Preparedness for civilian roles and retirement: Successful anticipatory socialization through the Jamaican military's Human Resource and Organization Development Programs
TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES xii LIST OF FIGURES xiii LIST OF APPENDIXES xiiv CHAPTER ONE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Background 2 Definitions of key concepts 6 Theoretical Framework 12 Methodological framework 13 CHAPTER TWO 15 REVIEW OF THE RELEVANT LITERATURE 15 A Brief History of Retirement 15 Military Retirement 17 Rationale for Retirement 18 The Dilemmas of Military Retirement 19 The Significance of Work and the Dilemmas of Retirement 23 Anticipatory Socialization for Retirement Preparedness 30 Inadequate Anticipatory Socialization Programs 34 Benefits of Anticipatory Socialization 36 Gaps in Organizations' Retirement Preparedness Programs 38 Comprehensive Retirement Preparedness Programs 39 The Significance of Retirement Preparedness 41 Vl l l
Military Organization Implemented Retirement Programs 43 History of Human Resource Development 46 The Role of HROD Programs 53 Thesis Question 64 Significance of this Study 65 CHAPTER THREE 70 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 70 Methodological Framework 70 Objectives of the Study 71 Research Methods 72 Sampling and Data Collection 78 Data Analysis 82 Phenomenography 83 Data Evaluation 84 CHAPTER FOUR 86 Profile of the Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) 86 Profile of the Interviewees 89 Profile of Some Respondents According to Their Separation Experience 94 CHAPTER FIVE 98 RESULTS 98 The JDF's Anticipatory Socialization Process 98 Anticipatory Socialization leads to Organization Development 104 Experience of Anticipatory Socialization 107 IX
The British Military Compared with the JDF 114 Anticipatory Socialization for Acculturation 117 Anticipatory Socialization and Personal Development 121 Career Fulfillment and Satisfaction 126 Intra- Military Organizational Career Development 128 Anticipatory Socialization for Role Transitioning 130 Organizational Development and Role Transitioning 133 General Impressions about Preparation for Retirement 136 Anticipatory Socialization Results in Planning 137 Anticipatory Socialization Affects Adjustment to Civilian Life 141 Retirement Separation Syndrome 142 Re-acculturation from Military to Civilian Roles 145 The Impact of Time on Adjustment to Civilian Roles 147 Gaps and Disappointments 153 Recommendations for Continued HROD of the JDF 154 Organizational Satisfaction 161 CHAPTER SIX 163 Evaluation and Analysis of Results 163 Evidence of Anticipatory Socialization from HROD Programs 166 Evidence of Anticipatory Socialization for Acculturation 167 Successful Anticipatory Socialization Leads to Development 169 Anticipatory Socialization and Professional Development 170 Anticipatory Socialization and Career Development 171
Development Has Feelings 173 Organizational Development is Primary to HROD Processes 175 The Intent of HROD Programs 178 Anticipatory Socialization and Readiness for Role Transitioning 182 Impact of Anticipatory Socialization Programs 187 Acculturation and Orientation Affect Retirement Planning 197 Retirement Stress Syndrome 198 Wide Anticipatory Socialization Lead to Wider Career Options 200 Anticipatory Socialization Lead to Successful Adjustment to Civilian Roles 202 Military Qualifications and the Civilian World 207 Anticipatory Socialization and Organizational Expectations 210 CHAPTER SEVEN 215 Conclusions, Limitations, Recommendations and Personal Reflections 215 Conclusions 216 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study 223 Implications for Additional Research 224 Personal Reflections 227 REFERENCES 233 APPENDIXES 239 XI
LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Human resource type training and development programs 72 Table 2: Number of interviewees by rank, years served and reasons for leaving the JDF 252 Table 3: Rank structure within the JDF and their equivalence according to Units 103 Table 4: The HROD managers' perspective of HROD programs for anticipatory socialization 106 Table 5: Experience of HROD practices from the ex-military persons' Perspective 113 Table 6: The HROD programs offered by the JDF compared with those of the British Military 116 Table 7: Experience of anticipatory socialization by length of service among SCO's 256 Table 8: Experience of anticipatory socialization by length of service among JNCO's 257 Table 9: Experience of anticipatory socialization by length of service among SNCO's 258 Table 10 Experience of anticipatory socialization by length of service among SNCO's 259 Table 11 Experience of anticipatory socialization by length of service among SNCO's 260 Table 12 Separation planning and career satisfaction by rank and years served 139 Table 13 Separation planning and career satisfaction by rank and years served 140 Table 14 Comparison of the JDF and British Military separation adjustment and post military engagement 141 Table 15: Military Career Development and transition adjustment by time separated 151 Table 16: Military Career Development and transition adjustment by time separated 152 xn
