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Servant-leadership: An effective model for Project Management

Dissertation
Author: Kenneth N. Thompson
Abstract:
Many projects continue to fail despite the use of established project methods and techniques as the leadership competency required for successful project outcomes have been found lacking. Previous research has stopped short of identifying leadership as a factor that has affected or influenced project outcomes. A project's success is, in part, contingent on effectively managing the constraints of time, costs, and performance expectations. In order to achieve this it is essential that the project manager possess and display appropriate leadership skills. Servant-leadership is recognized as a model that could contribute to overcoming many of the leadership challenges faced by organizational leaders. Empirical evidence indicates no evidence of research on servant-leadership that have established it as factor in project management. The objective of this study is to add to the existing body of project management leadership research by investigating if there is a relationship between servant leadership and successful project outcomes. Participants in this study were members of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and who have had some relationship with project initiation and implementation. The study used a quantitative descriptive approach to determine whether or not a relationship exists between successful project outcomes and servant-leadership. The results of the study indicated a strong correlation between the belief that servant leader behaviors applied to successful project managers and factors of project success.

Table of Contents Acknowledgments.................................................................................... iii

List of Tables ........................................................................................... vi

List of Figures ......................................................................................... vii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1

Introduction to the Problem ...................................................................... 1

Background ............................................................................................... 6

Statement of the Problem ........................................................................ 11

Purpose of the Study ............................................................................... 12

Rationale ................................................................................................. 12

Significance of the Study ........................................................................ 12

Research Questions and Hypotheses ...................................................... 13

Definition of Terms................................................................................. 15

Assumptions ............................................................................................ 16

Nature of the Study ................................................................................. 17

CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................ 18

Leadership ............................................................................................... 18

Theoretical Concepts of Leadership ....................................................... 20

Leadership in Project Management ........................................................ 34

Leadership and Successful Project Outcomes ........................................ 43

Summary ................................................................................................. 46

CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY ...................................................................... 48

Restatement of the Problem .................................................................... 48

v

Research Design ...................................................................................... 48

Sample..................................................................................................... 51

Instrumentation / Measures ..................................................................... 51

Data Collection ....................................................................................... 53

Data Analysis .......................................................................................... 53

Validity and Reliability ........................................................................... 54

Ethical Considerations ............................................................................ 55

Potential Results...................................................................................... 56

CHAPTER 4. RESULTS ................................................................................... 57

General Description of Sample Demographics ....................................... 57

Method of Analysis ................................................................................. 61

Testing of Hypotheses............................................................................. 65

Survey Findings ...................................................................................... 66

Summary ................................................................................................. 86

CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS ..... 88

Summary of Findings .............................................................................. 89

Implications of the Study ........................................................................ 97

Servant Leadership Implications ........................................................... 103

Summary ............................................................................................... 109

Recommendations ................................................................................. 110

REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 113

APPENDIX A - SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE .............................................. 128

APPENDIX B - HYPOTHESIS TEST SUMMARY ....................................... 135

vi

List of Tables Table 1- Four Leadership Styles of Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson’s (2006) Situational Leadership ........................................................................................ 23

Table 2- Reliability Statistics of Pilot Study....................................................... 52

Table 3 - Participants Role in Projects ................................................................ 58

Table 4 - Industry of Participants ........................................................................ 59

Table 5 - Budget of Projects ............................................................................... 59

Table 6 - Size of Project Team on which Participants Worked .......................... 60

Table 7 - Participant Work Experience in Years ................................................ 60

Table 8 - Participant Project Experience in Years .............................................. 61

Table 9 - Success Factor - Project Completed on Schedule ............................... 61

Table 10 – Success Factor - Finished Product Positively Impacts User ............. 62

Table 11 – Success Factor - Project Improves User Performance ...................... 62

Table 12 - Success Factor - Project Completed Within Budget ......................... 63

Table 13 – Success Factor - End Product Meets Requirements ......................... 63

Table 14 - Success Factor - Scope Effectively Managed ................................... 64

Table 15 – Success Factor - Accomplishes Stakeholder's Objective .................. 64

Table 16 – Success Factor - Meets Satisfaction of Stakeholder ......................... 65

Table 17 - Leadership Styles that Contribute to Project Success ....................... 98

Table 18- Participants Leadership Expectations of Project Managers ............... 99

