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Relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: A correlational analysis of a retail organization

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Kokou Agbolou
Abstract:
The purpose of the current study was to look for the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction of employees of a furniture and bedding distribution center located in a northeastern state. The emotional intelligence competencies were measured by the new Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) test-University Version, and General Job Satisfaction score was scored by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). A random sample comprising 80 full-time employees was selected from a target population of 200 full-time employees. A quantitative method using correlational analysis was used to examine how the 12 emotional intelligence competencies predicted the dependent variable of job satisfaction. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that of the 12 emotional intelligence competencies, only one, the influence competency, showed a significant positive relationship to General Job Satisfaction ( r (78) = .249, p < .05). The other competencies of emotional intelligence were related to General Job Satisfaction, but the relationships were not significant. The results analysis also revealed significantly positive correlations among the independent variables of emotional intelligence competencies. The highest correlation among the independent variables was found between conflict management competency and inspirational leadership competency ( r (78) = .809, p < .01). The present research study did not find sufficient evidence to conclude any significant relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction.

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................... ix

LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................. x

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1

Background of the Problem .................................................................................. 2

Problem Statement ................................................................................................ 4

Purpose .................................................................................................................. 6

Significance of the Study ...................................................................................... 7

Nature of the Study ............................................................................................... 8

Research Question .............................................................................................. 10

Hypotheses .......................................................................................................... 10

Theoretical Framework ....................................................................................... 13

Definition of Terms............................................................................................. 17

Assumptions ........................................................................................................ 19

Scope ................................................................................................................... 20

Limitations .......................................................................................................... 20

Delimitations ....................................................................................................... 21

Summary ............................................................................................................. 22

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................ 24

Documentation .................................................................................................... 24

Historical Overview ............................................................................................ 25

Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction ....................................................... 31

Germinal Framework of Motivational Theories ................................................. 35

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Germinal Framework of Emotional Intelligence ................................................ 39

Germinal Framework of Organizational Change Theories ................................. 46

Independent Variables ........................................................................................ 49

Self-Awareness ................................................................................................... 52

Social-Awareness ................................................................................................ 52

Self-Management ................................................................................................ 52

Relationship Management .................................................................................. 52

Dependent Variable ............................................................................................ 55

Current Findings ................................................................................................. 56

Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 62

Summary ............................................................................................................. 63

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHOD .............................................................. 64

Research Method Appropriateness ..................................................................... 64

Informed Consent................................................................................................ 65

Sampling ............................................................................................................. 66

Confidentiality .................................................................................................... 67

Geographic Location ........................................................................................... 67

Instrumentation ................................................................................................... 67

Data Collection Procedures ................................................................................. 71

Data Analysis ...................................................................................................... 75

Validity and Reliability ....................................................................................... 76

Summary ............................................................................................................. 78

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS .................................................................................... 79

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Hypotheses .......................................................................................................... 80

Findings............................................................................................................... 84

Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 89

Legend: ............................................................................................................... 92

CHAPTER: 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................... 93

Summary of Findings .......................................................................................... 93

Implications......................................................................................................... 94

Limitations .......................................................................................................... 95

Delimitations ....................................................................................................... 97

Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 98

Recommendations ............................................................................................... 99

Summary ........................................................................................................... 101

REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 102

APPENDIX A: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION............................................. 128

APPENDIX B: INFORMED CONSENT AGREEMENT ............................... 130

APPENDIX C: PERMISSION TO USE MSQ TEST ...................................... 132

APPENDIX D: COPYRIGHT PERMISSION LETTER ................................. 133

APPENDIX E: DOCUMENTATION .............................................................. 134

APPENDIX F: JOB SATISFACTION SCORES AND ECI SCORES ........... 148

APPENDIX G: SCATTERGRAMS 1-12 ........................................................ 155

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Framework of Emotional Intelligence Competencies .........................................522

Table 2 Traits used in MSQ With Items Which Addressed Each Trait ............................855

Table 3 Participant Ethnicity by Gender given in Number and Percentage ...................877

Table 4 Descriptive Statistics of Variables in the Study ..................................................888

