavailableatthe timeinthecontentareaIwanted.IwillbeoutassoonasIcan. Theyaretheonlyschoolthatcalledme.Iamfinewithworkingin anurbanenvironment.Ijusttireofbeingtreatedlikegarbageby mystudents.Itgetsold. Ifeelliketherearen'tenoughdedicatedteacherswhoreallycare abouturbankidsasIdo. IthoughtIcouldmakeadifference.Atleastabiggerdifference thanIcouldmakeinaschoolwithstudentswithmoreadvantages. Thisiswherethejobwas.IneededajobwhenImoved,andthis districtwashiring. Becausethekidshereneedmyhelp. Itwastheonlyopeningformypositionaftergraduation,andthat wouldallowaprovisionalcertificate.Ithasbeenagreat experience.Veryfulfilling.Allowingmytogrowprofessionally andpersonally. Ienjoyworkingwiththestudents.Idonotseethemasurbanbut juststudentswhoneedmyskillstohelpthemimprovetheirlives. BecauseIwouldliketobeamessengerofallthetalentandgood thingsthatcomefromurbanschoolsandtopromoteourstudentsin manydifferentways.

Idon’tteachinanurbanschoolbecauseIdon’thaveto.Iwould ratherbeoutinthesuburbsanddealwiththatstudentbodyandless ofthecultureproblemstheurbansettingpresents.

Ineedthemoneyandbenefits. Teacherswhotaughtinurbandistrictsreflectedontheirreasonforwantingto workwithAfricanAmericanstudentsinurbandistricts.Theirreasonsforteachingatan urbanpublicschoolare:

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Ihaveastrongbeliefthatallstudentscanlearn.Ienjoyworking withallstudents,butIespeciallyenjoyteachingstudentswho othersdonotenjoyorstudentswhohavehadaroughtimeinlife, eitheratschool,home,andothercircumstances. TofeelasifIammakingadifference. Iamverycomfortablewithatriskstudents.Myjobisdifferentand challengingeveryday.ThesearethenotthesamekidsthatIgrew upwithinmyLeaveittoBeaverlife.Theyinspiremetoputforth moreeffortbytheirexamples.Ilovemyjob. Ithinkteachingisawayofgivingbacktothecommunityaswell asthefutureleaders.Ifeltitwasimportanttoleaveapositive fingerprintonmystudents. Thekids.Thesestudentsappreciatethelittlethingsdoneforthem, theycareabouttheteachersandwanttodowell.Itishighly personallyrewardingandbeneficialformetoworkinanurban publicschool. BecauseouryoungAfricanAmericanmenneedtoseeanAfrican Americanmaleduringtheireducationalprocess. ItisthecommunityIgrewupinandhadgoodexperiences.Ilivein thesamecommunitythatIteachin. Iamgoodatthis!After36years,IstillthinkIamgettingbetter witheachyearandmoreexperiences.Ienjoythechallengeand rewardsofpeoplewhoarefightingashardasIamtogettheirchild aneducation. Iattendedanurbanpublicschool,IamcomfortablehereandIfind themixofculturestobemorestimulatingthanatamore homogenousschool. Toprovideopportunityforkidsthroughmusiceducation,career andlifelonghobby,aswellasthinkingprocesses,problemsolving skills,andmultitasking. Ienjoybeinginaanurbansettingandwanttomakeadifferencein thelivesofthestudentsthatattendedurbanschoolsandbearole modelofsuccess. IfeelthatIgetalongwiththestudentswell.Idon'tjudgethem basedupontheirrace,genderorcreed.Ialwaystryandunderstand wheretheycomefromandhowtheylivetheirlives.Itryand understandsomeofthebarrierstheyface.

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Anopportunityandachallenge!Thereisaneedforhighly qualifiedinstructorsintheurbancore,IbelievethatIcan accomplishachangeindirectionwithworkandeffortto accomplishapositivechangeinstudentexpectations. Iamgoodatit!IenjoythestudentsandLOVEseeingtheirsuccess. Ihavedevelopedastrongrelationshipwiththecommunityand haveyearsofexperience.Imaintaincontactwithformerstudentsto continuetocelebratetheirsuccess. Iamabletoconnectwiththestudents,parents,andcommunityand haveinvestedalargeamountoftimeandwanttoseeourkids succeedinthefuture.

CulturallyResponsiveTeaching Teachershavestruggledinbridgingthehomeandschoolculturalgapfor culturallydiversestudents.Theproblemisnotthestudentsadapting,ratherhowthe educatorshaverespondedtothechallenges.Whetherpositiveornegative,theteacher’s responsehasdirecteffectonthestudentselfesteemandacademicsuccess.Asaresult, educatorsaretryingtodevelopacloserfitbetweenthestudents’homecultureandthe cultureoftheschool.Theteacherswereaskedtodiscusshowtheyfacilitatedthe academicsuccessofAfricanAmericanstudentsintheirclassroom.Theteachersshared whattheybelievedtheyweremerginghomeandschoolculture: Ihaven'tdoneanythingdifferentforthemthanforeveryoneelse. Iwouldn'tsaythatIhavedoneonespecificthingtofacilitatethe successofAfricanAmericansuccess.

Ihaveloweredmyexpectationsforwhatisconsiderednormal behavior.

Madenospecificnoticeofrace. *Shrugs*Idon'tknow,you'dhavetoaskthemforspecifics. Treatedthem"likeeveryoneelse.

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Teachtothestatestandardsandabidebythedistrictcurriculum. Botharepreparedatthecorrectproficiencylevelforeachgrade level. IhavehighexpectationsandIdon'tlowerthem.Itrytoteach AfricanAmericanstudentsthesameskillsIwouldteachanyother students,becausetheywillbecompetingwithotherswhohave thoseskills.

