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Social transformation through Pastoral Transformational Leadership: A case study of Mombasa Synod

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Pius N Kagwi
Abstract:
In this dissertation research, I sought to build understanding by exploring the issues that led to the 2007 post-election violence in Kenya, focusing primarily on the Mombasa Synod of the Methodist Church as a case study. My objective concerned raising awareness of these issues and promoting an initiative to combat violence and other social evils through the Pastoral Transformational Leadership (PTL) model, which seeks to inspire followers through emulation of transformed leadership, in this case for higher unifying values and morals in their respective communities. Therefore, I considered three main research questions: 1. What are the participants' perceptions of the Post-election violence (PEV)? 2. When they saw signs of violence, what did the church or individual pastors do to prevent it? 3. What should the church be doing now to enable healing and reconciliation? As long as people are not aware and do not address the root causes of the uninhibited violence in 2007, repeated violence is highly probable, triggered by future events such as elections or other political and ethnic instigations. Furthermore, without awareness of and action toward these root causes, the church will be unable to distinguish itself from the factions. The church in Kenya, one of the country's strongest bodies unifying tribes, can bring about such awareness and exemplify the alternative leadership necessary for transforming society. This qualitative research utilized focus groups composed of pastoral leaders between the ages of 18 to 65 years, from both rural and urban settings. The research suggested far-reaching implications including social education of the masses, Kenyan pastoral leaders' embrace of a worldview other than the prevailing factional worldview, and the potential to reposition the Church as an effective and respected ethical agent in society.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... viii

LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... ix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ . x

CHAPTER 1 PROBLEM ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 1

Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 1

Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 1

The Destruction of PEV ................................ ................................ ........................... 2

Call for Action ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 2

Background of the Problem ................................ ................................ ..................... 2

Context of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 3

Purpose Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 4

Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 5

Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 5

Ministry Intervention ................................ ................................ ............................... 6

Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7

Potential Benefits and Limitations of Focus Groups ................................ ... 8

Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ . 10

Instrumentation ................................ ................................ .......................... 11

Data Collection and Analysis ................................ ................................ ..... 11

Delimitation s and

Generalizability ................................ ............................ 12

Ethical Considerations ................................ ................................ ........................... 12

iv

Theological Foundation ................................ ................................ ......................... 13

Jesus as a Model of Transformational Leadership ................................ ..... 13

Jesus as Team Builder ................................ ................................ ................ 14

Disciples as Transformers ................................ ................................ .......... 15

Jesus as Visionary ................................ ................................ ...................... 16

Vision — Vital for Growth of Organization ................................ ................ 16

Jesus’ L ove and Kindness ................................ ................................ .......... 17

Revolutionary Jesus ................................ ................................ ................... 18

Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ . 18

Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 19

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............................. 20

Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 20

The Contextual Background of Kenya ................................ ................................ .. 20

A Brief History of the Kenyan Conflict ................................ ................................ . 21

Presidents of the Republic of Kenya ................................ ................................ ...... 22

Overview of PEV of 1992, 199 7, and 2007 - 08 ................................ ..................... 23

Key Events Contributing to the Violenc e ................................ .............................. 25

Weak National Constitution ................................ ................................ ................... 26

Disputed 2007 General Election ................................ ................................ ............ 26

Conflict Tree ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 28

Theology of Violence ................................ ................................ ............................ 30

The Role of the Church in Spiritual Transformation ................................ ............. 32

Charismatic Leadership ................................ ................................ ......................... 33

v

Transforma tional Leadership as the Way Forward for Kenya ............................... 34

Transformational and Transactional ................................ ................................ ...... 34

Transformational Leadership Theory ................................ ................................ .... 36

Definition of Transformational Leadership ................................ ........................... 37

Transformational Leadership Fostering Capacity Development ........................... 39

Transformational Leader ship Brings Justice to People ................................ ......... 42

Transformational Leadership versus Spiritual Transformation ............................. 42

Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 43

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ...................... 45

The Research Method ................................ ................................ ............................ 45

Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 46

Focus Groups ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 46

Research Focus ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 47

Spiritual Transformation ................................ ................................ ........................ 48

Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 49

Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 50

Validity Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 52

Triangulation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 52

Cross - Case Analysis ................................ ................................ .............................. 53

Member Checking ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 54

Peer Rev iewing and Debriefing ................................ ................................ ............. 54

Nonparticipant Observation ................................ ................................ ................... 54

Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 55

vi

Research Questions and Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ..... 55

Controls ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 55

Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 56

Ethical Con cerns ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 57

Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 57

CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 58

Problem and Purpose ................................ ................................ ............................. 58

Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 58

Research Question #1 ................................ ................................ ............................ 65

Research Question # 2 ................................ ................................ ........................... 72

Research Question #3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 74

Additional Findings from Focus Groups ................................ ............................... 78

Summary of Major Findings ................................ ................................ .................. 80

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ .............................. 82

Major Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 82

The Involvement of the Church in Preventing PEV ................................ .. 82

Spiritual Transformational Leadership ................................ ...................... 83

Unresolved Land Grievances and Economic Imbalances .......................... 83

Ethnic Prejudice and Political Affiliations ................................ ................ 83

Funding and Organization of PEV ................................ ............................. 84

Impunity and Co llapse of Law ................................ ................................ ... 84

Manipulation of the Tribes ................................ ................................ ......... 84

Rigged Election s ................................ ................................ ........................ 84

vii

Hate Speeches and Tribal Propaganda ................................ ....................... 85

The Involvement of the Church in Preventing PEV ................................ .. 85

Implications of the Findings ................................ ................................ .................. 85

Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 86

Unexpected Observations ................................ ................................ ...................... 86

Recommendati ons ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 86

APPENDIXES

A. E - Mail R equest and Permission Letter ................................ ............................. 91

B. Statement of Voluntary Consent ................................ ................................ ....... 94

C. Semi - Structured Interview for Focus Groups ................................ ................... 96

D. Cover Letter for the Baseline Questionnaire ................................ ..................... 98

E. Research C onfidentiality C ovenant ................................ ................................ ... 99

F. Letter o f Suppor t f rom Mombasa Synod Standing Committee a nd Staff ....... 100

G. Personal D ata Q uestionnaire

Methodist C hurch

in K enya - M ombasa S ynod ................................ ................................ ....... 101

WORKS CITED ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 102

WORKS CONSULTED ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 111

viii

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 2.1. Kenya’s Presidents and Terms ................................ ................................ .......... 22

Table 2.2. Timeline and Key Players in Kenya’s 2007 Election ................................ ....... 25

Table 2.3. Dimensions of Transformational Leadership ................................ ................... 40

Table 2.4. Characteristics of Transformational Leaders ................................ .................... 41

Table 4.1. Division of Focus Groups and Gender of Participants ................................ ..... 60

Table 4.2. Age Distribution of Parti cipants ................................ ................................ ....... 62

Table 4.3. Ethnic Distribution of Participants ................................ ................................ ... 62

Table 4.4. Leadership Distribution of Participants ................................ ............................ 63

Table 4.5. Participants’ Level of Education ................................ ................................ ....... 64

Table 4.6. Participants’ Marital Status ................................ ................................ ............... 64

Table 4.7. Participant Anticipation of Violence ................................ ................................ 65

ix

LIST OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 2.1. Kenya’s Different Ethnic Groups 1998 ................................ ........................... 24

Figure 2.2. Stakeholders M ap ................................ ................................ ............................ 28

Figure 2.3. Conflict T ree ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 29

Figure 4.1. Participants’ V iews on PEV S igns ................................ ................................ .. 66

Figure 4.2. Reasons for PEV ................................ ................................ .............................. 67

Figure 4.3. Reasons for the Churc h’s Ina bility to Prevent PEV ................................ ........ 68

Figure 4.4. Church Attempts to Prevent Violence ................................ ............................. 69

Figure 4.5. Responses to Church Leaders’ Attempts to Curtail Violence ......................... 69

Figure 4.6. Effects of PEV in the Church ................................ ................................ .......... 70

Figure 4.7. Effects of PEV on Church Membership ................................ .......................... 71

Figur e 4.8. Reasons for Increased Unity Following PEV ................................ .................. 72

Figure 4.9. Church leaders’ Reactions to Signs with the Bid to Prevent PEV .................. 73

Figure 4.10 Learning from PEV ................................ ................................ ........................ 74

Figure 4.11. How the Church Should Bring About Healing and Reconciliation .............. 75

Figure 4.12. The Church’s Role in Preventing Unrest ................................ ....................... 76

Figure 4.13.

Teaching Roles for the Church ................................ ................................ ...... 77

Figure 4.14. How the Church Can Influence Followers for Peace ................................ .... 78

Figure 4.15. Leaders as Role Models ................................ ................................ ................. 79

Figure 4.16. The Church Improving Lives ................................ ................................ ........ 80

x

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am h eartily thankful to my supervisor, Dr. Tapiwa Mucherera, who acted as my mentor despite his many academic and professional commitments. His wisdom, knowledge, encouragement, supervision, and support from the preliminary steps to the concluding level inspir ed and motivated me.