Table 19 – Data on Formal Leadership Training. ............................................. 100

Table 20 – Data on Leadership Development ................................................... 101

Table 21- Data on Effective Project Leadership Characteristics ...................... 102

vii

List of Figures Figure 1- Effect of Cohesiveness and Performance Norms, (McShane- VonGlinow, 2002) .............................................................................................. 43

Figure 2 - Chi- Square Test Measuring Listening Skills .................................... 67

Figure 3 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 1 Data ...................................................... 67

Figure 4 - Chi- Square Test Measuring Awareness of Project Team Needs ...... 69

Figure 5 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 2 Data ...................................................... 70

Figure 6 - Chi - Square Test Measuring Empathy .............................................. 71

Figure 7 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 3 Data ...................................................... 72

Figure 8 - Chi - Square Test Measuring Foresight ............................................. 73

Figure 9 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 4 Data ...................................................... 74

Figure 10 - Chi Square Test Measuring Persuasion ............................................ 75

Figure 11 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 5 Data .................................................... 76

Figure 12 - Chi Square Test Measuring Stewardship ......................................... 77

Figure 13 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 6 Data .................................................... 78

Figure 14 - Chi Square Test Measuring Commitment to the Growth of People 79

Figure 15 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 7 Data .................................................... 80

Figure 16 - Chi Square Test Measuring Community Building ........................... 81

Figure 17- Scatter plot of Hypothesis 8 Data...................................................... 82

Figure 18 - Chi Square Test Measuring Conceptualization ................................ 83

Figure 19 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 9 Data .................................................... 84

Figure 20 - Chi-Square Test Measuring Healing ................................................ 85

Figure 21 - Scatter Plot of Hypothesis 10 Data .................................................. 86

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Problem Within project management, researchers have studied the concept of leadership extensively (Berg & Karlsen, 2007; Dainty, Cheng & Moore, 2005; Gehring, 2007; Hauschildt, Gesche, & Medcof, 2000; Hyvari, 2006; Kezsbom, 1998; Kodjababian & Petty, 2007; Neuhauser, 2007; Schmid & Adams, 2008; Thoms & Pinto, 1999; Turner & Muller, 2005). The researchers sought to highlight the importance of project leadership as a key aspect of project successes. Their findings suggested that more demanding market conditions required a stronger focus on leadership, knowledge, and skills to ensure project success. They also believed that successful project outcomes would require an increased emphasis on the organizational and human aspects of project management. Despite the plethora of research, project managers continue to face many challenges and problems concerning leadership, for example, leadership style, stress, uncertainty, motivation, learning, and teamwork (Berg & Karlsen, 2007). Hauschildt et al. (2000) reported that the success of a project depended more on human factors, such as project leadership, top management support, and project team, rather than on technical factors. They also found that the human factors increased in importance as projects increased in complexity, risk, and innovation. The researchers found that the critical role of the project manager's leadership ability had a direct correlation to project outcomes (Hauschildt et al., 2000). The Chaos reports by the Standish Group (1994, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009) suggested that problems related to successful project outcomes and inevitably the

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solution to achieving project objectives that meet stakeholders’ expectations, originates with people in leadership roles and the procedures adopted by project managers. A research study by Cambridge University’s School of Business and Economics concluded that 80% of projects failed because of poor leadership (Zhang & Faerman, 2007). The findings further suggested that poor leadership skills reflected limited or no teamwork, inadequate communication, and an inability to resolve conflicts as well as other human related inefficiencies. Tornatzky & Fleischer (1990) found that projects failed to achieve successful results because of three factors. The factors are the organizational background, the external environment, and the technological framework. Failure in the organizational context can be attributed to leadership, corporate culture, corporate project knowledge base, and top level support. Failure in the external environment is linked to competitors, suppliers, customers, vendors, government, and education. Failure in the technological framework can be hardware, software, and telecommunications or a combination of the three areas (Tornatzky & Fleischer, 1990). Kumar (2000), in a study of reengineering projects, found that failure was primarily linked to the organizational context and could attribute to the lack of leadership, organizational culture, the lack of integration, and the lack of commitment by senior management. While leadership may be singled out as an individual contributor to failure, it transcends all other organizational factors (Roepke, Agarwal, & Ferratt, 2000). Leadership affects corporate culture, project culture, project strategy, and project team commitment (Shore, 2005). It also affects business process reengineering, systems design and development, software selection, implementation, and maintenance. Without