Teacherswhohaveworkedeffortlesslyinbridginghomecultureandschool culturedemonstratedtheacademicsuccessofAfricanAmericanstudentsresponded: trytoteachtothemultipleintelligencesasmyAfricanAmerican studentshaveamorediversifiedtalentsetforcompletingtasksor explainingtheirlearning.” Broughtincontentthattheycouldrelateto,andbringingincontent thatIknowtheywouldhavesomebackgroundknowledgewith. Providingassignmentsthatallowthemtodrawfromtheirown experiences. Askingthemtohelpmeunderstandtheirculture. Incorporatemorevisuallearning,aswellasusingmusicinthe classroom.Focusoncreatingpositiverelationshipsapproaching disciplineissuesfromanonconfrontationalstandpoint. Giventhemopportunitiestousetheirstrengthstobesuccessfulin theclassroom.Ihavedonemorepresentationtypeassignmentsthat thekidshereseemtoenjoymoreandIalsobringcompetitioninto theclassroombecausethekidshereloveit. Iusepoetrytohelpstudentsexpressthemselves.Studentsare allowedtofreewriteandsharewiththeclass.Theymayrap,sing orevendancetoanother'ssongtoexpressthemselves.Thekids loveitandtheygetintoitmorethanIthought.

SuggestionsforFurtherResearch Therearemanyissuesthathavebeenraisedintheexploratorystudy.Someofthe issuesprovidedanswersandothersleadtomorequestions.Thesuggestionsforresearch

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arebasedupontherelevantissuesthatmustbeaddressinfutureinvestigations.Theyare discussedbelow: 1. Thenextinvestigationshouldincreasesamplesize.Thecurrentsamplesize althoughadequateforanalysiswouldcertainlyhavemoreimportifitwerelarger. Anumberofapproximately500600teacherswouldaddtothevalidityandrender anyinvestigationasapowerfultoolformakingsubstantialpolicychanges.. 2. Acomparativestudyshouldbedone.Comparisonoffindingsacrossthemajor raceandethnicgroupsinAmericawouldhelptorevealtheimportanceof race/ethnicityasafactorinstudentachievementoutcomes—especiallyifthe sampleofteacherswerereflectedintheresults. 3. Controllingforsocioeconomicstatusoftheschoolsandthesampleofteachers wouldassistinhighlightinghowsocioeconomicelementssubtlyorevenmore directlyinfluencetherolesteachersplayintheoverallachievementofstudentsof color. 4. Providecasescenarios.Casescenariosmayhelpteacherswiththetheoryand applicationoftheirresponsestoproblemsamongtheirstudents,andinsome cases,providedirectionaboutwhattodowhentheyobservesimilarproblems withotherstudents. 5. Offerincentivestoincreaseresponserate.Incentivescanencourageparticipants tocompletetheinventory.Thereshouldbesomerewardforrespondingtothe inventory. 6. Contrastwithruralteachers.Contrastingresultwiththisgroupofteacherswould resultinfindingswillbeofinteresttotheeducationcommunityintotal.

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7. Expandthemeasurementinstrumenttoincludemorequestionsandeliminate othersthatdidnotdirectlyrelatetothepredictorvariablesusedinthisdata analysis. 8. ThisstudyshouldberepeatedfordifferentethnicitiesofteachersHispanic,Asian, NativeAmericanandothers. 9. AfricanAmericanteachers’beliefsandunderstandingofmulticulturaleducation shouldalsoberesearchedingreaterdetail. LimitationsoftheStudy Withanyinvestigation,thereisaneedtoaddressthelimitationsoftheresearch. Therearecommonlimitationsandtherearelimitationdirectlyrelatedtothisexploratory thathavebeenobservedandwillbenotedinthissection.Thelimitationsareasfollows: 1. Someofthequestionswereambiguousfortheteachers.Teachersneededmore clarificationoftermsandmeaningsrelatedtothequestionsintheinventory. 2. Anotherlimitationwastheinabilitytobuildinagreatdealofrandomnessinthe sample.Theparticipantswererandomlyselectedfromseveralurbanhighschools inamidwesternmetropolitanarea.However,thisistoolimitingintermsof sample. 3. Limitedquantitativestudiesareavailablespecifictoteacher’sbeliefsandtheir understandingofmulticulturaleducationtofullycompareandunderstandthe findingsofthisinvestigation. 4. Ididnotconductfacetofaceinterviews.Byconductingfacetofaceinterviews, theresearchercanexpoundandexplainquestions.Anonlineinventoryinstrument versuspersonalinterviewsdidnotallowtherespondenttheopportunitytotalk

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abouttheirresponsestothequestionsinmoredetailand/oraskquestionsthat wouldallowthemtobetterunderstandthequestionstheymaynothave understood. 5. Ontheotherhand,havinganonlineinstrumentdidallowforcompletecandorthat mighthavebeenlostinafacetofacesituation. ConclusionandCommentary ItisclearthattheoriginalresearchquestionsposedinChapter1havebeen addressedinthisstudy.Whetherornottheanswerstothosequestionsaresatisfactory dependsontheperspectiveofthereader.Nevertheless,itisstillclearthatteacher’s expectationstowardmulticulturalstudentsareinfluencedbyanumberoffactors,most notablytheirinitialtrainingandrespectformulticulturalissuesinboththeirandtheir student’slives.Thisstudyaddressedtheissueofwhetherornotmulticulturalstudents wereperceivedofandrespondedtoinpositivewaysthathelpedtoinfluencetheir potentialandachievement.Formanyyears,itwasassumedandstillisinmanycircles thatbecauseastudentcamefrompovertytheywerenotgoingtoachieveatahighrate.It wasalsoassumedthatbecauseastudentwasAfricanAmerican,theycouldnotachieveat arateashighastheirWhitecounterparts.Ifyouincludegenderandcouplethatwith mosturbanstudents’homelife,manyeducatorsdecidedthaturbanstudentsaredoomed tofailurebeforetheyevenentertheclassroom. Therefore,theexpectationsforAfricanAmericanstudentsaresharplydifferent fromthoseofWhitestudents.Whoseexpectationonemightwonder?Inthiscasesome oftheurbaninnercityteachersinthecurrentinvestigation.Intermsofthecurrentstudy itwouldsuggestthatteachersstillholdsomeoftheseidealandthattheyareoften