In the same tone, I would like to exp ress my deepest gratitude to my second reader, Dr. Anne Gatobu, for helping in the preparation of the entire project. Sincere thanks goes to Dr. Tom Tumblin, Director of the Beeson International Lea dership program and Dean of the Beeson Center, who offered excellent guidance, car e, patience

while providing me with excellent encouragement for doing research.

In addition, thanks to Dr. Verna Lowe for teaching me to write a dissertation. Her enthusiasm for the “underlying structures” had lasting effect upon my studies. Many thanks also to Judy Seitz, Senior Editor of the Doctor of Ministry Program, for her help in correcting my work. I never would have finish ed my dissertation without the guidance of my committee members, support from members of Centenary UMC (USA), especially, Julie Broderson , and my home c hurch in Kenya.

Finally, and most importantly, I would like to thank my wife , Lillian Kagwi, for her love, support , and patience during the past four years of this program .

I cannot forget my four sons: Samuel, John, David, and Willy , and my daughter ,

Ann Kagwi , who always supported , encouraged, and prayed that my research would be

useful and serve good purposes for all humankind. Last, I offer my reg ards and blessings to all of those persons who supported me in any respect during the completion of this project.

Kagwi 1

CHAPTER 1

PROBLEM

A shortage of leaders creates a shortage of followers. And a shortage of followers produces a shortage of future leaders .

— Myron Rush

The leader is the one who climbs the tallest tree, surveys the entire situation, and yells, “ Wrong jungle! ”

— Stephen R. Covey

The Seven Habits

Whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants t o be first must b e slave of all.

— Jesus

Mark 10:43 - 44

Introduction

Collectively, the aforementioned quotations capture some of the key characteristics of transformational leadership. In particular, pastors hold the responsibility for spiritual guidance and development, motivation, restoration, care, correction, protection, unity, and encouragement of parishioners (1 Pet. 5:1 - 4 , NKJV). Furthermore, in Romans 12:8, Saint Paul reminds pastors of the need for diligence in ministry.

Problem Statement

The i nability of the gov ernment and of Christian leaders to contain t he massive incidence of post - election violence (PEV) and other criminal activities created a scenario of worry in Kenya. The PEV of 2007 and 2008, t riggered by the disputed presidential election results of 30 De cember 2007, brought horrifying d estruction , statistics, and scenarios .

At least 1,500 people died, scores of people were injured ,

and over 350,000 people were displaced in the post - election crisis . Furthermore, thieves and hooligans

Kagwi 2

committed acts of vand alism upon various p roperties , with damages totaling

millions of shillings ;

thus, sending the Kenyan economy into a free fall ( Ngunyi 14).

The Destruction of PEV

The criminal act of PEV in Kenya involved victims and offenders who had lived together for a long time. The politically motivated PEV included intimidation, harassment of citizens, sexual assault, and killing of innocent adults and children. The helpless victims usually do not understand the problem of PEV, let alone able to determine a solution. Despite the stereotypes, political violence does not discriminate persons on racial, tribal, gender, age, religious, socioeconomic, or sexual orientations (Mathenge).

Call for Action

Only peace can halt the decline in the world ’ s Christian population. In o rder to avoid a repeat of such tragic circumstances, Christians and Christian leaders need to take action. Christian community members , especially the clergy, can help transform the minds of members in their local churches so they can act as agents of peac e and reconciliation in their respective communities.

Background of the Problem

In the aftermath of the 2007 - 2008 elections and the subsequent political unrest, Sam Kivuitu, chairperson of the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK), the governmental organizat ion that certifies the election results , commented, “I don’t know whether Kibaki won the election” (“ECK Chairman Kivuitu” ) . Ironically, in 2007 , Kivuitu certified Kibaki as election winner without actually knowing who had won.

Kagwi 3

This error caused one of th e greatest episodes of carnage in Kenya’s history :

1,500 persons dead, 3,000 innocent women raped, and 300,000 people internally displaced (Roberts 2 ) . Most of these atrocities happened in the first fourteen days following the 2007 Kenyan general election. The severity of this conflict unfolded in a span of 59 days between Election Day, 27 December 2007 ,

and

28 February 2008 , when the main competing political parties, i.e. Party of National Unity (PNU) and Orange Democratic Party (ODM), reached a political compromise :

The magnitude of the trauma and structural violence in Kenya after the fourth multi - party general election took both Kenyans and the international community, alike, by surprise . In retrospect, the violence not only could have been predicted; m ost likely, it could have been prevented . (2)

Kenyans still question why Kivuitu would certify election results. Indeed, the president appoints ECK staff members, including the chairperson. As a result, perhaps Kivuitu acted accordingly out of fear for lo sing his job. The history of the problem will be discussed in detail in Chapter 2.

