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Spanish colonial liturgical music in the Philippines: Inventing a tradition

Dissertation
Author: David Joseph Kendall
Abstract:
Spanish colonial music, both sacred and secular, enjoyed a long and widespread performance tradition in the Philippines from 1565 to 1898, but this has largely been forgotten or obscured in scholarship of the last hundred years. Musical practices that survive from the colonial period with an intact performance tradition are often reworked, or invented, to serve modern institutional and nationalist purposes, and work indicators of Philippine nationality both in the Philippines and abroad. This state of affairs is the result of both American and Post-independence era historiographies that sought to minimize or erase the perceived Spanish cultural influence on the country. Spanish liturgical music has not been a part of these invented cultural traditions, but recent interest in the form is driving scholarship that may serve as an impetus toward such an invention. Liturgical music is an interesting case among other arts that demonstrate a high level of syncretism with the various additional cultural influences surrounding the Spanish colony: Mexican, Chinese, and Islamic as well as Spanish. The extent to which it exhibits Philippine-ness will go a long way toward determining its existence as a practice among the nationally accepted and exported cultural practices. The music is part of an international parish style common throughout the colonial Iberian world and there are many common repertories that exist between the Old World, the New World, and the Philippines.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Philippine History and the Invention of Tradition 1 Philippine History as Topography 3 Southeast Asia 4 Pre-Hispanic Polities, Philippine Nationalism and Subjective Antiquity 7

Spanish Colonial History 18 American Colonial History 20 Spanish Music in the Philippines: Lost in Translation? 21 American and Post-Independence Musical Scholarship 27 The Importance of Translation 28 The Invention of Tradition 29 Culturation and the Creation of Cultural Artifacts 32 Summary of Chapters 33 Chapter 1: Philippine Historiography and the Invention of Tradition 37 The Sources 37 The Question of Why 39 Institutional Interest 41 Disappearing Sources 42 The Problem of Historiography 47 The Propaganda Movement 48 American Historiography and the Black Legend 53 Post-Independence Historiography in the Philippines 69 Spain in Textbooks 73 Musical Historiography – Spain and Mexico 77 Musical Historiography – Philippines 82 Chapter 2: Syncretism and the Search for the Spanish and the Filipino 89 Syncretism in Philippine Art and Architecture 90 Syncretism in the Liturgy – Philippines and Southeast Asia 96

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Spanish-ness in the Cantorales 102 Philippine-ness in the Cantorales 103 Homogenizing Influences 109 Spanish Catholicism 109 Islam 110 Chinese Influence 112 Mexico 114 Result of Homogenizing Influences 116 Center and Periphery 118 Ownership of Culture and the Invention of Tradition 119 Chapter 3: The Religious and Musical Milieu of the Colonial Philippines 126 Colonial Organization of the Philippines 126 Augustinian Recollects in the Philippines 132 Augustinian Recollects in Bohol 135 Music in the Philippines and Bohol – Mid-Nineteenth Century 136 The Production of Cantorales 139 Musical Priests of Bohol 144 Baclayon 145 Loay 149 Loboc 151 Other Churches 152 Church Archives 152 Archives – Papeles de Musica 158 Archives – Organs and other Instruments 160 Subjective Antiquity – Redux 165 Chapter 4: The Lineage and Style of the Cantorales 169 Liturgical Background 169 Spanish Music Theory in Bohol 170 Musical Symbols and Resources 176

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Other Music in Baclayon – Modern Styles 190 Modes and Harmony 195 Stylistic Analysis 198 Head Motives 198 Sequence, Repetition and Imitation 202 Harmonic Outlining 203 Clefs, Keys and Key Signatures 204 Accidentals and Ficta 208 Repertories and Major Variants 210 Misa Imperial 211 International Connections – Asperges me and Vidi Aquam 213 California Connections - Misa de Quinto Tono and the Credo Parisiense 214 Variants – the Misa Quitolis 217 Local Variants – the Dauis Fragments 220 Conclusions 224 Chapter 5: Authenticity and the Invention of Tradition 226 Authorial Intent and the Audience 226 Authorial Intent – Ritual Performance 228 Liturgy as Text 232 The Problem with Authenticity 238 Musical Historiography and Performance Practice – Case Studies 245 Felipe Pedrell and Villancico Accompaniment 245 Stevenson’s Opinions – Redux 247 México Barroco and Exotic Percussion 247 Introduction to the Editions 249 The Copy Edition 249 The Critical Edition 250 The Performance Edition 251