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Retirement Crisis Syndrome 29 Figure 2: The Human Resource (HR Wheel) 52 Figure 3: Units and Areas of the JDF by number of respondents who Served in these areas 88 Figure 4: Profile of a male retiree who served for more than 25 years 91 Figure 5: Profile of two different Coast Guard Officers 93 Figure 6: The complete acculturation experience 124 Figure 7: Personal development from acculturation and organizational development 125 Figure 8: The retirement or separation experience 144 Xl l l
LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix 1 Survey Instrument for military organizations retirement planning 240 Appendix II Qualitative interview guide for HOD managers 246 Appendix III Protocol for qualitative interviews with Retirees 247 Appendix IV Informed Consent Form for Retirees 249 Appendix V Informed Consent Form for HOD Managers 251 Appendix VI Table 2 253 Appendix VII Tables 7, 8, 9, 10 & 11 255 xi v
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Role transition occurs throughout an employee's career in both military and non- military organizations. Acculturation and socio-psychological development is required when an employee enters, has career advances, and eventually retires from an organization. This study reveals the importance of anticipatory socialization during role transitions throughout one's career, and offers new knowledge on cumulative, multiple levels of anticipatory socialization during career progression. Anticipatory socialization may occur unwittingly, , but it is a voluntary and deliberate process of learning and education, aimed at preparing for a change in role in order to prevent the transition from being stressful (Wolpert, 1989; Kart & Kinney, 2001). While focusing on the pre-retirement planning and retirement preparedness experiences of members of the Jamaican military, this study has implications for all organizations. The study suggests that the tools used by the Jamaican military for human resource and organization development (HROD) contributed to anticipatory socialization throughout the military career, and to the successful adjustments to post-military careers and to retirement. Retirement in this context is considered a change process and as another step in one's career development, which requires preparedness for successful adjustment. Detailed examination was done to ascertain the experiences and perceptions of ex- military personnel on the effectiveness of HROD programs, in preparing them for career development changes. To this end, their perceptions of the role of HROD programs, in helping them achieve acculturation, intra-organization career, personal and professional development that lead to successful transition to civilian roles, were ascertained. The
Preparedness for Retirement 2 organization's policy position on the impact of these HROD programs on human development was also ascertained. This study identifies and analyzes three levels of anticipatory socialization for the requisite stages of personal, professional, and career development that result from a successful, developmental, organization encounter. These stages are seen as important to manage and empower intra-organization change that leads to action, and change that fosters reorganization and readjustment to roles in retirement, or separation from the organization. These stages are the three levels of change seen in organismic development. At the first level, there is personal and professional change that leads to realism and congruence for early acculturation. The second level of change leads to action for intra-organization personal, professional, and career development. At the third level there is the socio-psychological development required for adjustment to civilian roles and retirement. Data were gathered from questionnaires, military documents, and qualitative interviews, with members of the HROD staff and retirees from the Jamaican military. This knowledge contributes new theoretical understanding of anticipatory socialization for career transition, as well as the practical role of HROD programs and processes that contribute to successful retirement. The practical implications for HROD programs, both within, and beyond military organizations, are highlighted. The Jamaica Defence Force was studied, as an organization that practices mandatory retirement. The focus is on socialization for the military process, and preparation for non-disability military retirement and adjustment to civilian roles.
