• unlimited access with print and download
    $ 37 00
  • read full document, no print or download, expires after 72 hours
    $ 4 99
More info
Unlimited access including download and printing, plus availability for reading and annotating in your in your Udini library.
  • Access to this article in your Udini library for 72 hours from purchase.
  • The article will not be available for download or print.
  • Upgrade to the full version of this document at a reduced price.
  • Your trial access payment is credited when purchasing the full version.
Buy
Continue searching

Parental intervention: Effects on reading comprehension skills in Black children in kindergarten through fourth grade

Dissertation
Author: Marilyn Gerlon Littles Williams
Abstract:
The intent of this quantitative experimental study was to investigate changes in reading skills of Black children when trained parents implement a home-based reading intervention program. The study engaged 70 parent/child dyads in an intervention and control group to determine whether training parents to utilize specific reading tools in the home would enhance reading skills in Black children. Pre and post-test Woodcock-Johnson III Test of Achievement scores measured enhanced reading skills in the children. Parents completed a pre and post-study Parent Survey that provided demographic and socio-economic data on the parent participants. An analysis of study results failed to demonstrate a significant change in reading skills between children in the two groups. Study data revealed a significant change in reading scores within the intervention group and demonstrated the valuable influence of parents on the reading skills of Black children.

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………. …...x LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….….xi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..xi Background of the Problem..................................................................................3 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................15 Purpose of the Study...........................................................................................16 Significance of the Study....................................................................................17 Nature of the Study.............................................................................................19 Research Questions.............................................................................................22 Hypotheses..........................................................................................................23 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................24 Definition of Terms.............................................................................................32 Assumptions........................................................................................................37 Limitations..........................................................................................................40 Summary.............................................................................................................42 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.............................................45 Documentation....................................................................................................45 Title Searches, Articles, Research Documentation, and Journals.......................46 Literature Review................................................................................................48 Historical Overview............................................................................................48 The Black and White Reading Gap.............................................................49 In-School Intervention Programs.................................................................50

viii

Parental Intervention Programs...................................................................53 Research Variables..............................................................................................61 Dependent Variable.....................................................................................61 Independent Variable...................................................................................61 Current Findings.................................................................................................62 Strategies to Improve Reading Skills in Children...............................................66 Conclusion..........................................................................................................76 Summary.............................................................................................................77 CHAPTER 3: METHOD....................................................................................79 Research Method................................................................................................81 Appropriateness of Design..................................................................................85 Research Questions.............................................................................................88 Hypotheses..........................................................................................................89 Population...........................................................................................................90 Informed Consent................................................................................................91 Sampling Frame..................................................................................................91 Confidentiality....................................................................................................92 Geographic Location...........................................................................................92 Instrumentation...................................................................................................93 Data Collection...................................................................................................94 Woodcock-Johnson III……………………………………………………..96 The Parent Survey/Questionnaire................................................................96 Data Analysis......................................................................................................98

ix

Validity and Reliability.......................................................................................99 Summary...........................................................................................................107 CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA.....................109 Data Collection………………………………………………………………..111 Preparation for Analyzing Data……………………………………………….112 Sample Population and Demographics………………………………………..114 Statistical Findings…………………………………………………………….117 Summary………………………………………………………………………130 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………132 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………134 Implications……………………………………………………………………141 Recommendations for Future Research……………………………………….144 Summary………………………………………………………………………147 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………...148 APPENDIX A: PERMISSION TO USE EXISTING SURVEY/QUESTIONNAIRE.........................................................................175 APPENDIX B: INFORMED CONSENT FORM............................................177 APPENDIX C: PARENT SURVEY/QUESTIONNAIRE...............................182 APPENDIX D: STATEMENT OF CONFIDENTIALITY..............................185 APPENDIX E: PERMISSION TO USE PREMISES, NAME, AND/OR SUBJECTS.......................................................................................................188 APPENDIX F: PARENT SURVEY RESULTS………………………………187

x

LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Theoretical framework…………………………………………….……..26 Table 2 Intervention and control sets……………………………………….…….79 Table 3 Demographic data on children of study parents………………………..119 Table 4 Woodcock-Johnson between group score………………………………..120 Table 5 Woodcock-Johnson III pre and post test scores ………………….….…122 Table 6 Parent intervention, children grade level, and changes in reading…….141

xi

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. NAEP scale score…………………………………………………………6 Figure 2. 2005 NAEP achievement scores…………………………………….……7 Figure 3. Black/White reading gap………………………………………….……...8 Figure 4. NAEP reading scores for Tennessee fourth graders…………….………..9 Figure 5. Tennessee TCAP and NAEP results……………………….……………10 Figure 6. Age range of children of study parents…………………….….……….115 Figure 7. Grade level of children of study parents…………………….….…...…116 Figure 8. Age level of study parents……………………………….……….……124 Figure 9. Education level of study parents………………………………….……125 Figure 10. Descriptive statistics of study parents…………………….……….…125 Figure 11. Annual income of study parents……………………………….…..…126 Figure 12. Descriptive statistics of income of study parents……………….……127 Figure 13. Employment status of study parents………………………………....128 Figure 14. Marital status of study parents……………………………..….….….128