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Accompaniment – Organ 252 Organ Registration and Pitch 258 Accompaniment – Other Instruments 261 A Note on Guitars 263 Reconstruction of Vocal Parts not in the Cantorales 264 Vocal Parts – a Note on Fabordón 265 Singing Forces 266 Critical Editions and Invented Traditions 272 Chapter 6: Provincial Repertories 273 Summary 273 Invention of Tradition – Where are we now? 274 Provincial Repertories – Twentieth Century and Beyond 277 Conclusion 280 Index 282 Bibliography 288 Introduction to Appendices 296 Table of Contents: Appendices 298 Appendix A-1: Texts of the Mass Ordinary 300 Appendix A-2: Incipits 302 Appendix B: Copy and Critical Editions 304 Appendix C: 838

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List of Figures

Figure 1: The Philippine archipelago and its three main regions: Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao.

Figure 2: Philippine 500 Peso bill.

Figure 3: Detail of Philippine 500 Peso bill.

Figure 4: Choirloft in La Iglesia de la Purísima Concepción de la Virgen Maria, in Baclayon, Bohol. Note the triangular facistol against the wall.

Figure 5: St. James the Apostle (Santiago Apostol) Church, Batuan, Bohol

Figure 6: Paoay Church, Ilocos Norte. Example of "earthquake baroque" architecture.

Figure 7: Paoay Church (detail). Scroll design on buttress.

Figure 8: Chinese Fu-dog below façade of San Agustin Church, Intramuros, Manila.

Figure 9: Detail from the Misal de Baclayon, Misa sa Pagsaca sa Langit sa atung Guinoong Jesu Christo (Mass for the Ascension of Our Lord Jesus Christ).

Figure 10: Detail from the Sabado Santo setting in the Misal de Baclayon, Ang somonud nga Alleluia, maoi cantahon ug macatlo pag ilis ilis sa Padre (the following Alleluia, is sung three times alternately with the priest).

Figure 11: Rondalla ensemble, San Nicolas, Ilocos Sur.

Figure 12: General Distribution of Religious Orders in the Philippines.

Figure 13: Luzon and surrounding islands.

Figure 14: The Visayas.

Figure 15: Mindanao and surrounding islands.

Figure 16: The island of Bohol.

Figure 17: Detail from the Gloria from Misa San Bernabe in the Kirial de Baclayon (fol. 17).

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Figure 18: Detail from the Credo from Misa San Bernabe in the Kirial de Baclayon (fol. 16).

Figure 19: Detail from Antifonario de Maribojoc.

Figure 20: Iglesia de La Purísima Concepción de la Virgen Maria, Baclayon

Figure 21: Signature of Fr. Blas del Carmen from an entry in the Libro de Recibo y Gasto

Figure 22: Signature of Fr. Pedro de la Encarnación from an entry in the Libro de Recibo y Gasto.

Figure 23: Signature of Fr. Antonio Ubeda de la Santisima Trinidad from an entry in the Libro de Recibo y Gasto.

Figure 24: Iglesia de La Santisima Trinidad, Loay

Figure 25: Iglesia de San Pedro Apostol, Loboc

Figure 26: Detail from the February 1820 entry in the Libro de Recibo y Gasto 1807- 1856

Figure 27: Detail from the August 1825 entry in the Libro de Recibo y Gasto 1807-1856

Figure 28: Detail from Inventario de la Iglesia Baclayon 1795-1833

Figure 29: The author at the Baclayon church organ

Figure 30: Details from Baclayon church organ case. Text reads: ESTE ORGANO SE HIZO EL AÑO DE 1824

Figure 31: Details of the left- and right-hand stops on the Balcayon church organ.

Figure 32: Detail of Baclayon church façade with the date 1595 added.

Figure 33: Detail from Arte, ó Compendio General del Canto-llano, Figurado y Organo by Francisco Marcos y Navas (p. 67).

Figure 34: Examples of breves, triangulados (semibreves), longos and doblados from the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 35: Detail from Arte by Marcos y Navas (p. 60).

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Figure 36: Examples of various clefs found in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 37: Detail from Arte by Marcos y Navas (p. 278).

Figure 38: Examples of breves, semibreves, minimas and longas from the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 39: Detail from Arte by Marcos y Navas (p. 279).