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hesitanttochallengeconventionalthinking.Eachteacherseestheirjobdifferently becausetheyperceiveofthestudentsareminorityanditisanurbansettingandthatthere areparticularbehaviorsandoutcomesthatshouldresultbecauseofthis“geographyof place.”Ironically,thedatashowsthatitisnotabilityofthesestudentsthatiscreating lowachievementlevels.Itisthemethodologyandexpectationsofthosewhohavebeen entrustedtoeducatethesestudents,teachers. InMartinHaberman’sarticleThePedagogyofPovertyVersusGoodTeaching,he describesthecharacteristicsthattoooftendefineeducationwithintheurbansetting.To beginwith,teachersbelievethejobofeducationistaskorientedinurbanclassrooms. Thesetasksincludethesimplegivingofinstructions,gradingpapers,keepingagrade book,settlingdisputes,assigninghomework,monitoringclassroomseatwork,andfinally punishingnoncompliance.Atfirstglance,thismightseemformanytobewhatateacher does.However,aftercloserexaminationitbecomesclearthatnoneofthisleadsto studentinquiryandachievement.Uponimplementations,thesetasksproducestartling results.Studentsareneverallowedtodeveloptheliteracyskillstheysodesperatelyneed tobesuccessful.Theywillquicklyfallbehindasreadersandnevercatchup.Itwill affecteveryaspectoftheirlearningatallgrades.Overtime,AfricanAmericanstudents becomesoaccustomtofailureandlowexpectations.Isitanywonderwhattheresults areasthesestudentsreachhighschool?Theselowexpectationsallcreateastrange dynamicbetweenurbanstudentsandteachers.Overtime,therewillbecomeapower strugglethatexistsbetweenstudentsandteachers.Studentswillgotogreatlengthsto ensurethatexpectationsremainlowandtheyareallowedtodriftaimlesslythroughtheir education.

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AtnotimeinthehistoryoftheUnitedStatesofAmericahasaqualityeducation beenmoreimportantindeterminingthefuturesuccessofitscitizens.Astheglobal economicandsocialclimatecontinuestorapidlychange,truewealthwillonlybe realizedasabyproductofcriticalthinkingskills.Thiscountrycontinuestoproducea groupofstudentsthatwillcontinuetobeleftbehindastheworldtheyliveinracesahead. UrbanAfricanAmericanstudentswilleventuallyrepresentover10%oftheadult populationinthiscountry.Thisnumberwillcontinuetogrow.Failuretoproperly educatethesestudentswilleventuallyhaveacripplingaffectonthisnationasother countriesprominenceontheglobalstagesurpassesthatoftheUnitedStates.Whilethe problemseemsenormous,thesolutionsarenot.Researchmustcontinuetoisolateand identifybestpracticesinthiscountry’smostsuccessfulclassrooms.Asthesepractices areidentified,schoolleadersmusthavethehardconversationswithfacultiestobest determinehowtoprovidethebestlearningenvironmentforstudents.Furthermore, teachersandschoolleadersmustworktodispelthemythssurroundingurbanstudent achievementandbegintobreakdownthosebarriersthathavebeenpreventingit.Only whenthesedifficultissueshavebeenaddressedandmodifywillweseeatruechangein thelearningthattakesplaceinpubliceducationclassrooms. Itwouldirresponsibletolayalltheblameofthecurrentachievementgapatthe feetofclassroominstructors.However,itwouldbeequallyirresponsibletocontinueto perpetuatemanyofthemythsthatcurrentlydriveinstruction.Studyafterstudyhas showntheinstitutionofeducationseveralfactsthatcannolongerbedenied.First, gender,race,andeconomicstatusinnowayplayapartinpredeterminingthesuccesses orfailuresofstudents.Therearefartoomanyhighlysuccessfulurbanschoolsthat

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containtheclientalthatfittheprofileofsupposedunderachievingstudents.Education mustmovebeyondthemythsofyesterdayandfocusonrealissues.Itisinfacttheway thatteachersprocessastudent’srace,socialstatus,andgenderandthentransferthatinto asetofexpectationsandclassroommethodologythatwilldeterminestudent’s achievement.TakeforexampleanAfricanAmericanstudentfromahighpovertyurban setting.Researchwillshowoverandoverthatgivenhighqualityinstruction,thatstudent willachieveatthesamelevelsasaWhitecounterpartfromamuchhighersocioeconomic status(Haycock,2005).Researchhasalsoshownthatasclassroominstruction deterioratesexpectationsofthestudentareloweredandtheoutputmirrorsthe expectations.Regardlessofthefactorsstudentsofcolorbringtothetable,theiracademic successwillultimatelybedeterminedbytheteachingpracticesemployedandthe expectationsoftheclassroominstructor.Researchershaveunanimouslyagreedthatan effectiveclassroominstructorhadthebiggestimpactofanyelementinachild’s education(Schmoker,2006).However,theirfindingsrepresentedsomethingevenmore important.Theresearchalsofoundthatstudentsreceivingeffectiveinstructionoften timesoutperformedtheirWhitecounterpartsonmostnationaltests.Unfortunately, effectiveinstructionisnotallthatdeterminesastudent’ssuccess.Thereisahuman factorthatmustbeconsideredaswell. Underachievingstudentsaremuchmoreaffectedbyapositiverelationshipwith theirteachers.Studentsdevelopacuriosityabouttheirownfuturesandsuccessesasthey learntotrustthoseresponsiblefortheirinstruction.Theserelationshipscoupledwith effectiveclassroommethodologycanandwillhelpclosetheachievementgap. Educationalreformmustseektoprepareteachers,experiencedandnovice,aboutthe