1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Reading proficiency is the “bedrock of academic success” (Price, 2002, p. 64). Students who are reading at or above grade level by the end of third grade have the highest probability of attaining academic success (Price, 2002). Academic success typically refers to academic achievement demonstrated by learning ability, passing grades, and graduation from high school (Scales, Roehlkepartain, Neal, Kielsmeier, & Benson, 2006). Many Black students in the United States in kindergarten through fourth grade are failing to master knowledge and skills essential for reading proficiency at grade level, posing possible threats to their (Williams, 2005a; Fleming, Harachi, Cortes, Abbott, & Catalano, 2004). National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) reports indicate that many Black children fail to perform at or above proficiency levels in reading (NAEP, 2005; NAEP, 2007). NAEP reports documenting the poor reading performance of Black children reveal a substantial reading gap between Black and White elementary school children (NAEP, 2005; NAEP, 2007). Research studies on home-based parental intervention programs report success in improving reading skills in White elementary school children (Hawes & Ploudes, 2005; McGrath, 2005; Fiala & Sheridan, 2003). Studies on home-based parental intervention programs demonstrate enhanced reading skills and academic achievement in the children studied (Hawes & Ploudes, 2005; McGrath, 2005; Walker, Wilkins, Dallaire, Sandler, & Hoover-Dempsey, 2005; McWayne, Hampton, Fantuzzo, Cohen, & Sekino, 2004; Fantuzzo, McWayne, Perry, & Childs, 2004; Senechal & LeFevre, 2002; Faires, Nichols, & Rickelman, 2000). The home-based programs found in research studies, focused

2 primarily on activities for White children. Research was lacking on studies conducted exclusively on Black children in elementary school (Van Otterloo, Van der Leij, & Veldkamp, 2006; Fiala & Sheridan, 2003; Baker, 2003). This research study focuses exclusively on the effectiveness of a home-based parental reading intervention program on reading skills in Black children. The research question under study investigated the effect of a home-based parental intervention program on reading skills in Black children in kindergarten through fourth grade. An experimental research design utilized quantitative methods to determine the differential effect on reading skills in children in an intervention and control group. A group of 70 Black parents whose children participated in a local Developmental Clinic participated in the three-month research study. Chapter 1 presented the background of the problem, the problem statement, the hypotheses, and the research questions that guided this study. The chapter includes a list of definitions and ends with a discussion on the scope of the study, limitations and delimitations, and a conclusion of the findings in the chapter. The study continues with Chapter 2 which details historical and current literature addressing reading problems in children in the study grades, the reading gap between Black and White children, and interventions utilized to address the reading gap. Chapter 4 presents data collected for the study, an analysis of the data, and a conclusion. Finally, Chapter 5 summarizes conclusions derived from the data analysis and reveals recommendations for utilizing parental intervention and future research.

3 Background of the Problem Children in primary grades generally find learning to read a challenging experience evidenced by reading scores on national assessments (NAEP, 2007; NAEP, 2005; Conner & Craig, 2006; Black, 2004). The challenge of children living in at risk home environments where little to no parental involvement in reading activities occurs with the children affects the learning experience. Reports from the 1990s (Adams, 1990; Levine, 1994; Jencks & Phillips, 1998) indicate that one in three primary school students exhibited difficulty learning to read during the first three years of school. Almost two decades have passed and many elementary school children continue to struggle with reading even beyond third grade (Williams, 2005b). The implementation of mandates by states to retain children in third grade who fail to attain proficiency on state assessments has failed to reduce reading difficulties that persist after third grade (Williams, 2005b). Standards-based assessments are criterion-referenced to state curriculum standards developed to measure student learning of the core curriculum standards for each state and to determine the number of students who meet and fail to meet proficiency performance levels (Clarke, Stow, & Rumbling, 2006). Proficiency is determined by scoring in the point range that is determined to be within the cut scores falling between the lower or below proficient level of performance and highest level of performance or advanced proficient (National Assessment Governing Board, 2005). National and state assessment committees establish the cut scores for exams and establish curriculum and assessments to meet No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandates for proficiency in all students by 2014 (Aldridge, 2003; NCLB, 2002) NAEP results provide data on student performance from below basic to advanced proficiency on national standards-based