Figure 40: Examples of binary and ternary meters in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 41: Detail from Arte by Marcos y Navas (p. 281).

Figure 42: Examples of pausas, bemoles, sustenidos, bequadros, puntillos and calderones from the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 43: Detail from Arte by Marcos y Navas (p. 368).

Figure 44: Examples of corcheas from the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 45: Detail from Arte by Marcos y Navas (p. 370).

Figure 46: Examples of compasillo, compas mayor and tres por quatro in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 47: Detail from the Sequentia from Misa sa Corpus in the Misal de Baclayon. Note the 3-over-2 time signature.

Figure 48: Detail from the Himno from Bendicion sa mga Panecito ni San Nicolas de Tolentino in the Misal de Baclayon. Note the 2-over-3 time signature.

Figure 49: Detail from Arte by Marcos y Navas (p. 373).

Figure 50: Examples of poyaturas, trinos, ligaduras and guiones from the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 51: Examples of rests, repeats, multi-measure rests, modern clefs, bracketed notation and colored notation in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 52: Detail of the Sax Tenor part for the Misa Bonafonte in the Baclayon Church Museum archive. No composer (unless Bonafonte refers to the composer) and undated, though instrumentation (including cornets, clarinets and saxophones) and staff paper manufacturer’s marks (Carl Fischer, Inc.) along with terms in Spanish suggest the first half of the twentieth century.

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Figure 53: Detail of an organ accompaniment book for masses from the Baclayon Church Museum archive, signed by Marcelino Esrael (Ysrael) y Circulado, dated July 25, 1893. The book is missing titles and pages but parts of at least two mass settings are included.

Figure 54: Detail of Salutacion a la Sña. Virgen con acompanimiento de Organo in the Baclayon Church Museum archive Solo voice with organ accompaniment, dated May 10, 1938.

Figure 55: Detail of modes for canto-llano and canto figurado from Arte del canto-llano of Marcos y Navas (p. 25).

Figure 56: Detail of Modes from Método Fácil of Jaime Vila y Pasques (p. 4).

Figure 57: Detail of modes for canto de organo from Marcos y Navas (p. 376).

Figure 58: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Kirie from Misa de Portillo in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 59: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Gloria from Misa de Portillo in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 60: Detail of head motive from author’s transcriptions of Credo from Misa de Portillo in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 61: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Sanctus from Misa de Portillo in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 62: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Agnus Dei from Misa de Portillo in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 63: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Kirie from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 64: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Gloria from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 65: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Credo from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 66: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Sanctus from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 67: Detail of head motive from author’s transcription of Agnus Dei from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon.

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Figure 68: Detail from author’s transcription of the Gloria from Misa de la Virgen in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 69: Details from author’s transcription of the Gloria from Misa Manchega in the Kirial de Baclayon. The two sections reproduced above are contiguous but are broken due to their being on different systems in the copy edition.

Figure 70: Detail from author's transcription of the Gloria from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon. The clef is a third-line F clef.

Figure 71: Detail of Gloria from the Misa de Portillo in the Kirial de Baclayon. The clef is a fourth-line F clef.

Figure 72: Detail from author’s transcription of Kirie from the Misa de Toledo in the Kirial de Baclayon. The clef is a third-line F clef.

Figure 73: Detail from author’s transcription of Benedictus from the Misa San Bernabe in the Kirial de Baclayon. The clef is a fourth-line C clef.

Figure 74: Detail from author's transcription of the Kirie from Misa de Alcala in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 75: Detail from author's transcription of the Kirie from Misa Imperial in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 76: Detail of author's transcription of the Kirie from Missa Imperial from the Cantoral "Missa Imperial" in the San Agustin Church.

Figure 77: Detail of author’s transcription of the Gloria from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon. The original clef is a third-line C clef which I have changed to a third-line F clef in the critical edition.

Figure 78: Example of ficta from Kirie in Misa de Semidobles in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 79: Detail from Métedo Fácil y Breve by Jaime Vila y Pasques (p. 291).

Figure 80: Detail of author's transcription of the Kirie from Misa Imperial in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 81: Detail from author's transcription of the Kirie from the Missa Imperial from the Cantoral de Santa Maria.

Figure 82: Detail of Asperges me from the Liber Usualis (p. 17).

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Figure 83: Detail of author’s transcription of Asperges me from the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 84: Detail of Vidi aquam from the Liber Usualis (p. 18).