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benefitsofthesetypesofrelationshipswithstudents.Withoutreformthatturnsthetide foracademicallyfailingAfricanAmericanstudentsandotherstudentsofcoloratthehigh schoollevel,publiceducationwillhavefailed. Howthendoteachersbeginformingthesepositiverelationshipsthatwillallow studentstobecomereceptivetohigherexpectations?Studieshaveshownthatschools withhighconcentrationsofdisadvantagedstudentsfocusedonbreakingdownbarriersof equality.Schoolsthataremoreeffectiveinworkingwithlowachievingstudentsalso placedemphasisonstrongmulticulturalunderstandingbetweenstudentsandstaff.Thus, inordertoassistteachersinschoolswithlowachieving,disadvantagedstudentsofcolor, moretrainingneedstobeprovidedregardingtheissuesinvolvingmulticultural sensitivityandinstructionalmethodologythatwillaidestudentlearning.Therefore, optimumlearningisabiproductofstudents’desiretolearnduetogoodteaching practicesandpositiveteacherrelations.Carefulexaminationofteacherpreparationand onthejobinstructionbothplayanimportantpartoftheclassroominstructor’s development.However,intoday’scurrentclimate,teachersarriveattheirnewjobs lackingbasicskillsandcontinuetoflounderduetopoorsupportandlackofguidanceas revealedinnumerousinvestigations,includingthecurrentone. Noviceteachersareplacedintoschoolswithlittlemorethanpreservicetraining. Itislimitedinscopeandfailstomeetthebasicneedsofwhatfirstyearinstructorswill surelyencounterastheystarttheircareers.Toooften,thecollegeexperiencelacksfocus. Ashotgunapproachisusedinpreparingclassroomteachersforissuestheywill encounter.Thisshotgunapproachdoesnotprovidedetailedstepstospecificevents whichwillariseinatypicalclassroom.Nordomostpreservicetrainingsprepare

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teacherstobeproactivewhichwillhelpthempreventissuesfromarisinginthe classroom.Possibleconcernswillmostcertainlyincludebutnotbelimitedto;lesson planning,formingpositivestudentrelationships,communicatingwithparents/guardians, instructionaldeliverymethods,properuseofcurriculum,developmentofassessment tools,gradingsystems,andclassroommanagement.Unfortunately,goodteaching practicesarenotformedduringthecollegeexperiencesofmostteachers.Newteachers totheprofessionareequippedwithverylimitedskills.Trueexpertiseisgainedonly throughreallifeexperiencesinaclassroomandyearsofpractice.However,currentpost secondaryeducationdoesaninadequatejobofevenexposingpreserviceteachersto manyofthenewandinsightfulinstructionalmethodsusedeffectivelyinclassrooms.

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EdSource.(2003).Executivesummary:Narrowingtheachievementgap.PaloAlto,CA: EdSource,Inc.RetrievedSeptember6,2009from http://www.edsource.org/pdf/EdFactfinal.pdf . EdSource.(2007).Glossaryofterms.RetrievedDecember6,2009,from http:www.eddata.k12.ca.us/Glossary.asp. Erickson,F.(1987).Transformationandschoolsuccess:Thepoliticsandcultureof educationalachievement.AnthropologyandEducationQuarterly,18(4),335383. Field,A.(2009).DiscoveringstatisticsusingSPSS,3 rd Edition.ThousandOaks,CA: SagePublications. Gay,G.(1994).Attheessenceoflearning:MulticulturalEducation.WestLafayette,IN: KappaDeltaPi. Gay,G.(2000).Culturallyresponsiveteaching:Theory,research,andpractice.New York:TeachersCollegePress. Gay,G.(2002).Preparingforculturallyresponsiveteaching.JournalofTeacher Education,53(2),106116. Gay,G.(2004).Curriculumtheoryandmulticulturaleducation.InJamesA.Banks& CherryBanks,(Eds.)Handbookofresearchonmulticulturaleducation(2 nd ed.), pp.3049).SanFrancisco:JosseyBass. Gill,S.,&Reynolds,A.J.(1999).Educationalexpectationsandschoolachievementof urbanAfricanAmericanchildren.JournalofSchoolPsychology,37,403424. Gordon,E.W.(2000).Bridgingtheminoritygap.Principal,79(5),2023. Gorski,P.C.(2009).Whatwe’reteachingteachers:Ananalysisofmulticultural educationacourseworksyllabi.TeacherandTeacherEducation,25(2),309318.

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Sleeter,E.C.&Grant,C.A.(2007).Makingchoicesformulticulturaleducation:Five approachestorace,class,andgender(5 th ed.).USA:JohnWiley&Sons,Inc. Stringfield,S.,Waxman,H.C.,&Padron,Y.N.(2000).Tobeoflastingquality,school reformmustincludechangeinteaching.TeachingandChange,7(2),10710. Timperley,H.S.,&Phillips,G.(2003).Changingandsustainingteachers’expectations throughprofessionaldevelopmentinliteracy.TeachingandTeacherEducation, 19,627641. Tach,L.,&Farkas,G.(2006).Learningrelatedbehaviors,cognitiveskillsandability groupingwhenschoolingbegins.SocialScienceResearch,35,10481079. Toppo,G.(2002,Jan.7).Bushtosigneducationbill,butthedebateoverrequiredtesting goeson.WashingtonPost. Ukpokodu,O.N.(2004).Theimpactofshadowingculturallydifferentstudentson preserviceteachers’dispositiontowarddiversity.MulticulturalEducation,12(2), 1928. Villegas,A.,&Lucas,T.(2002).Educatingculturallyresponsiveteachers:Acoherent approach.Albany,NY:StateUniversityofNewYorkPress. Volz,D.L.(1998).Challengesandchoicesinurbaneducation:Theperceptionsof teachersandprincipals.TheUrbanReview,30(3),211. Warner,R.M.(2008).Appliedstatistics:Frombivariatethroughmultivariate techniques.ThousandOaks,CA:SagePublications. Winfield,L.F.(1986).Teacherbeliefstowardacademicallyatriskstudentsininner urbanschools.TheUrbanReview,18(4),253267.