Table 5 Matrix Showing Correlation Coefficients between Variables ............................911

x

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Research design model

.......................................................................................74 Figure 2. Participant Ages Established in Ranges .............................................................84

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Goleman (1998) asserted that emotional intelligence (EI) helps leaders to create in the organization a climate of trust, respect and fairness susceptible to increase performance and productivity. Boyatzis, Goleman, and McKee (2002) argued that emotional intelligence was positively related to higher levels of success in the workplace. Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) concluded from the analysis of 69 studies that, “EI should indeed be considered a valuable predictor of performance” (p. 87). According to Emmerling and Goleman (2003), emotional intelligence accounted for variances in job performance that cannot be explained by either intelligence quotient or technical skills. Emotionally intelligent employees are more likely to demonstrate a better level of life satisfaction (Law, Wong, & Song 2004; Sy, Tram, & O’Hara 2006). Elfenbein (2006) implied that the performance of a team can be predicted by the level of emotional intelligence of the team members. Other research studies have associated emotional intelligence to higher motivational performances (Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2000a; Salovey & Mayer, 1990). While the literature and other related research studies associated emotional intelligence to numerous improvements in work and life outcomes (LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002), the research that links emotional intelligence to job satisfaction in the context of organizational change was limited. The current study analyzed the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction of employees of a furniture and bedding distribution center located in a northeastern state in the United States. Chapter 1 introduces the purpose of the study and discusses the importance of this topic in dealing with diverse challenges of job dissatisfaction that face the 21st century

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economy. Chapter also describes the problem and presents the significance of the study, nature, hypotheses, research question, theoretical framework, definitions, assumptions, scope, limitations, and delimitations; and concludes with a summary and a preview of the topics addressed in Chapter 2. Background of the Problem The increasing competitions, the fast technological development and the tougher economic environment have dictated the rapid pace of changes that occur within today’s retail industry (Broadbridge, Swanson, & Taylor, 2000). Thomas (2006) argued, “Ambiguity, complexity, and chaos threaten our cozy self-defined world” (p. 311). Bennis (1998) emphasized, “In the 21st century, we experience increasingly rapid change, and to deal with change, we have to unhinge our organization” (p. 108). Broadbridge et al. (2000) concluded, “Among the environmental stressors, many of which can be associated with the changes occurring within the industry, was the highly competitive and cutthroat nature of the industry, tight resources, customer attitudes and threats of violence” (p. 419). Although the changes are important factors of success in the modern workplace, they are also associated with environmental stressors that lead to job dissatisfaction. In order to maintain organizational competitive edge in today’s environment, many retail organizations have shifted toward organizational strategies that allow the delivery of higher customer satisfaction with limited resources. These strategies lead to insufficient staff, work-overload, time pressures and other feelings that create a climate of dissatisfaction among employees. Broadbridge et al. (2000) argued, “Many of the

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technological changes that had been introduced were regarded as easing the participants’ jobs, but they also led to negative outcomes” (p. 422). Issues relating to job security, work pressures, and deadlines have become the highest concerns of employees within today’s retail organization. Gribben (2008) posited, “Increasing pressure and workload, combined with office politics has raised stress levels, particularly in bigger companies, although more managers are achieving a better work/life balance” (p. 1).

The work environment has consequently produced a climate of uncertainty, frustration, alienation, and anxiety that results in a decreased in job satisfaction, which Igbaria, Parasuraman, and Badawy (1994) defined as “a primary outcome of work experiences that meet valued needs of individuals and thus represent a key indicator of quality of work life” (p. 175). Bennis (1998) argued that today’s organizational management must overcome to the difficult challenges of job dissatisfaction in order to restore employees’ commitment and unleash their creativity to benefit the organization. More recent literature and research studies revealed that emotional intelligence could assist in repairing negative feelings and restoring life satisfaction (Goleman, 1989). Dulewicz and Higgs (2003), and Dunn (2004) argued that a lack of emotional intelligence competencies such as self-awareness is associated with a decline in productivity, morale, and effective decision-making in the workplace. Muchinsky (2004) conducted further exploration of emotional intelligence in relation to other constructs. He envisioned that the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance would be fully explored in the future. Limited research has been conducted linking emotional