Figure 85: Detail of author’s transcription of Vidi aquam from the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 86: Detail from Ensayo Gregoriano of Don Daniel Traveria (p. 223). Note the use of ligatured breves in canto figurado.

Figure 87: Detail of author’s transcription of the Kirie from Misa Quitolis in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 88: Detail of author’s transcription of the Kyrie from Missa Quitollis in the Cantoral “Benigno Antonio” in San Agustin.

Figure 89: Detail of author’s transcription of the Agnus Dei from Misa Quitolis in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 90: Detail of author’s transcription of the Agnus Dei from Missa Quitollis in the Cantoral “Benigno Antonio” in San Agustin.

Figure 91: Detail of author’s transcription of the Benedictus from Misa de Trompas in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 92: Detail of author’s transcription of the Benedictus from Misa de Trompas in the Kirial de Dauis. Note the added running thirds above and below the original melodic line.

Figure 93: Detail of authors’ transcriptions of the Credo from Misa Provincial in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 94: Detail of author’s transcription of the Credo from Misa Provincial in the Kirial de Dauis. Note the added intervals above the original melodic line.

Figure 95: Detail from author’s transcription of Kirie from the Misa Adviento in the Dimiao organ accompaniment book.

Figure 96: Detail of author’s transcription of Kirie from Misa Provencial in the Dimiao organ accompaniment book.

Figure 97: Detail from Rodrigo Ferreira da Costa’s Principios de Musica ou Composição e Execução. Each column provides different ways to harmonize a single melodic line.

Figure 98: Baclayon church organ manuals, showing 4--octave range

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Figure 99: Baclayon church organ pedals, showing 1-octave range

Figure 100: Detail of Gloria from the Misa San Bernabe in the Kirial de Baclayon. Note the alternatim performance between T. (Tenor) and C. (Coro)

Figure 101: Detail of Credo from the Misa de Quitolis in the Kirial de Baclayon. Note the T. (Tenor) and B. (Bassus) in vertical harmony.

Figure 102: Details of consecutive markings from Misa Zaragozana in the Kirial de Baclayon.

Figure 103: Detail of Credo from Misa de Sales in the Kirial de Baclayon. Note the vertical arrangement of C. (Coro), T. (Tenor) and B. (Bassus) parts in pseudo-score format. The voices actually do not line up vertically, and the Coro nearly never sings with the other parts throughout the setting.

Figure 104: Detail from Visperas sa Pagsaca sa Langit sa Atung Guinoong Jesu Christo (Vespers for the Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ) from the Antifonario de Baclayon. Note the alternating parts for Coro and Cantores.

1

Introduction: Philippine History and the Invention of Tradition

On a warm, sunny day in August of 2006 I visited the island province of Bohol together with my wife and mother. My wife, a Filipina 1 from Davao City (the largest city on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao), had heard that the island was very beautiful and was an out-of-the-way travel destination not yet overrun by tourists. None of us had ever been to Bohol, and it was touted as an island paradise in the travel books with descriptions of its famous Chocolate Hills, Philippine tarsier monkeys, and old Spanish stone churches. I was happy to get another perspective on the Philippines, as I had spent my previous several trips there with my wife’s family in Davao or in crowded Manila. As part of a tour package, we were driven to the main tourist attractions, among them the museum housed in the Baclayon parish church about 7 kilometers east of the provincial capital of Tagbilaran City (see map in Chapter 3, Figure 17). Among the vestments, chalices and santos displayed in the museum were a few large choirbooks written in old square and diamond notation. Though I knew that Spain had occupied the Philippines for a number of centuries, it had simply never occurred to me that they would have brought their liturgical musical traditions as well, though it made perfect sense on further reflection given what I knew about the Spanish colonies in Latin America. I had never heard anything about liturgical music in the Philippines, and now that I was aware of their existence I found precious little to further my newfound interest. On our return to

1 Residents of (and expatriates from) the Philippines are known collectively as Filipinos. When speaking of individuals, a man will be called a Filipino and a woman a Filipina.