C ontext of the Study

The Mombasa Synod of the Methodist Church in Kenya was the immediate context for this project . Understanding the Mombasa Synod’s context represented an

important step in the process of becoming a transformational leader with an impact on the community. The cosmopolitan area of Mombasa hosts people from nearly all corners of the world. However, t he local

tribe ,

Mijikenda (nine tribes) ,

occupies the larger part of Mombasa. According to a 1999 census, about 50 percent of Mijikendas practice African Traditional Religion (ATR).

Other citizens of Mombasa identify as Muslim (30 percent) and Christian ( 20 percent ), respectively ( Ministry of Finance and Planning 1 54).

Kagwi 4

The Mombasa Synod , located in the southern part of the Coast Province, covers seven administrative districts ( Mombasa, Kilindini, Matuga, Msambweni, Kinango, Voi, and Taita - Taveta ) . Furthermore, the Mombasa S ynod divides the aforementioned districts i nto seven circuits, namely: Kisiwani, Changamwe, Kisauni, Kwale, Mamba, Kinango, and Mazeras. Approximately sixty congregations scattered throughout the s ynod claim a membership population of approximately

thirty thousand followers ( Mombasa Synod Statistic s 35).

Christianity entered e ast Africa and Kenya through Mombasa by way of many Christian mission societies, including the Church Missionary Society (CMS) , Methodist Missionary Society (MMS) , Neukirchen Mission (NM) , East African Scottish Mission (EASM) ,

Church of Scotland Mission ( CSM) , Africa Inland Mission (AIM) , Gospel Mission Society (GMS) , Friends Africa Industrial Mission (FAIM) , Roman Catholic Missionary Society - South Africa Compounds and Interior Mission (SACIM) , Church of God Mission (CGM) , Seven th Day Adventist (SDA) , Nilotic Independent Mission (NIM) , Apostolic Faith Mission of Lowa (AFML) , Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada (PAC) , and the Salvation Army (SA) (Mugambi 33). However, due to Islamic threats and an unfavorable climate, many missionari es withdrew in favor of up - country missions with more favorable climates and people more receptive to the gospel.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this dissertation research focused on the Mombasa S ynod in order to understand and raise awareness by explori ng issues leading to Kenya’s 2007 PEV with the hope of positioning the church to prevent similar violence in the future. Using a transformational m odel that sought to inspire followers through emulation of transformed

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leadership, this study proposes that p astoral leaders could engage their congregants by exemplifying transformation and educating members regarding the ills of ethnic factions in order to influence communities.

Research Questions

With this project, I sought to answer the following research qu estions.

1.

What are the participants ’ perceptions of the Post - election violence (PEV)?

2.

When they saw signs of violence, what actions did the church or individual pastors take in order to prevent the violence ?

3.

What should the church be doing now to enable hea ling and reconciliation and help prevent similar violence in the future?

Definition of Terms

In this study, I defined the following principal terms .

The term

post - election violence specifically describes the violence in Kenya occurring immediately followi ng the general elections of December 2007, in which more than 1,500 people died and 350,000 persons were displaced from their homes (Ngunyi 14).

Furthermore, I use the term transformational leadership in a broad sense. Transformational leadership involves

an intentional effort to move the church along in the process of change from old things to new things . J. S. Black and L. W. Porter define transformational leadership as “ leadership that motivates followers to ignore self - interests and work for the larger good of the organization to achieve significant accomplishments; emphasis is on articulating a vision that will convince subordinates to make major changes ” (432). Such leaders have a profound effect on followers ’ beliefs

Kagwi 6

and values, as well as their follo wers’ ideas and expectations for the organization’s future.

In addition, transformational leaders provide their followers with the guidance necessary to achieve their goals. Transformation is a permanent change in people ’ s attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in all areas of their life (physical, spiritual, emotional, and social). These changed individuals then facilitate similar changes in others, who then change their respective neighborhood s from the inside out.