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intelligence to job satisfaction within the context of organizational psychology (Muhammad, 2006). A review of the literature on theoretical frameworks of employee’s job satisfaction revealed that satisfaction in the workplace is associated with motivation. Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) asserted that people are satisfied by hygiene factors that are intrinsic within the work. According to Herzberg et al.’s (1959) motivation-hygiene theory, these hygiene factors are motivators that create the feelings of job satisfaction when they are present within the work environment, and when these hygiene factors deteriorate to a level below what employees consider as acceptable, employees become dissatisfied. Lange (2008) argued that Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of need theory provided the steps for work in the area of job satisfaction. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory, people satisfaction can be influenced by different factors, depending on their level in the need hierarchy. The literature continues to discuss job satisfaction, and “despite the more than 5,000 job satisfaction studies published during the 20th century” (Lange, 2008, p. 2), limited educational studies explored the relationships between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction in the context of organizational change. Problem Statement With the increasing competition and continual change, many retail organizations are faced with a new economic rationality that results in employee apathy and detrimental behavior (Zeffane, 1993). Recent research studies concluded that emotional intelligence can assist in repairing negative feelings and decreasing life’s dissatisfaction (Goleman, 1989). Self-management, which is one of the components of emotional intelligence,

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includes the ability to control disruptive emotion, to think clearly, and to adapt to situation (Berman & West, 2008). Emotional intelligence has also been shown to predict employees’ motivation, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship (Sy et al., 2006; Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004), and life satisfaction (Martinez-Pons, 1997). Identifying relationships between the subcategories of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction was intended to help organizational leaders to become more aware of the importance of human capability in the organization. Several studies dealt with emotional intelligence and the workplace or productivity or dissatisfaction (Ajay Goyal, 2007; Brown, 2005; Busso, 2003; Chernis & Goleman, 2001; Elfenbein, 2006; Hosseinian, Fathi-Ashtiani, Yazdi, & Zahraie, 2008; Johnson, L., 2008; Millet, 2007; Muhammad, 2006). The purpose of the study was to build upon existing research studies on the impact of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction by exploring the relationships between the subcategories of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction in the context of organizational change. A correlational research study was conducted to explore the degree of the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction of a randomized sample of 80 full-time employees. The sample was selected from a total population of 200 full-time employees of furniture and bedding retail distribution center located in a northeastern state in the United States. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) (Dawis, England, Lofquist, & Weiss, 1967) and the new Emotional Competence Inventory Test - University Version (ECI) (Hay Group, 2006; Hay Group, 2007) were the instruments used to collect the data throughout this study.

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Purpose The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to look for the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies as measured by the ECI and General Job Satisfaction as scored by the MSQ of employees of furniture and bedding distribution center located in a northeastern state in the United States. The intervening variables of ages, gender, and years of service at the furniture and bedding retail distribution center were analyzed. The results of this study may provide additional information and knowledge to develop emotional intelligence-based strategies that mitigate the challenges of job dissatisfaction and enhance organizational performance in a disruptive work environment. The dependent variable of the study was General Job Satisfaction, the context was organizational change, and the independent variables were emotional intelligence competencies as defined in the ECI test, “emotional self- awareness, achievement orientation, adaptability, emotional self-control, positive outlook, empathy, organizational awareness, conflict management, coach and mentor, influence, inspirational leadership (and) teamwork” (Hay Group, 2007, p. 6). The data collection instruments were the MSQ (Dawis, England et al., 1967) to assess General Job Satisfaction and the ECI test - University Version (Hay Group, 2006; Hay Group, 2007) to score emotional intelligence competencies. The population targeted by the study consisted of 200 full-time employees of furniture and bedding retail distribution center located in a northeastern state in the United States. The correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics were used to examine the nature and the extent of the relationships between job satisfaction and emotional intelligence competencies.