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AppendixA

LetterfromIRB

AppendixB

SurveyInstrument

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SurveyDescription Thissurveyisdesignedtodetermineteacher'sattitudesaboutstudentachievementinthe multiculturalenvironmentsthatarepresentthroughoutourschools.Theresponsesthat youareofferareANONYMOUStheycannotbelinkedtoyouinanyway.Therefore, wewantyoutobeascandidandasclearasyouwouldlike.Onlythroughopennessand directcommunicationcanwebegintodevelopideasabouthowtomodify,create,retool, oreliminatethosecurriculapracticesthatweknowneedsomealterations.Thiscannotbe donewithoutinputfromthosewhoaredirectlyinvolved.Astheprimarycomponentin ourstudent'seducation,thissurveysolicitsyourviewsonavarietyofissues.

OpeningInstructions DearColleague,Thankyouforparticipatinginthisstudy.Yourhelpisgreatly appreciated.Pleaseunderstandthatyourparticipationisvoluntaryandthatyoualways havetheoptionofdiscontinuingatanytime.Ofcourse,itismyhopethatyouwill completetheinventory.Yourresponsesareveryimportanttomeandtoourprofession. Itisonlythroughworksuchasthiscanweknowbegintodesignandretoolcurriculafor currentandfutureteachers.Yourparticipationwillserveasaguidingfactorthatwill leadtogreaterachievementsintheclassroom.

We'llbeginbyaskingafewdescriptivequestionsab outyouandyourbackground.None oftheinformationcanbelinkedsoyouranswersareclearlyfordescriptivepurposes.

Q uestion1

Whatisyourbiologicalsex(sometimesreferredtoasgender)?

Question2

Whatracial/ethnicgroupwouldyouconsideryourselftobe?[WeareusingUSCensus definitionsofrace/ethnicity]

Question3

Whatisyourageasofyourmostrecentbirthday?(e.g.,25)

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Question4

Whatwouldyousayisyourprimaryteachingendorsement?

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Question5

Whatis/(are)yourcontentarea/(s)?

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Question6

Whatacademicdegreesdoyoupossess?

Question7

Towhatgradelevelareyoucurrentlyassigned?(Listallifmorethanone).

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Question8

Forhowmanyyearshaveyoubeenteachingwhatisthenumberofyearsexperienceyou haveintheclassroom?(e.g.,Ifitisyourfirstyearjustsay01,ifitismore roundtothe nearestwholenumber,e.g.,1.6=2years)

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Iwouldliketoaskyoutoprovidemewithabriefd efinitionofwhatisMulticultural Education.Thereisnorightorwronganswer,justyourreactionbasedonyour experiencesandknowledgewouldbegreat.

Q uestion9

PleasegiveyourdefinitionofwhatMulticulturalEducationmeanstoyou?

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Question10

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IndicatesomeitemsthatyouthinkareessentialfordevelopingasuccessfulMulticultural teacherpreparationprogram.

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NowIwouldliketoaskyouyouropiniononavariet yofissuesrelatedtohowwedoour jobs.Pleasereactbyindicatingyourlevelofagreementw iththefollowingstatements.

Question11

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 11.1Childrenbasicallylearninthesameway

11.2Iexpectmystudentstoberesponsibleforoneanother.

11.3Knowingtheraceorethnicityofhistoricalfiguresdoes littletoenhancethelearningofstudentsofcolor.

11.4EverystudentIencounterissuccessfulatsomething.

11.5KidswilllearnwhattheywanttolearnnomatterwhatI do.

11.6Teachingislikeanartitinvolvesdramatizingfromthe concreteexperiencetotheconceptuallevelof understanding.

11.7Myunderlyingreasonforusingpeerlearningstrategies istopreparemystudentsforcollectivethinking,growthand understanding.

11.8WhatIlearnfrommystudentsisasimportantaswhat theylearnfromme.

11.9Itismyjobtodisseminateknowledgetomystudents.

11.10Withenoughrepetition,drill,andpractice,students willattainapassinggrade.

Pleasereactbyindicatingyourlevelofagreementw iththefollowingstatements.

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Question12

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 12.1Idon'tseechildrenofcolorinmyclassroom,Ijustsee children.

12.2SomechildrenIjustcannotseemtoconnectwith.

12.3Ingeneral,itismoreimportantformystudentstobe engagedinindependentlearningthaninpeerlearning situations.

12.4Mypurposeforteachingistogivesomethingbackto thecommunityinthesamewayIwasgivenaneducation.

12.5Theculturalbackgroundofmystudentsplaysan importantpartinmyteaching.Ibringtheirbackgrounds (race,culture,heritage,etc)intomylessonplanning.

12.6Everyyearsomestudentscanbeexpectednottobea goodmatchformetheymay,however,succeedwith someoneelsewhobettermeetstheirneeds.

12.7TeachingiswhereIbelongIknowitandthestudents knowittoo.

12.8Onestudent'ssuccessissuccessforthewholeclass, andonestudent'sfailureisfailureforusall.

12.9Studentswhofailusuallydosobecausetheydon'ttry hardenough;likewise,studentswhosucceeddosobecause theyputforththeeffort.

12.10Ihardlyeverseeorhearfromparentsofthechildren inmyclassroom.