Bernard M. Bass (26) and B. M. Bass ,

B. J. Av olio , D. I. Jung, and Y. Berson (207 ) expand the concept of transformational leadership to include charisma, inspiration, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. M. Sashkin emphasizes the importance of vision in transformational leaders hip (151 ) . Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanungo explain charisma as a characteristic of founders of organizations , while transformational leaders are organizational members who wish to change the existing organization

(645) . T ransformational leaders motiv ate and inspire followers by appealing to higher goals and the common good rather than individual needs and self - interest (e.g., financial gain).

Ministry Intervention

This dissertation describes an intervention to engage pastors in order to reduce cases of PEV and other antisocial behaviors in their congregations by using the Word of God to promote social transformation in their respective areas of service through a transformational leadership style.

In spite of the practical nature of this topic, Kenyan writers have not explored the role of Christian leaders in correcting problem behaviors in the context of Kenyan society .

Kagwi 7

The present study aim ed to expand understanding of socio - transformation through pastoral transformational leadership. Throughout this study , I explored the characteristics of

tra nsformational leadership and offered practical suggestions regarding the transformation of leadership skills. My committee and I examined and validated the hallmarks of

effective tra nsformational leadership

throu gh transformational leadership research.

Methodology

In this qualitative study , I used focus groups to analyze the role of different social and cultural factors leading to PEV and other antisocial behaviors. Many academic discipline s, especially the social sciences, employ qualitative research as a method of inquiry; however, market research and other contexts also employ qualitative methods ( Denzin and Lincoln

133 - 55 ).

Through focus group research , I intended to draw upon respondents ’ attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences, and reactions in a way other methods, such as observation, one - on - one interviewing, or questionnaire surveys would not allow.

While a person’s attitudes, feelings, and beliefs exist independently from his or her group or social settin g, he or she is likely to reveal more information through interaction with a group. Compared to individual interviews, which aim to obtain individual attitudes, beliefs, and feelings, focus groups elicit a multiplicity of views and emotional processes with in a group context

(Denzin and Lincoln

887) .

T he researcher can control an individual interview more easily than a focus group in which participants take the initiative. Compared to observation, a focus group enables the researcher to gain a larger amount of information in a shorter period. Observational

Kagwi 8

methods tend to require the observer to wait for

observable actions , whereas in a focus group, the researcher follows an interview guide. In this sense, focus groups are organized events rather than natura l events. Focus groups are particularly useful when power differences exist between participants and decision - makers or professionals, when the everyday language and culture of particular groups is of interest, and when researchers want to explore the degr ee of consensus on a given topic (Morgan 31). David L. Morgan offers three observations regarding focus groups:

1.

Organized discussion with a selected group of individuals gains information about participant ’ s views and experiences of a topic.

2.

Interviewing particularly is suited for obtaining several perspectives about the same topic.

3.

Focus groups gain insights into people ’ s shared understandings of everyday life and the ways in which other people influence individuals in a group situation (36).

Potential B enefits and Limitations of Focus Groups

Focus group research has advantages and limitations , as do all other research methods. While researchers can overcome some limitations with careful planning and moderating, other limitations are unavoidable and parti cular to this approach. For example, t he researcher or moderator

has less control over the data produced from a focus group than data produced from quantitative studies or one - on - one interviewing (Morgan 35). In a focus group, participants talk to each oth er, ask questions, and express doubts and opinions, so the moderator has little control over the interaction other than generally keeping participants focused on the topic. By its nature , focus group research is open - ended and cannot entirely be predetermi ned. In addition, individuals in a focus

Kagwi 9

group do not just express their own definitive individual view s . Instead, they speak in a specific context and within a specific culture ; as a result, the moderator might encounter difficulty when trying to identify

a clear individual message. The aforementioned problem describes a potential limitation of focus groups.

J. Kitzinger ( “ Methodology of F ocus G roups ” 103) identifies interaction as the crucial feature of focus groups because participants’ interaction s hig hlight their view s of the world, the language they use about an issue, and their values and beliefs about a situation. Interaction also enables participants to ask questions of each other and to reevaluate and reconsider their own understandings of their s pecific experiences. In addition, the way focus groups elicit information which allows researchers to find out reasons for an issue’s salience (Morgan and Spanish 254). As a result, focus groups allow researchers to understand the gap between people ’s word s and people’s actions better (Lankshear 1987 ). If participants reveal multiple understandings and meanings , then researchers can more readily offer multiple explanations for their behavior s and attitudes .