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Significance of the Study Literature has generally associated the experience of change as an influential factor on employee effectiveness (Callan, Jones, & Martin, 2005). Employee attitudes toward change have implication on employee commitment, absenteeism and turnover rate (Adams, Eby, Gaby, & Russell, 2000; Freeman, McManus, Russell, & Rohricht, 1995; Mack, Nelson, & Quick, 1998). If emotional intelligence competencies can positively influence General Job Satisfaction, other experimental studies may help organizations to identify the variable predictors in order to develop employee programs to increase job productivity. The employee programs would be designed to encourage employees to use their human capability to cope with the challenges of job dissatisfaction and to motivate them to their full potential in a disruptive working environment. By understanding in-depth the association between emotional intelligence competencies and job satisfaction, retail organizations may develop business plans and employee programs to mitigate the effect of job dissatisfaction and ease the stressors experienced in today’s changing environment (Broadbridge et al., 2000). Employees, whose perceptions of their organization and environment are positive, are more likely to embrace change favorably, and display higher level of well-being and organizational commitment (Callan et al., 2005). Successful organizations are the ones that initiate appropriate actions, as the changes occur, to sustain job satisfaction and improve productivity (Karl, 2000). Positive correlation between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction could provide the opportunity to develop models of management, in which employees are encouraged to develop their emotional intelligence abilities.

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Nature of the Study A correlational design was used to analyze the data collected from the sample of 80 full-time employees out of a total population of 200 full-time employees of furniture and bedding retail distribution center located in a northeastern state in the United States. Quantitative correlational method is more appropriate for this study because it allows the investigator to show if the variables have positive or negative relationships. Creswell (2003) argued that quantitative research methods are the most appropriate methods for describing trends and explaining the extent of relationships between variables, while qualitative research methods explore the topic to understand the central phenomenon.

The instruments to collect data were the ECI, which assesses emotional intelligence competencies (Hay Group, 2006; Hay Group, 2007), and the MSQ to assess job satisfaction (Dawis, England et al., 1967). This study evaluated the relationships between the dependent variable General Job Satisfaction and the independent variable of emotional intelligence competencies, which are composed of competencies such as “emotional self-awareness, achievement orientation, adaptability, emotional self-control, positive outlook, empathy, organizational awareness, conflict management, coach and mentor, influence, inspirational leadership, teamwork” (Hay Group, 2007, p. 6). ECI test organized emotional intelligence competencies into four clusters, “self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and relationship management” (Hay Group, 2006, p. 3). Statistical analysis tools were used to evaluate the degree or direction of the relationships between job satisfaction and emotional intelligence. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize

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the sample and to describe the data collected, and correlation statistics were used to evaluate if the null hypotheses are true.

Each of the employees of furniture and bedding distribution center was assigned a number, and a random number table was used in the selection of the sample to ensure that the sample is representative of the target population. The study explored the extent of the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction of the sample. The correlational research design was suitable to this research because the aim of the study was to find out the relationships between the independent variables emotional intelligence competencies and the dependent variable job satisfaction. The correlation research design, as argued in Brown (2005), helps examine the degree to which “differences in one characteristic or variable are related to differences in one or more other characteristics or variables” (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005, p. 191). Correlational designs are critical in determining the significance of the correlation between dependent and independent variables that have similar characteristics (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). The aim of the study was to determine the level of the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction of a sample of 20 employees from each of four different locations of furniture and bedding distribution center. While correlational studies do not show causality, the relationships revealed through the correlations become a first step to showing associations between the variables (Waters, n.d.). The population of the organization selected for this study was composed of 200 employees (N = 200). For the purpose of the study, parametric statistical methods such as correlation coefficient were used to determine the extent of the relationships between job

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satisfaction and emotional intelligence. This study employed surveys questionnaires to assess General Job Satisfaction score and emotional intelligence competencies scores of the employees. The participants used Likert-type scale answer sheets to indicate how significant certain behaviors and attitudes on the ECI have been in the workplace and the extent to which they are not satisfied with the organization and its management. The data collected were analyzed and compared. Research Question The changes that occur within today’s organization are one of the major contributors to workplace stress and can be associated with a wide range of negative behavioral, psychological, and physiological outcomes (Cooper & Roney, 1997; Cooper & Schabracq, 1998). The following research question indicates the framework, in which the study was conducted: Within the context of organizational change, what are the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies as scored by ECI and General Job Satisfaction as measured by MSQ of employees of furniture and bedding distribution center located in northeastern state in the United States? The research question is posed to determine the degree of the relationships that exist between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of employees within the context of organizational change. Hypotheses H o 1: There is no significant relationship between emotional self-awareness as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 1: There is a significant relationship between emotional self-awareness as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ.