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Pleasereactbyindicatingyourlevelofagreementwiththefollowingstatements.

Q uestion13

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 13.1Agoodlessonplanisonlytentative.

13.2Iencouragestudentstoworkindependentlymoreoften thanIaskthemtoworktogether.

13.3Studentscometomyclassknowingverylittleabout whatIwillteachthem.

13.4Everychildisauniquecompositeofhisorherracial, cultural,home,andpeerexperiences.

13.5Theindividualneedsofthechildrenareanimportant partofmyplanningeffectivelessons.

13.6ThereasonIusesomeformofpeerlearninginthe classroomisbecauseit'ssupposedtohelplowerachieving studentslearnthematerialbetter.

13.7Iviewmystudents'identitiesasrichwithcolorand culture.

13.8Mystudentsneedagoodeducationsothattheycan moveoutofthiscommunityandhaveabetterlifefor themselves.

13.9TeachingurbanchildreninpublicschoolsiswhereI belong.

13.10Students'responsesdeterminewhereIgowitha lesson;Ijustcannotputatimelimitongoodteaching.

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Pleasereactbyindicatingyourlevelofagreementwiththefollowingstatements.

Q uestion14

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 14.1Somestudents,nomatterwhatIdo,willinevitablyfail.

14.2Oneofthekeyelementsthatguidemyteachingof contentisthatstudentshavegottolearntothinkcritically ratherthanjustmemorizefacts.

14.3Iexpectstudentstocometomewithaparticularsetof prerequisiteskills.

14.4SometimesIplaytheroleofthestudentandallow studentstoteachtheclass.

14.5Itispartofmyresponsibilityasateachertomake connectionsbetweenwhathappensintheworldandwhomy studentsare.

14.6Idon'tseechildrenwithanyparticularracialorcultural identityinmyclassroom;Ijustseechildren.

14.7Someone'sgottoteachtheseyoungstersinurban schools;itmightaswellbeme.

14.8Testingisanindividualassessment;however,test resultsofanindividualreflectonthegroup'seffortstoward helpingtheindividuallearn,aswell.

14.9IfIhadothertrainingIwouldprobablychangecareers.

14.10Iworkwithsomeofthemostimportantpeopleinthe worldmystudents.

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Pleasereactbyindicatingyourlevelofagreementwiththefollowingstatements.

Q uestion15

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 15.1AslongasIfollowmylessonplans,Icanprettymuch predictthesuccessorfailureofmystudents.

15.2IteachinanurbanpublicschoolbecauseIwantto.

15.3Parentsoughttobeselfmotivatedtohelptheirchildren learnandtobeactivelyinvolvedintheclassroom.

15.4Theindividualneedsofthechildrenareanimportant partofmyplanningeffectivelessons.

15.5Everychildthatcomestome,nomatterhowpoor,is brilliant.

15.6Teachingislikepayingmyduestosociety.WhenIam throughpayingmydebt,I'llprobablyretireorchange professions.

15.7Excellenceisastandardthatexistsindependentof individualdifferences.

15.8Iexpectmystudentstoworkasateamifoneperson slacksoff,itisothers'responsibilitytohelpthisstudentget backontrack.

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NowIwouldliketoaskyousomespecificquestionsaboutgroupofstudents.Your feedbackisextremelyvaluable.Itcannotbelinkedtoyouinanyway,yourcandoris appreciated.Pleasereactbyindicatingthegroupforwhomyoubelievethestatementis mosttrue. Youmayonlyselectonegroup.

Question16

ThesestatementsrelatetowhichofthesestatementsyouisMOSTTRUEisforoneof t hegroupslisted.

1AsianAmericans|2Black/AfricanAmericans 3Hispanic/LatinoAmericans|4White/EuropeanAmericans|5NativeAm/Am Indians

1 2 3 4 5 16.1SometimesIthinkthatsomeofmy___studentsbring inculturalelementsintoclassthatIdonotfullyunderstand.

16.2SometimesIthinkthattheparentsofmy___students arenotasinvestedintheirchild'sprogressasaretheother parents.

16.3Isometimesfeelthatthekindofhelpthatmy___ studentsneediswellbeyondthescopeofmyclassroom.

16.4Despitemybestefforts,Isometimesfeelhelplessto combattheissuesthatmy___studentsfaceoutsidethe classroom.

16.5Ithinkthat___studentswouldbebetterifthe administrationofthisinstitutionwasmoreaware.

16.6Althoughteachersareveryimportant,ittakesallpeople workinginconcerttomakesureour___studentsbecome successful.

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NowIwouldliketoaskyousomespecificquestionsaboutonegroupofstudents.Please reactbyindicatingyourattitudestowardAfricanAmericanstudentsregardingthe f ollowingstatements.Yourfeedbackisextremelyvaluable.Itcannotbe linkedtoyouin anyaway.Iappreciateyourcandor.

Question17

Remember,thesequestionsarespecificallyaboutyourattitudestowardAfricanAmerican students.

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 17.1SometimesIthinkthatsomeofmyAfricanAmerican studentsbringinculturalelementsintoclassthatIdonot fullyunderstand.

17.2SometimesIthinkthattheparentsofmyAfrican Americanstudentsarenotasinvestedintheirchild's progressasareotherparents.

17.3IsometimesfeelthatthekindofhelpthatmyAfrican Americanstudentsneediswellbeyondthescopeofmy classroom.

17.4Despitemybestefforts,Isometimesfeelhelplessto combattheissuesthatmyAfricanAmericanstudentsface outsidetheclassroom.

17.5IthinkthatAfricanAmericanstudentswouldbebetter iftheadministrationofthisinstitutionwasmoreaware.

17.6Althoughteachersareveryimportant,ittakesallpeople workinginconcerttomakesureourAfricanAmerican studentsbecomesuccessful.