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appropriate leadership, the risk of project failure increases (Shore, 2005). Although researchers in project management have identified leadership as critical to the success factor of projects (Baker, Murphy & Fischer, 1983; Cleland & King, 1983; Finch, 2003; Hyvari, 2000; Pinto & Trailer, 1998; Zimmerer & Yasin, 1998), the topic of leadership in relation to project success has not been adequately studied. Determination of a successful project outcome is measured by the extent to which the project accomplished complex endeavors that met a specific set of objectives within the constraints of resources, time, and performance objectives (Cleland, 1964; Thilmany, 2004). Indications of successful project outcomes are the accomplishment of the specific objectives of the project as defined by the project stakeholders and are dependent on the combined efforts of project management and the project team (Johnson, 1999). Essential to the successful outcome of projects are the project manager and the project team (Berg & Karlsen, 2007; Blackburn, 2002; Cleland, 2004; Kerzner, 2006). The project manager is responsible for leading the project team towards achieving the desired outcome of the project (Cleland, 2004; Kerzner, 2006). The role of project manager combines human and technological resources in a dynamic, temporary organization structured to deliver results that include social as well as technological aspects (Blackburn, 2002). Leadership in a project environment requires the project manager to integrate and lead the work of the project team (Berg & Karlsen, 2007). Project management is not an isolated activity, but rather a team effort (Johnson, 1999). A team requires leadership in order to function effectively (Cathcart & Samovar, 1992). In the project environment, possessing management skills is not sufficient to be successful (Thite, 2000). Project management practices require that managers have

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knowledge and experience in management and leadership, and the relationship to project success (Berg & Karlsen, 2007). In a business environment it is believed that a manager makes sure tasks and duties are completed, while a leader is sensitive to the needs of people and what followers need to be exceptional employees (Maccoby, 2000). Thite (2000) suggested that integrating leadership concepts allows project managers to apply logic and analytical skills to project activities and tactics. Thite (2000) further suggested that project managers can integrate leadership concept by being sensitive to and working with project team members as individuals with needs and desires related to their work and careers. The discussion in this study, viewed leadership as the ability to make strategic decisions, using communication (Bennis and Nanus, 1985), and the human resource skills of interpersonal relationship, motivation, decision making, and emotional maturity, to mobilize project team members (Zimmerer & Yasin, 1998). There are, however a variety of leadership styles that may be applicable for dealing with the many challenges faced by project management. Situational leadership, for example, is based on the premise that the style of leadership, which may be appropriate for one situation, may not be appropriate for another (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). New wave leadership, a concept of team-based leadership, reduces the focus on top executives and allocates responsibility for organizational success across all sectors of the organization (Lapp, 1999). Transformational leadership is based on the notion of followership to a higher cause; that is, to focus on the goals of the organization rather than self (Northouse, 2004). Transactional leadership is the social exchange between the leader and follower (Bass, 1990).

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A leadership style that has been found to enhance the human resource skills of interpersonal relationship, motivation, decision making, and emotional maturity, required to mobilize project team members is participative leadership (Kezar, 2001; Schmid & Adams, 2008). Leary-Joyce (2004) refers to participative leadership as servant- leadership, which incorporates the leader’s ability to “include, discuss, take ideas, look for ways to help people come on board, and celebrate every success that comes along” (p.39). (Goonan, 2008) referred to North Mississippi Medical Center as an example that portrayed servant leadership enabling an organization to deliver quality products and services. This hospital, the largest rural hospital in the United States was awarded the coveted 2006 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. The hospital attributed its success to its leaders’ adoption of servant leadership principles. Servant-leadership represents a model of leadership in which the leader assumes a supportive, service orientated role among stakeholders and followers (Greenleaf, 1977). The leader serves by building the skills of followers, removing obstacles, encouraging innovation, and empowering creative problem solving (Spears, 2004). The characteristics associated with servant leadership include incorporating active listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and community building (Spears, 2002). An examination of servant leadership relative to project performance may provide project managers information with which to improve leadership acumen and project outcomes. To that end, this study investigated the relationship between project outcomes and servant leadership. Despite the use of project management methodologies the number of failed projects is still high (Chabursky, 2005; Cleland, 1964; Elton & Roe, 1998; Finch, 2003;

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Hyvari, 2006; Matta & Ashkenas, 2003; Pinto & Prescott, 1988; Sumner, Bock, & Giamartino, 2006). It is believed that leadership is a needed competency for successful project outcomes (Elton & Roe, 1998; Kerzner, 2006), yet there is limited empirical research linking leadership to project performance. It is believed that servant leadership enhances the human resource skills necessary to mobilize project teams (Schmid & Adams, 2008). The call for a study of these areas led to this research. The objective of this research was to provide additional insight into leadership within project management by determining whether there is a relationship between project outcomes and servant leadership.