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H o 2: There is no significant relationship between achievement orientation as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 2: There is a significant relationship between achievement orientation as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 3: There is no significant relationship between adaptability as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 3: There is a significant relationship between adaptability as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 4: There is no significant relationship between emotional self-control as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 4: There is a significant relationship between emotional self-control as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 5: There is no significant relationship between positive outlook as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 5: There is a significant relationship between positive outlook as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 6: There is no significant relationship between empathy as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 6: There is a significant relationship between empathy as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 7: There is no significant relationship between organizational awareness as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ.

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H a 7: There is a significant relationship between organizational awareness as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 8: There is no significant relationship between conflict management as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 8: There is a significant relationship between conflict management as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 9: There is no significant relationship between coaching and mentoring as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 9: There is a significant relationship between coaching and mentoring as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 10: There is no significant relationship between influence, as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 10: There is a significant relationship between influence as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 11: There is no significant relationship between inspirational leadership as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 11: There is a significant relationship between inspirational leadership as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H o 12: There is no significant relationship between teamwork as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ. H a 12: There is a significant relationship between teamwork as defined by the ECI, and General Job Satisfaction as defined by the MSQ.

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Theoretical Framework The theories applicable to this study are organizational performance, and the associations between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction within the context of organizational change. The theory of motivation-hygiene of Herzberg et al.’s (1959) contended that individuals are satisfied by hygiene factors that exist within the work. When these factors deteriorate to a level below what individuals consider as acceptable, individuals become dissatisfied and their motivation toward the work is impacted. To understand job satisfaction or the attitude of people toward their works, Herzberg et al. (1959) developed a theory that evaluates the attitudes of individuals toward their specific job, the causes of the attitudes, and the consequences of the attitudes. Herzberg et al. (1959) recognized two separate sets of factors. While the first set of factors resulted in happy feelings and good attitudes, the second set of factors are associated with feelings of unhappiness or bad feelings. Herzberg et al. concluded that the factors that led to unhappiness are related directly to conditions surrounding a job and not the job itself. According to Herzberg et al., the factors acknowledged as determinants of job satisfaction are accomplishment, recognition, work, accountability, and progress. In contrast, the factors that contributed to job dissatisfaction are company procedure and regulation, management, salary, interpersonal relations, and working environment. Despite some criticisms, Herzberg’s theory created additional knowledge to the existing literature (Owens, 2004). Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of need theory provided the steps for work in the area of job satisfaction. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory, people satisfaction can be influenced by different factors depending on their level in the need hierarchy.

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Maslow’s theory contended that all needs are hierarchical, and as one need is satisfied, other needs then take precedence. The hierarchical needs are the physiological set of needs, the need for safety, the need to be loved, the need for esteem, and self- actualization. The theories of Herzberg et al. (1959) and Maslow provided the basis of understanding and evaluating the attitude of people relative to work. The emotional intelligence theory has progressed throughout generations of thoughts. Theorists considered emotion and cognition, as separate fields of study and research (Busso, 2003). Busso noted that cognitive researchers have turned their attention to human capacity to perform abstract reasoning, and emotion researchers have focused on the relationship between biology and emotion. Salovey and Mayer (1990) expanded the ability model, in which emotional intelligence is divided into four attributes: Ability to identify and communicate emotion and to accurately assess them in the self and others, ability to create ideas and thoughts using emotion and to associate emotions with sensations, ability to comprehend emotions and their components and ramifications, and ability to manage emotion in oneself and in others. The pioneers of the mixed model are Bar-On (1998) and Goleman (1995, 1998). The proponents of this model attributed emotional intelligence to a set of non-cognitive dimensions. Bar-On classified these competencies into five categories: Intrapersonal competency includes self-awareness, interpersonal focuses on social responsibility and empathy, adaptability demonstrates problem solving ability and how one adapts to the changing environment, stress management involves controlling impulses and showing resilience under stress and assessment of the general mood entails confidence and contentment. Goleman (1998) categorized the non-cognitive competencies into: Self-