2

the United States I continued my master’s studies at the University of California Riverside (UCR), where I consulted with my thesis advisor Dr. Walter Clark. When he asked what I was considering as a dissertation topic for my upcoming doctoral studies, I replied that my interest had been piqued by music that I had seen in the Philippines, but that I did not know where to look for more information. Dr. Clark immediately got me in touch with his friend, colleague and Philippine specialist William Summers at Dartmouth College, while also informing me that the next year’s (2007) annual UCR Music Department Encuentros/Encounters conference would feature the Philippines and include several Filipino scholars. This fortunate convergence of events has led directly to this study. Another fortunate convergence, concurrent with the one just described, had to do with my development as a scholar and the scholarly traditions from which I would draw my inspiration. I am a historical musicologist by heart and by training, and I was thrilled that work in primary documentary research of the kind 2 needed in the Philippines still existed. But I am lucky to have studied in a music department like the one at UCR, where the faculty and students in the three concentrations of musicology, ethnomusicology and composition freely collaborate and associate; an excellent state of affairs that unfortunately is not duplicated in all graduate music programs. This reality allowed me to study with multiple professors across these disciplines, including musicologists skilled in Latin and Iberian American music and ethnomusicologists

2 This is often referred to as positivistic research, and I use the term without the negative connotations with which it has become associated in recent decades.

3

specializing in the musics of Southeast Asia. This has led to a blending of foci and methodology that is in my view quite appropriate to the subject of the Spanish colonial church music of the Philippines. Musicology brings with it a particular expertise in physical source material and archival technique, the Catholic Church and all its history and influence, Spain and Western Europe, stylistic analysis, and the making of critical editions. Ethnomusicology provides a focus on local and contextual practices, culture and society, non-Western languages, and ethnography. The music of the Spanish church in the Philippines presents an ideal meeting of these disciplines and one that to my mind has not been done very satisfactorily to date. Too often ethnomusicology in the Philippines has stopped at the door of the church and musicology has likewise neglected to look westward over the Atlantic Ocean, much less the Pacific.

Philippine History as Topography The Philippines is an impressive country; spread out over several thousand islands, boasting of more than 90 million residents speaking scores of different languages, with additional millions living or working outside its boundaries. The modern (recorded) history of the Philippines is likewise an impressive place; spread out over several centuries, a land conquered and colonized by a number of powers with varying interests, each superimposing a little or a lot of its own culture onto preexisting ones. The description of Philippine history as a “place” is intentional. It has a terrain, a topography, and areas on which edifices may be built and like a physical space, landmasses can be altered, structures can be added to, destroyed, or fall into ruin.

4

Philippine history is full of such alterations to its landscape. The following general history of the Philippines includes much that is or may prove to be fanciful and much that has subsequently been disproven in scholarship but still holds some official and/or popular currency. It is not an exercise in condescension to highlight the historical and fanciful side by side; as an American I know that my own history is full of the legendary exploits of founding fathers and other heroes, much of which is fictional or hyperbolic. But these accounts are such a part of our culture and collective consciousness that they hold the power of truth in many circumstances.

Southeast Asia Before we focus on Philippine history per se, it may be useful to focus outward to the region of greater Southeast Asia with which the Philippines is generally associated. The uniqueness of the Philippines is often touted in much of the historiography of the country (a point to which we will return at length in the next chapter) but what is often not treated in a systematic fashion in that historiography are the commonalities shared among the modern-day nation-states in the region. Geographically, Southeast Asia can be defined as the mainland and island regions south of China and east of the Indian subcontinent and include what is now Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, East Timor, Malaysia and Singapore. Like other regions

Full document contains 886 pages
Abstract: Spanish colonial music, both sacred and secular, enjoyed a long and widespread performance tradition in the Philippines from 1565 to 1898, but this has largely been forgotten or obscured in scholarship of the last hundred years. Musical practices that survive from the colonial period with an intact performance tradition are often reworked, or invented, to serve modern institutional and nationalist purposes, and work indicators of Philippine nationality both in the Philippines and abroad. This state of affairs is the result of both American and Post-independence era historiographies that sought to minimize or erase the perceived Spanish cultural influence on the country. Spanish liturgical music has not been a part of these invented cultural traditions, but recent interest in the form is driving scholarship that may serve as an impetus toward such an invention. Liturgical music is an interesting case among other arts that demonstrate a high level of syncretism with the various additional cultural influences surrounding the Spanish colony: Mexican, Chinese, and Islamic as well as Spanish. The extent to which it exhibits Philippine-ness will go a long way toward determining its existence as a practice among the nationally accepted and exported cultural practices. The music is part of an international parish style common throughout the colonial Iberian world and there are many common repertories that exist between the Old World, the New World, and the Philippines.