Background A study by Hauschildt et al. (2000) concluded that a project’s technical components make up only 50% of the challenge of executing and completing a project. The authors further contended that the other 50% of the challenge involved the organizational and human aspects of leadership and team building/collaboration, with the majority of the human element being ascribed to leadership. Neuhauser (2007) asserted that project managers have a dual responsibility when managing a project: (a) managing the technical components of the project (plans, schedules, budgets, statistical analysis, monitoring, and control involved in the various knowledge areas and processes), and (b) managing the people in such a way to motivate the team to successfully complete the project goals. Srica (2008) argued that since the late 1990s project management has experienced a shift toward a stronger emphasis and focus on the organizational and

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human aspects of project work. This is in comparison to the past, where the emphasis was more on the technical aspects of project accomplishment. Kloppenborg and Opfer (2002), in a detailed review of project management research, found that the focus of project management research in the 1960s to 1990s concentrated on the elements of planning and scheduling. In the 1990s the emphasis was in the area of scheduling, control, and automated tools, which led to research in the area of life cycle costing and risk management planning. In the late 1990s research into team building and leadership emerged (Shenhar & Dvir, 2007). The emphasis placed on leadership and human relations contributed to increased efficiency in addressing the problems encountered in the project process (Johnson, 1999). The development of better processes and the organizing of teams more effectively resulted from an increased emphasis on leadership and human resources (Kloppenborg & Opfer, 2002). Achieving successful project outcomes require the combination of technical and leadership competencies (Hyvari, 2000, 2002; Zimmerer & Yasin, 1998). Many project management processes and techniques (planning, scheduling, control, and automated tools) exist for tracking and measuring the technical elements of projects. The processes and methods do not, generally, track or measure human elements of managing people such as communication, building relationships, resolving conflict, and team engagement or motivation (Kloppenborg & Opfer, 2002). It is believed that leadership competencies are required to enable project management to effectively use human resource skills to improve project outcomes (Schmid & Adams, 2008). Despite the recent emphasis on leadership, the numbers of projects that fail to achieve successful outcomes are still alarmingly high (Morris, 2008; Shenhar & Dvir,

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2007; Skaistis, 2007) often ranging between 66% and 90% (Besner & Hobbs, 2006; McCormick, 2006; Standish Group, 1994, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009; Zhang et al, 2002; Zhang & Faerman, 2007). Many projects continue to fail despite the use of established project methods and techniques as the leadership competency required for successful project outcomes have been found lacking (Belassi & Tukel, 1996; Chabursky, 2005; Cleland, 1964; Elton & Roe, 1998; Finch, 2003; Hyvari, 2006; Matta & Ashkenas, 2003; Pinto & Prescott, 1988; Sumner, et al, 2006; Zimmerer & Yasin, 1998). Yet, previous research has stopped short of identifying leadership as a factor that has affected or influenced project outcomes. Project managers draw on a variety of leadership approaches that are not necessarily effective, due to the absence of formal leadership training among project managers (Einsiedel, 1987; Pinto & Trailer, 1998; Pinto et al., 1998; Shenhar, 2001; Skipper & Bell, 2006; Turner & Muller, 2005). The basic principles and methodology that defines the approach to project management are defined by the Project Management Body of Knowledge, but this body does not provide guidelines for leadership in a project environment (Pomfret, 2008). The successful attainment of organizational goals and objectives is largely determined by the quality of relationship that exists between the organization’s leaders and followers (Heifetz & Laurie, 2001). Leaders are usually at the forefront of directing activities yet a leader’s success is heavily reliant on the level of support obtained from followers (Hollander, 1992; Scandura, 1999). The early theories exploring the relationship of leaders and followers were more focused on the leader, particularly how leadership behavior influenced follower attitudes, motivation, and how such behavior