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awareness relates to self-confidence and emotional awareness, self-regulation relates to innovation and trustworthiness, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Emmerling and Goleman (2003) illustrated “a framework of emotional intelligence that reflects how an individual's potential for mastering the skills of self- awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management are translated into success in the workplace” (p. 6). The framework is founded on emotional intelligence attributes distinguishing outstanding performers from the average performers that have been identified in research studies involving many corporations. Emotional intelligence competencies were shown to be the factors that distinguish “between outstanding and average performers” (Stubbs, 2005, p. 29) at work. Emotional intelligence dimensions such as intrapersonal awareness and interpersonal ability, and a narrow range of cognitive intelligence such as analytic thinking explained the difference between top performers from average (Goleman, 1998). Goleman (1998) argued that emotional intelligence account for about 90 % of leader’s success. Other theorists have argued on the importance of intelligence in life and Gardner (1999) added that people possess multiple intelligences. While moral intelligence is the capacity of distinguishing between right and wrong (Gardner, 1999), social intelligence is the aptitude to be aware of social phenomena and to respond effectively to this awareness in individual and social level. Gardner asserted that people with high-level morale intelligence are more aware of issues relating to personal, social, and emotional behaviors. Social intelligence allows people to recognize their personal ignorance and commitments.

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Emotional intelligence, which involves the understanding of individuals and others’ feelings in a way that facilitates guidance in decision making and action, is the most current measure of social intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1993). Even though Goleman (1995) predicted that emotional intelligence would “become increasingly valued as a workplace asset in the year to come” (p. 160), some critics have written about the theory and the measure of emotional intelligence. Some critics have raised questions on the scientific viability of emotional intelligence. Davies, Stankov, and Roberts (1998) contended that emotional intelligence is an “elusive concept” (p. 989). According to Becker (2003), emotional intelligence is “proven resistant to adequate measurement” (p. 194); and Matthews, Roberts, and Zeidner (2002) contended, “EI appears to be more myth than science” (p. 547). In contrast to these controversies, Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2004) contended, “accumulating evidence indicates that EI, measured as ability, predicts a variety of important outcomes” (p. 209). Recent research on the theoretical model of how employee adapt throughout organizational change revealed that employees who are optimistic about their organization and environment also have a positive perception of change, and respond better to change in terms of job satisfaction, happiness, dedication, and poorer absenteeism (Callan et al., 2005). Although changes can lead to creativity and innovation, changes can also lead to a loss of confidence within the workforce, increased in employees’ turnover, and decreased in productivity. Goleman (1998) argued that retention of employees, especially in a working environment going through changes, is a

Full document contains 172 pages
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to look for the relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction of employees of a furniture and bedding distribution center located in a northeastern state. The emotional intelligence competencies were measured by the new Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) test-University Version, and General Job Satisfaction score was scored by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). A random sample comprising 80 full-time employees was selected from a target population of 200 full-time employees. A quantitative method using correlational analysis was used to examine how the 12 emotional intelligence competencies predicted the dependent variable of job satisfaction. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that of the 12 emotional intelligence competencies, only one, the influence competency, showed a significant positive relationship to General Job Satisfaction ( r (78) = .249, p < .05). The other competencies of emotional intelligence were related to General Job Satisfaction, but the relationships were not significant. The results analysis also revealed significantly positive correlations among the independent variables of emotional intelligence competencies. The highest correlation among the independent variables was found between conflict management competency and inspirational leadership competency ( r (78) = .809, p < .01). The present research study did not find sufficient evidence to conclude any significant relationships between emotional intelligence competencies and General Job Satisfaction.