Preparedness for Retirement 3 Background Retirement, according to Somers (1988), represents another era of one's life. Desimone, Werner, and Harris (2002) narrow this perception to one's career development; they say retirement can be considered as another phase of career development. They assert that preparedness for retirement will avert and/or minimize the stressors that are normally associated with this period of change (Desimone, Werner, & Harris, 2002, pp. 461-2). The impacts and consequences of retirement can be viewed as spirals, with effects at the individual, group, community, and even national levels (McNeil, Lecca, & Wright, 1983). Therefore, this 21st century life cycle phenomenon, whether by choice or foisted, must be carefully calculated and planned for to ensure preparedness at all levels (Bradford, 1979). Military retirement, which is examined in detail in this research, differs greatly from non-military retirement. Not only is it mandatory, but it tends to occur at an age much earlier than that in non-military retirement. The military represents a unique culture within the general culture. This culture has been greatly influenced by the policy decision taken since World War II that creates a military that is characterized by members who typify youth and vigor. This means that, aside from the differences in general lifestyle between the military and civilian worlds, there is a difference in career tenure. This military culture of youth and vigor is focused on early recruitment and early retirement (McNeil, Lecca, & Wright, 1983, chap 1). What this means is that young people are employed in the military and "older young" people are retired. Mandatory retirement is replaced by voluntary retirement in many industrialized countries (Moody, 2002; Kart & Kinney, 2001). This is, however, not the picture for developing countries like Barbados, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and St Martin, to
Preparedness for Retirement 4 name a few, that still practice compulsory retirement (Caribbean Symposium on Population Ageing, 2004). The military organization, therefore, is an ideal site for this study from three perspectives. The first is that military organizations are considered forerunners in mandatory retirement (Kart & Kinney, 2001). Secondly, they are one of the earlier practitioners of on- the-job training and development programs (Desimone, Werner, & Harris, 2002). Thirdly, the Jamaican military is situated in a developing country where compulsory retirement is practiced (Caribbean Symposium on Population Ageing, 2004). Eldemire-Shearer (2001), in explaining the unique situation of the developing countries; refers to them as a "sandwich generation." She explains that the young in the developing world find themselves sandwiched between the old and very young who make up the dependency ratio of these populations. The young have the responsibility to care for and support these populations on either side, hence are sandwiched in the middle. She says the approach to ageing cannot be the same as it is for the developed states. In developing countries, the policies must be so balanced that they provide employment for the young, ensuring that this group meets the social obligations to care for the younger and older generations. The policy of mandatory retirement supports this concept of managing the dependency ratio, according to Graebner (1980). The role of the organization in preparing workers for retirement is often questioned. Bradford (1979) contends that the organization has a responsibility to prepare workers for retirement. This, according to Bradford (1979), is an ethical responsibility that prepares the employee to separate from the organization and live independently. This position is also supported by Desimone, Werner, and Harris (2002) who posit that late stage career development programs should address retirement preparedness. This responsibility is often
Preparedness for Retirement 5 shirked by many organizations (Bradford, 1979; Moody, 2002). McNeil, Lecca, and Wright (1983), in writing about the military organization, ask about the role the organization should play in preparing workers for retirement. They conclude that the U.S. military organization is not necessarily committed to this process. The implication for military engagement and disengagement demands acculturation; the civilians undergo cultural assimilation into the military and the military person must be prepared to be resocialized into the civilian ways of life. This is so because of the cultural differences between the military and the civilian worlds. The military can be defined as having a mechanistic culture in that it is governed by strongly formed sets of sentiments and beliefs, shared by all its members. The young recruits must be socialized into this mechanistic military culture, for effective and efficient performance, and then resocialized back to civilian lifestyles for life and career satisfaction (Wolpert, 1989, p. 25). The more contextualist civilian culture represents role transition for the military retiree (Wolpert, 1989). The contextualist culture, according to Goldhaber (2000, p.296), is made of a conglomeration of factors, relationships, and activities that are constantly changing. Because of this constant change in the civilian culture, the military person making a transition to the civilian world requires a period of role resocialization to empower them for effective and efficient psychosocial adjustments (McNeil, Lecca & Wright, 1983, 75-117; Wolpert, 1989, pp. 25-8). This resocialization is defined by gerontologists as anticipatory socialization. Military workers in the Caribbean, depending on their rank and country of service, retire as early as their late 30s, while some remain until the compulsory age of mid 50s (Meade, 2007). Unplanned retirement and unplanned early retirement experiences may be
Preparedness for Retirement 6 accompanied by psychosocial stressors which pose special challenges for the retirees. These stressors and challenges may be manifested as role confusion and grief symptoms such as depression, fatigue, and aggression. Thoughtful pre-retirement planning is required to ensure adequate and efficient adjustment to this change in roles to minimize or avert these retirement syndromes (McNeil, Lecca, & Wright, 1983, pp. 23, 101-5). The HR wheel is a model that was used in this dissertation to describe a set of cyclical interrelationships between the primary human resource development (HRD) and human resource management (HRM) functions aimed at organization development (OD). The HR wheel is a graphic display of how these functions underpin and are integral to the support of the organization management and development processes (Desimone, Werner, & Harris, 2002, pp. 8-11). The HR wheel is important to this study in that the practice of the tenets of the wheel, according to Desimone et al. (2002, pp. 8-11), will lead to anticipatory socialization for the next steps. These tenets include tasks such as orientation, personal, professional, and career development, mentoring, and coaching for present and future roles. This study's emphasis is on the HROD processes which combine human resource development and organization development programs. Definitions of Key Concepts The definition of the key concepts used in this dissertation serves to provide greater understanding of the relatedness of human resource and organization development processes to the retirement preparedness process. Below are the major concepts and phrases that will be encountered in this dissertation. They include normal and military retirement, retirement preparedness, retirement planning, anticipatory socialization, organization and human resource development, and development.