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affected group effectiveness (Bass, 1985, 1990; Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Hollander, 1978, 1992). Later theories sought to more strongly identify the importance of the follower in supporting leaders in the accomplishment of organizational goals (Bennis, 1999; Dirks, 2000; Scandura, 1999). Burns, (1978) sought to establish that leadership can be viewed as either a transactional or transformational process. Transactional leaders tend to focus more on accomplishing tasks, influencing followers through goal setting, defined outcomes, and feedback while providing rewards for achieving the desired results (Dvir, Edin, Avolio, & Shamir, 2002). Burns conceptualization of transformational leadership refers to the practice of effecting a transformation in the assumptions and thoughts of followers and creating a commitment for the strategies, objectives and mission of the firm, company or corporation (Dessler 1999). Bass (1985) recognized as being responsible for the expansion and the refinement of the theory of transformational leadership, argued that unlike transactional leaders which operated in an exchange of value between leader and follower the transformational leader acted on “deeply held personal value systems” (p. 150). In transformational leadership, focus on the leader is directed toward the organization, and the leader’s behavior builds follower commitment toward the organizational objectives through empowering followers to accomplish those objectives (Yukl, 1998). While transactional leaders focus on exchange relations with followers, transformational leaders inspire followers to higher levels of performance for the sake of the organization (Burns, 1978; Yukl, 1998). The very definition of transformational leadership states the building of commitment to the organizational objectives (Yukl,

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1998). The primary focus of the transformational leadership styles is on the organization, with follower development and empowerment secondary to accomplishing the organizational objectives. In contrast, the servant leader is one where the leader focuses on the followers (Patterson, 2003). Servant leaders do not have particular affinity for the abstract corporation or organization; rather, they value the people who constitute the organization. This is not an emotional endeavor but rather an unconditional concern for the well-being of those who form the entity. The relational context is where the servant leader actually leads. Harvey (2001) stated that, “chasing profits is peripheral; the real point of business is to serve as one of the institutions through which society develops and exercises the capacity for constructive action”. (pp. 38-39) According to Patterson (2003), leadership theories, such as transformational leadership or transactional leadership, focused on the organization and were inadequate to explain behavior that was altruistic in nature, or follower focused. The acceptance of servant-leadership, which is follower focused better explains the altruistic behavior that is displayed by the leader (Patterson, 2003; Patterson, Russell, & Stone, 2004). The virtues of servant leadership are regarded as qualitative characteristics that are part of one’s character (Whetstone, 2001) and incorporate the ethical values of being good, excellent or trustworthy (Pollard, 1996). These ethical constructs defined servant-leaders and shaped attitudes, characteristics, and behavior (Patterson, 2003). The available material on servant leadership addresses primarily organizational leadership, and not specifically project leadership. The literature and empirical documentation specifically applying servant-leadership to project management is

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nonexistent or at best very limited. Much of the current work on leadership in project management relates to leadership as a subset of management (Gehring, 2007). In addition, research of management and leadership conducted in corporate and general management rarely included project management (Schmid & Adams, 2008).

Statement of the Problem Despite advances in project management methodologies many projects continue to fail for a number of reasons (Robertson & Williams, 2006). One of the main causes of failure is the lack of effective leadership and / or the style of leadership applied by project managers (Berg & Karlsen, 2007; Ellemers, DeGilder, & Haslam, 2004; Schmid & Adams, 2008). The need for effective leadership is accepted among academicians and practitioners of project management. Despite some study in the area of project management leadership, the extent to which leadership influences project success is not clear, nor is the style of leadership apparent. The problem is that projects continue to fail due to ineffective leadership. Empirical evidence suggests servant-leadership as a model that could contribute to overcoming many of the leadership challenges faced by project leaders. The objective of this study is to add to the existing body of project management leadership research by investigating whether or not servant leadership can be an appropriate style of leadership for improving project success. The study used a quantitative descriptive approach to determine whether a relationship exists between successful project outcomes and servant- leadership.

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Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to identify to what extent servant leadership approaches contribute to successful project outcomes. The objective was to add to the existing body of project management leadership research. The study investigated the factors that contribute to successful project outcomes as well as analyzed how servant- leadership relates to a selection of project management competencies.