ThisnextsectiondealswiththespecificelementsofMulticulturalEducation. Toassistyou,thefollowingdefinitionofmulticulturaleducationiswhatwe considertheconcepttobe.Wehaveusedthisdefinitiontodevelopthe questionsandresponses.Thedefinitionisasfollows:Educationthataddresses i ndividuallearningstylesandintellectualabilitydesignedtoimprovethe academicsuccessofstudentsbydevelopingknowledgeandappreciationof

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culturalpluralismfocusedonequalizingsocial,economic,andpolitical opportunitiesamongethnicandculturalgroups.

Question18

Thinkingaboutmulticulturaleducation,howpreparedwouldyousayyouare?

1 WellPrepared|2AdequatelyPrepared 3MarginallyPrepared|4NotAdequatelyPrepared|5NotWellPrepared

1 2 3 4 5 18.1Myinservicetraininghasbeensufficientinhelpingme tointegratemulticulturalismintomycurriculum.

18.2Traininginmulticulturaleducationshouldbeincluded inpreserviceteachereducationprograms.

18.3Traininginmulticulturaleducationshouldbeincluded ininserviceprograms.

18.4Itdoesnottakemuchteachertrainingtoteachfroma multiculturalperspective.

Question19 ThestatementsthatfollowrelatetoyourbeliefsconcerningMulticulturalEducation. P leaserespondtothequestionsusingthescalebelow.Yourresponsesmayrangefrom strongagree(1)tostronglydisagree(5).

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 19.1Multiculturaleducationshouldbetaughttoallstudents.

19.2Multiculturaleducationcanbetaughtinallsubject areas.

19.3Anequalamountoftimeshouldbespentonteaching eachsubject.

19.4Itreatallmystudentsfairly.

19.5TeachersshouldteachfromaMulticulturalperspective.

19.6Teachersshouldusematerialsandresources representativeofvariouscultures.

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19.7Multiculturaleducationshouldbeintegratedthroughout thecurriculum.

19.8Teachersshouldteachtoalllearningstyles.

19.9Multiculturaleducationisbesttaughtduringspecific timesthroughouttheyear.

Question20

NowIwouldliketoaskyouthesameseriesofquestions,butthistimeIwouldlikefor youthinkabouthowpreparedyouaretoperformthetasksbeingdescribed.

1 WellPrepared|2AdequatelyPrepared 3MarginallyPrepared|4NotAdequatelyPrepared|5NotWellPrepared

1 2 3 4 5 20.1IampreparedtoteachMulticulturaleducationtoall students.

20.2IampreparedtoteachMulticulturaleducationinall subjectmattersforwhichIamresponsible.

20.3Iampreparedtospendanequalamountoftimeon teachingeachsubject.

20.4Iampreparedtotreatallmystudentsfairly.

20.5IampreparedtoteachfromaMulticulturalperspective.

20.6Iampreparedtoteachusingmaterialsandresources representativeofvariouscultures.

20.7IampreparetointegrateMulticulturaleducation throughoutthecurriculum.

20.8Iampreparedtoaddressalllearningstylesinmy teaching.

20.9IampreparedtoteachMulticulturaleducationat specifictimesthroughouttheyear.

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Question21

Wearealmostdone.Nowjustanewquestionsaboutyourpersonalbeliefsabouta varietyofissuesthatcanhavegreatimportancetohowwedoourjobs.

1StronglyAgree|2Agree|3Undecided|4Disagree 5StronglyDisagree

1 2 3 4 5 21.1Raceandgenderarenotrelatedtointellectualability

21.2Thereistoomuchemphasiscurrentlyplacedon Multiculturaleducation.

21.3Studentsfromculturalminoritiesshouldbeencouraged tomodifytheirbehaviortoconformtothemajorityculture.

21.4Effectiveinteractionintheclassroomismostlikely whentheteachersharesthesameculturalbackgroundasthe student.

21.5Teachers'attitudesandexpectationshaveaprofound effectonstudents'attitudes,perceptions,selfconcepts,and behaviors.

21.6Prejudice,racism,andstereotypingareformsofbias.

21.7Teachers'understandingoftheirstudentsisinfluenced bytheirownculture.

21.8Apositivestudentteacherrelationshipimpactsstudent performance.

Thequestionsonthispagerelatetoyourpreparation/traininginMulticulturalEducation.

Question22

Pleaseindicateyourpreviouspreparation/trainingi nMulticulturaleducation.

R eflectingonyourundergraduateeducation,approximatelyhowmanyundergraduate coursesdoyourecalltakingthatwerefocusedexclusivelyonMulticulturaleducation?

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Question23

Thinkingaboutyourmostrecentgraduatetraining,abouthowmanyGraduateCourses haveyoutakenthathadanexclusivefocusonMulticulturalEducation?

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Question24

Ifyouhavebeenabletoattendanyworkshops,abouthowmanyhourswouldyousay hadanexclusiveMulticulturalEducationfocus?(Enternumberofhourse.g.,24hrs).

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Question25

Usingthesamefocusasabove,abouthowmanyseminarhourshaveyouhadthatwere focusedexclusivelyonMulticulturalEducation?(inthiscase,thenumberofhours,e.g., 1 7hrs).

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Question26

Fromwhatinstitutiondidyouobtainyourbaccalaureatedegree(yourundergraduate degree,BA,BS,BEd)?

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Question27

Fromwhatinstitutiondidyouobtainyourteachingcredential?(Ifitisthesameasthe answerabovewriteSAME).

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Question28

Thefollowingquestionsareforyourreactions.Pleasebecandid.Youranswersare importanttous.Thankyouinadvanceforyourtime.

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Pleasecompletethefollowingthought.Myprimaryreasonforteachinginanurban publicschoolis...

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Question29

CanyouthinkofanycharacteristicsthatAfricanAmericanyoungstersasagroupbringto theclassroom?