Focus group research offers many benefits for the participants. The opportunity to be involved in decision - making processes, to be valued as experts, and the chance to work collaboratively with researchers can be empowering for many participants , and these characteristics were true especially in the cont ext of the Mombasa Synod. If a group works well and develops trust, the group may explore solutions to a particular problem as a unit rather than as separate individuals (Kitzinger , “Methodology of Focus Groups”

112). Furthermore, when participants experie nce

involvement in a meaningful group activity, the focus group realistically can promote empowerment. Nonetheless, not every participant may experience these benefits, since

especially inarticulate or shy group

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members may feel intimidated. Hence, focus g roups do not empower all participants , and other methods may offer more opportunities for such participants.

On a practical note, identifying a representative sample, therefore, assembling a focus group can prove difficult. In such cases, personal intervi ews or the use of workbooks alongside focus groups may prove a more suitable approach. Finally, sharing materials with other group s makes focus groups un - confidential or un - anonymous.

Participants

The research team for this project consisted of

148

people , including ordained pastors, lay pastors, women leaders, youth leaders , and church elders. This project covered approximately seven circuits , including the urban settings of Kisiwani, Kisauni, and Changamwe ; and the rural settings of Mazeras, Kinango, Kwa le , and Mamba.

I divided these 148 people into fourteen focus groups in order to explore causes of PEV , as well as the leadership perceptions of ordained pastors, lay pastors, and elders from the seven circuits of Mombasa Synod under my leadership as the Synod Bishop and under the leadership of the research moderator , Rev erend Ann Deche. The team assisted me with data collection, interpretation, and organizational oversight.

This study focused on pastoral transformational leadership in the Mombasa S ynod w ith the hope to correct the issues continuing to divide people in these communities. I was accountable to the Leadership in Ministry Team, as well as to the Mombasa Synod Standing Committee and executive staff, and these groups knew of and approved my rese arch. I sent letters and e - mail requests of Permission to Participate to all participants (see Appendix A) and obtained signed statement s of Voluntary Consent from all participants (see Appendix B) , including my colleagues and the research team.

Kagwi 11

Instrumen tation

I used three different instruments for recording information. First, I kept a field research notebook , which became the basis for a detailed description of each case. Each entry included the date of the event, the person or group involved, the setti ng in which the event took place, my observations, and my interpretation of what happened. Second, I used a tape recorder to record interviews. Third, I developed a semi - structured interview for focus group s (see Appendix C). While these questions formed t he outline of each interview, the format ’s flexibility allowed respondent s to take the conversation in different ways.

Data Collection and Analysis

I mailed questionnaires to each

focus group participant in the Cover Letters accompanying the questionnaire s (see Appendix D) and gave instruction regarding

completing and returning the questionnaires. I ensured confidentiality by instructing respondents to create a code based on three digits of their identification card number (ID). Their c ompliance with my in structions allowed me to track changes in specific individual responses while protecting participants’

identities .

I recorded all key events, conversatio ns, and decisions in the focus groups in a field research notebook , and I interpreted the data immedia tely after noting my observations during the group meeting . As the body of information grew, I organized data according to major themes that emerged and assigned codes to each category. I maintained participant confidentiality by assigning pseudonyms to th e

persons involved. Using a tape recorder, I recorded each interview. As in the field research notebook, I

Full document contains 133 pages
Abstract: In this dissertation research, I sought to build understanding by exploring the issues that led to the 2007 post-election violence in Kenya, focusing primarily on the Mombasa Synod of the Methodist Church as a case study. My objective concerned raising awareness of these issues and promoting an initiative to combat violence and other social evils through the Pastoral Transformational Leadership (PTL) model, which seeks to inspire followers through emulation of transformed leadership, in this case for higher unifying values and morals in their respective communities. Therefore, I considered three main research questions: 1. What are the participants' perceptions of the Post-election violence (PEV)? 2. When they saw signs of violence, what did the church or individual pastors do to prevent it? 3. What should the church be doing now to enable healing and reconciliation? As long as people are not aware and do not address the root causes of the uninhibited violence in 2007, repeated violence is highly probable, triggered by future events such as elections or other political and ethnic instigations. Furthermore, without awareness of and action toward these root causes, the church will be unable to distinguish itself from the factions. The church in Kenya, one of the country's strongest bodies unifying tribes, can bring about such awareness and exemplify the alternative leadership necessary for transforming society. This qualitative research utilized focus groups composed of pastoral leaders between the ages of 18 to 65 years, from both rural and urban settings. The research suggested far-reaching implications including social education of the masses, Kenyan pastoral leaders' embrace of a worldview other than the prevailing factional worldview, and the potential to reposition the Church as an effective and respected ethical agent in society.