Preparedness for Retirement 7 Normal retirement. The American College Dictionary (1960) uses the following words and phrases to define retirement: seclusion, removal from office, withdrawal into privacy, retreat of military force, and repurchase of securities by corporation. Therefore, retirement could be used to refer to people, place, or thing. Desimone et al. (2002) use retirement to refer to the transition from work to a non-work phase of life. To them, it is a normal part of adult development and late career development (Desimone, Werner, & Harris, 2002, pp. 461-2, 467-8, 483). Moody (2002) says retirement is that period of one's life that is marked by the cessation of salary and typified by reliance on pension as the primary source of income. This period provides new options for pleasure pursuits, leisure time, voluntary activities, and the opportunity to retool for a second career (Moody, 2002, pp. 251-4). Stein (2000) sees retirement as a period of 21st century bridge employment. To Stein, retirement has changed meaning from that of a period of permanent separation from work after a period of continuous employment, to one of intermittent employment after continuous work. This change has led to a cyclical retirement lifestyle marked by periods of learning, working, and leisure. In this phenomenon called bridge employment, the older worker is partially retired. Permanent separation from work is replaced by work which is self-created, part-time, occasional, or temporary (Stein, 2000, p.l). Military retirement. Wolpert (1989, pp.5 -6) says military retirement is a subset of "normal" retirement. His definition is based on the concept that in the American military, one can become eligible for retirement after 20 years of active service. This is the time when military retirement
Preparedness for Retirement 8 benefits can be realized. This definition covers "normal" military retirement and does not include retirement from special services within the military or disability retirement. In the Jamaican and British military systems, this period of active duty is 22 years after which there is entitlement to full pension. The Jamaican military system also provides for partial retirement after 18-21 years with a concomitant partial pension (Meade, 2007). In the U.S. military setting, retirement benefits are due only to persons who have attained their years of active duty and leave voluntarily, involuntarily, or because of disability. There is a separate system for those who are injured and disabled but have not attained the age for military retirement (McNeil, Lecca, & Wright, 1983, p. 27). Retirement for the purpose of this study. Retirement in the context of this study means that period of separation from an organization after a consecutive career engagement that entitles one to full or partial retirement benefits. In the case of the Jamaican military, this includes any military employee who separates from the Regular force after 18 years with entitlement to partial benefits and after 22 years to full benefits. Retirement Preparedness. Retirement preparedness in this context borrows from the concept of disaster preparedness. Disaster preparedness involves all the steps to be taken to prevent a hazard from causing a disaster. A disaster is the occurrence of a hazard that overwhelms one's coping capability. Preparedness recognizes that hazards are likely to happen in spite of efforts to prevent them. In order to prevent hazards becoming disasters, preparedness activities seek to put in place the requisite resources and capabilities to ensure effective and efficient responses to the hazard. These responses are aimed at the prevention or containment
Preparedness for Retirement 9 of a disaster (ODPEM, 1999). In the context of retirement, preparedness refers to all the steps before retirement to prevent negative impacts and/ or ameliorate the negative effects of the impact of retirement. In this dissertation, retirement preparedness is viewed as an integral component of organization anticipatory socialization. Retirement preparedness and planning programs. Retirement planning in this dissertation means the active engagement into thoughts and actions that will inform the decisions taken in the event of retirement. This process of planning is wide-based and provides for contingencies. Peterson (1984, p. 61) says comprehensive retirement preparedness programs include the original issues of finances and benefits, in addition to planning for leisure pursuits, housing, and employment. This planning process looks at attitude towards retirement and addresses the psychosocial issues related to the process. Anticipatory socialization. Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person anticipating change learns through education and training and "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships. The concept is also applicable to the preparedness for role transition from occupational and professional careers. It also addresses training for uncertainty. In the retirement setting, this concept is based on identifying and preparing for roles that one will acquire in retirement. The preparation involves the modeling of these roles (Kart & Kinney, 2001). Organization Development Organization development comprises a series of activities geared towards improving organization effectiveness. These include goal setting, strategic, and transition planning, and