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Question30

Whatkindsofthingshaveyoudoneintheclassroomthathavefacilitatedtheacademic successofAfricanAmericanstudents?

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ClosingMessage Thankyousomuchforyourinput.Theresponsesthatyouhavegivenwillbeusedto enhanceourcurriculainthefuture.Itisbecauseofyourwillingnesstoofferyour assistancestudents,faculty,andadministratorswillbepoisedtomakebetterdecisions aboutthefutureofourprofession.Onceagain,Iamdeeplygratefulforyoursupportin thiseffort.

EndofSurvey

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AppendixC

ScaleConstructionInformation Thescalesusedinthisdissertationarebasedonthosepreviouslyinvestigatedand usedbyGunn(1994)andLove(2001).Inaddition,anewscaleitemwastestedand includedinthisstudy.Thisappendixexamineshowthescalesandsubscaleswere developedandprovidesabriefglimpseatthemathematicalstructureofeachscale.All thescaleswerecreatedusinganadditivemethodtypicallyemployedinscale construction.Thereliabilityoftheconstructswasmeasuredusinganinternalconsistency reliabilitymeasuredemonstratedwiththeCronbach’salphatestresults(Trochim,2001; Warner,2008).Internalconsistencyreliabilityisthemostcommonformwhensurvey data(Warner,2008). Tobegin,therewerethreescales,thefirstwasbasedonGunn’smeasurethat examinedtheattitude,beliefsandperceptionsteachershadaboutmulticulturalstudents. Thisscaleconsistedof30itemsthatweresummedandthemeanscorederivedforthe totalsum.TheelementsusedforthisscalearelistinTableC1ofthisappendix.These dataproducedthescaleforthevariableknownasATTBELIEF. Thesecondscalewasconstructedbasedonthe48measuresLove(2001)usedin hersurveyofteachers.Thissurveycontainedmeasuresforfoursubscaleswhichwere usedtoidentifytherelationshipwithcommunity(COMM),knowledgebase(KNOW), selfawarenessandbeliefsystems(SELF),andinstitutionalcapacityandcultural awareness(CULT)elementsthatcomprisedthepredictorvariablesoftheModified MulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudent

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AchievementModel.Thespecificvariablesandtheirappropriatescoresarealsolistedin TableC1. Thefinaloutcomemeasurethatexploredthefactorsinfluencingteacher’s attitudes,beliefsandperceptionsaboutAfricanAmericanstudents(AABELIEFS)canbe foundinTableC1.Theresultingalphascoresforeachofthesemeasuresisreported alongwiththecountofelements,meanandstandarddeviation. TableC1. ElementsofScaleandSubScaleConstructionforCriticalElementsoftheModified MulticulturalTeacherEducationFrameworkonTeacherPerceptionofStudent AchievementModel Scaled Variables Questions N of Items

α

M

SD

ATT BELIEF

Q18.1 through Q21.8

30

.836

2.36

0.40

BELIEF

Q18.1throughQ18.4

4

.676

2.86

0.66

IDEAL

Q19.1throughQ20.9

18

.882

2.24

0.53

ACHIEVE

Q21.1throughQ21.8

8

.364

2.38

0.96

TEACHBELIEF

Q11.1 through Q15.8

48

.767

2.10

0.51

KNOW

Q11.1,Q11.8,Q13.3,Q14.2,Q14.3,Q13.5 Q15.4Q15.7Q11.4Q11.1Q15.5Q14.10

12

.514

2.44

0.88

COMM

Q12.6,Q14.8,Q12.8,Q12.2,Q15.8,Q13.2 Q13.6,Q12.3,Q11.2,Q11.7,Q12.10,Q15.3

12

.440

2.80

0.44

CULT

Q11.3,Q12.5,Q13.7,Q13.4,Q14.6,Q12.1,Q14.5 Q12.4Q15.6Q15.2Q14.7Q14.9Q12.7Q13.9,Q13.8

15

.572

2.67

0.81

SELF

Q11.6,Q11.5,Q13.10,Q13.1,Q15.1, Q14.4,Q11.10,Q12.9,Q14.1

9

.353

269

0.69

AABELIEF

Q17.1 through Q17.6.

6

.722

2.58

0.72 NOTE:TheoverallscalescoreofATTBELEIFandTEACHBELIEFarelistedalongwiththesubscale scoresandnumberofitemsforeach.Althoughsomesubscoreelementsareweaktheydidnotdiminish theoveralleffectofthesescaledvariables.TextforeachquestionlistedcanbefoundinAppendixB precedingthissection

Full document contains 130 pages
Abstract: Increasing diversity in schools in the United States over the last few decades, combined with an emphasis on high-stakes testing, has heightened concerns about the academic performance of students of color, in particular African American students. There are concerns about the appropriateness of a Eurocentric curriculum taught by White teachers, which often limits the use of a multicultural curriculum--one that values the culture and lifestyles of diverse students. This study focused on elements within teaching practices that improved achievement among students of color. An enhanced application of the Multiple Meanings of Multicultural Teacher Education Framework (MTEF), along with assessments of teacher training instruments (Gay, 1994; Love, 2001; Ladson-Billings, 1994), helped to create the Model for Modified Multicultural Teacher Education Framework on Teacher Perception of Student Achievement that served as a guide for the investigation. The overall findings confirmed the utility of the model and the enhancements made to the multicultural assessment instruments. Depending upon what elements were chosen, between 18% and 23% of the variance explained in teacher's beliefs, attitudes and perceptions could be explained by their training, their community involvement, awareness of self, knowledge of subject and a positive approach to the institutional culture. The findings support the existing literature and adds to it a new dimension by directly focusing on teacher's perceptions, attitudes and beliefs that promote or constrain teaching and learning about urban African American students in the urban classroom.