Rationale Leadership is believed to be important to project success despite a limited number of studies on the topic. Servant leadership, for example, has never been studied in the context of the project environment or project success. Servant leadership does, however, include a number of skills that have been found to be important to the management of projects such as: Listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and community building. For that reason, the research herein will contribute new knowledge to the study of leadership in project management. The study investigated the relationship between servant leadership and project outcomes.

Significance of the Study The project management profession is undergoing tremendous growth worldwide as officials of corporations, governments, academia, and other organizations recognize the value of common approaches and educated employees for the execution of projects (Waddell, 2005). Ives (2005) acknowledged the implementation of strategic change has

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been a business problem for decades and still is a problem. The discipline of project management is a key strategy to manage change in organizations (Kloppenborg & Opfer, 2002; Leybourn, 2007). Project management techniques may be a partial solution to the problem of implementing of strategic change. Since the latter years of the 1980s, the links between the implementation of change and project management has been strengthened (Ives, 2005). Organizational systems are open, complex, and political, creating a greater level of uncertainty and contributing to an unstable and changing project environment (Ives, 2005; Thomas & Bendoly, 2009). The high level of uncertainty and change challenges traditional systematic approaches to project management. The emphasis of the traditional approach was more on project processes, tools and techniques and less on the leadership of projects (Smith & Kiel, 2003). This study is designed to determine to what extent servant leadership can contribute to project success. The outcome of this study may indicate that servant- leadership is present in a majority of successful projects. The results from this study could benefit project management practitioners by providing specific constructs that can be applied towards improving the current approaches to project management leadership. The study will add to the body of knowledge on leadership in project management.

Research Questions and Hypotheses The study was a quantitative descriptive inquiry examining whether the application of servant-leadership will influence project successes. The severity of project implementation failure and the potential for leadership to help improve the problem

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directed this study. The following research question guided the proposed study: What is the relationship, if any, between successful project outcomes and the application of servant leadership? The research also sought to support this primary question by investigating the effects that leadership training, project manager experience, project size, and number of team members, have on successful project outcomes. The following hypotheses were used to test the research question. H ο1: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager listening intently to project team members

Ho2: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager being aware of the needs of project team members.

H ο3: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager understanding and empathizing with project team members.

Ho4: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager being forward thinking in addressing issues.

Ho5: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager convincing rather than coercing project team members to respond to instructions.

Ho6: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager being committed to serving project team members.

Ho7: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager being committed to the growth of project team members.

Ho8: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager creating a sense of community among project team members.

Ho9: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager being intuitive in facing situations arising during the project.

Ho10: There is no relationship between successful project outcomes and the project manager striving to maintain good relationships with the project team members.

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Definition of Terms The following definitions relate to words or terms with meanings distinctive to project management and leadership in the domain of project management. Leadership: For the purposes of the discussion in the study, leadership is the ability to make strategic decisions and use communication (Bennis & Nanus, 1985), and the human resource skills of interpersonal relationship, motivation, decision making, and emotional maturity, to mobilize project team members (Zimmerer & Yasin, 1998) towards achieving the desired objective of successful project outcomes. Leadership in Project Management: According to Kodjababian & Petty (2007), characterization of leadership in project management was the ability to accomplish the following: 1. Motivate a diverse group of team members to follow the leader and build consensus on decisions that affect multiple groups,

Full document contains 144 pages
Abstract: Many projects continue to fail despite the use of established project methods and techniques as the leadership competency required for successful project outcomes have been found lacking. Previous research has stopped short of identifying leadership as a factor that has affected or influenced project outcomes. A project's success is, in part, contingent on effectively managing the constraints of time, costs, and performance expectations. In order to achieve this it is essential that the project manager possess and display appropriate leadership skills. Servant-leadership is recognized as a model that could contribute to overcoming many of the leadership challenges faced by organizational leaders. Empirical evidence indicates no evidence of research on servant-leadership that have established it as factor in project management. The objective of this study is to add to the existing body of project management leadership research by investigating if there is a relationship between servant leadership and successful project outcomes. Participants in this study were members of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and who have had some relationship with project initiation and implementation. The study used a quantitative descriptive approach to determine whether or not a relationship exists between successful project outcomes and servant-leadership. The results of the study indicated a strong correlation between the belief that servant leader behaviors applied to successful project managers and factors of project success.