Preparedness for Retirement 10 strategic visioning. The effective organization is able to solve its own problems while focused on the achievement of key goals. Organization development programs foster learning organizations with characteristics for adaptation to and readiness for change (Enos, 2000, chaps. 4-7). Human Resource Development Human resource development is defined by Desimone et al. (2002, p. 11) as the use of training and development, organization development and career development to improve individual, group, and organization effectiveness. At the individual level, the development is personal as well as career or professional. These steps are integrated and overlapping and are geared at learning and transformation of workers. Learning, which is often akin to education, is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities. This is not a result of the physical growth process but reflects the psychosocial development. These capabilities are related to verbal information, intellectual skills, motor skills, attitudes and cognitive strategies (Noe, 2002, p. 107). Learning is also a process of ongoing development. By learning, there is consistent addition to employees' skills and .knowledge to meet the changing and demanding environmental challenges (Mello, 2002). Education, which includes training, represents an organization's commitment to the employees' exposure to facilities and programs of learning. Training and development from the organization's perspective is defined by Desimone et al. (2002, pp. 10, 11) as the tasks focused on improving and /or changing knowledge, skills, and attitudes of employees for the benefit of the organization. It therefore embodies personal as well as professional development attributes. Training and development constitutes one of the first commitments of human resource development as denoted by the
Preparedness for Retirement 11 Human Resource Wheel (HR wheel). Training is typically focused on the now tasks while development is focused on future work activities as it increases the capacity of workers to perform present jobs. Development. This dissertation focuses on development from the human and organization perspectives. In terms of human development the focus is on development as an organismic process with a tripartite set of actions. In this type of development there must be permanent change which leads to action. This action must be taken resultant on, and reflective of, the change. There must also be reorganization for adaptation to the challenges of the environment because of the change (Goldhaber, 2000, pp. 162-3). Therefore organismic development which is personal and professional, leads to empowerment at the individual, group, and organization levels. The process helps the persons exposed to training to discover and /or better understand their own identity and how to get more out of who they are (Enos, 2000, p. 142). Personal development differs from professional development in that personal development fits more into personality type character traits such as self-confidence and assertiveness (Belsky, 1999, pp. 227-45). Professional development and career development are often used interchangeably. There is the tendency, however, to link career development with progress within an organization while reserving professional development to certain groups with specific codes of operation. Training and empowerment are the characteristic links between career and professional development. The processes involved in professional development ensure specialized skills sets, and are aimed at performance improvement (Desimone, Werner & Harris, 2002, chap. 12).
Preparedness for Retirement 12 Organization development in this context refers to the development of human and other resources for the advancement of the organization purposes. This includes ensuring that the organization can grow in productivity and profitability while being effective and efficient in maintaining its relevance to the environment (Enos, 2000; Wilson, 1999). Theoretical Framework Human development and human resource development specific to the organization are multi-factorial processes. These processes involve personal and professional development for the productive purposes of the organization, as well as the gerontological process of adult development as a life course. Human resource management literature covers anticipatory socialization as a process of education and learning for change management. The focus is on congruence and realism on entry, and preparedness for role transitioning on separation (Wolpert, 1989, pp. 30-41). Gerontologists view aging preparedness as an essential tenet of adult development. This process involves preparedness for active aging, productive aging, and healthy aging. These processes are successfully addressed when they are implemented early in the life course and across the life course (Moody, 2002). Aging and human development within the context of the organization is successful when it addresses the psychosocial preparedness for transitions. Hence, social gerontology, psychology, and psychiatry literatures address the issues of preparedness for late career development from the psychosocial level of anticipatory socialization (Kart & Kinney, 2001; Wolpert, 1989). The literature pertinent to human resource and organization development (HROD) is broken down into training and development, career or professional development, and organization development. This literature is important because it helps to identify the HROD