4 assessments. Included in the assessment results are reports on students attending schools receiving Title I funding. According to mandates from No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2002), all schools receiving Title I funds are required to participate in NAEP assessments. The goal of funding Title I focused on improving the academic achievement of disadvantaged students (U.S. Department of Education, 2005). Scores for students participating in Title I programs extrapolated from NAEP results demonstrate that even with Title I assistance, Black students failed to perform proficiently on standards-based assessments (NAEP, 2005; NAEP, 2007; Frattura, 2006). NAEP results indicate that Title I literacy programs in the classroom designed to improve reading skills and increase test performance of disadvantaged students including Black students in kindergarten through fourth grade fail to produce the desired results (NAEP, 2007; Conner & Craig, 2006; Frattura & Capper, 2006; NAEP, 2005; Black, 2004; Ogbu, 2003). NAEP (2007) results also indicate that only 16% of Black fourth grade students perform at or above proficiency level on standards-based assessments. Black is the term used on national standards-based assessments and on state assessments in Tennessee (NAEP, 2007; NAEP, 2005; Tennessee Department of Education, 2005) to describe African American individuals. White is the term used on the same assessments to describe Caucasian individuals (NAEP, 2007; NAEP, 2005; Tennessee Department of Education, 2005) and both terms will be used throughout this study. The National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) reports yearly reading scores from a random selection on a nationwide geographic and demographic sampling of fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade students (NAEP, 2007; NAEP, 2005; Perie, Grigg, & Donahue, 2005). The report includes scores from various ethnic groups including Black

5 and White children and indicates that reading scores for children defined as Black at all grade levels are significantly lower than scores for children defined as White resulting in a substantial achievement gap (NAEP, 2007; NAEP, 2005). This study focuses on the problem that school curricula and intervention programs developed to provide remediation skills in reading have failed to make a substantial difference in the number of Black children scoring proficient in reading according to NAEP results. Approximately 172,000 fourth graders were assessed in 2005 and 191,000 were assessed in 2007 (NAEP, 2005; NAEP, 2007). Despite the overall increase in reading scores, the reading gap between Black and White children only closed by two points between 2005 and 2007 (NAEP, 2007). States developed school curricula and programs to meet NCLB standards and instituted annual assessments to measure reading proficiency levels. NCLB also known as Public Law 107-110 (Mayers, 2006) reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to improve education, teaching, and schools for primary and secondary students for the purpose of assisting students with reaching proficiency in reading and mathematics by 2014 (Dale, Burton, & Guam, 2006). NAEP measures proficiency levels according to cut scores of 0-500 with proficient scores falling at 238 to 267 and advanced proficiency scores at 268 to 500. Basic level scores range from 208 to 238 and below basic falls at 207 and under (NAEP, 2005). Figure 1 shows NAEP results for Black and White fourth graders beginning with scale scores from 1992 to 2007. The reading gap diminished between 1992 and 2007 by a score of five and by a score of two between 2005 and 2007 reducing the gap score from 29 to 27. Despite the reduction in reading scores between Black and White students, a

6 substantial gap continues to exist demonstrating (NAEP, 2007) the need for continued efforts directed toward improving reading scores in Black children. 0 100 200 300 400 500 Scale Scores (0-500) 1992 2003 2005 2007 Yearly Changes NAEP Scale Scores for Black And White Fourth Graders Black White Score Gap Figure 1. NAEP Scale Scores (NAEP, 2007) Black students with low reading proficiency scores are at high risk for placement in special education and resource classes (Cohen, 2006; Craig, Conner, & Washington, 2005; U. S. Department of Education, 2003). Reports reveal a disproportionate percentage between the ethnic composition of public schools in the United States and special education placement. According to Obiakor (2007): 1. White students comprise 67% of the national public school population and only 43% of the special education population. 2. Black students represent 17% of the public school population and 20% of the special education population. 3. Hispanic students comprise 16% of the public school population and 14% of the special education population.

7 4. Other ethnic groups comprise 5% of the public school population and 3% of the special education population. Findings suggest a high incidence of special education placement for Black students in the public school system in America.

NAEP scores documenting achievement levels between Black and White fourth grade students provide additional substance to the continuing reading gap between Black and White fourth grade children. According to the 2005 NAEP reading scores for fourth graders shown in Figure 2, 13% of Black children read at or above proficiency level while 40% of White children were reading at or above proficiency level (NAEP, 2005). The 2005 NAEP scores showed a 27% gap between the numbers of Black and White fourth graders who scored at or above proficiency with 79% of Black fourth graders scoring below proficiency. Scores revealed that 60% of White fourth graders scored below proficiency in that same time span. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Proficiency Levels Below Basic Basic ProficientAdvanced Percentage Levels NAEP Achievement Levels 2005 Black White Black/White

Figure 2. 2005 NAEP Achievement Scores (NAEP, 2005)

8 Reports from NAEP for 2007 show that 16% of Black students performed at or above proficiency, which is an increase in performance from 2005 (NAEP, 2007). The scores for 2007 indicate that 49% of White fourth graders performed at or above proficiency demonstrating that the achievement gap between Black and White children increased (see Figure 3) from 27% in 2005 to 33% in 2007 (NAEP, 2007; NAEP, 2005). 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Yearly Changes 2005 2007 Percent Black/White Reading Ga p Black White Black/White Gap Figure 3. Comparison of Black/White Reading Gap from 2005-2007 (NAEP, 2007) Achievement scores for fourth grade students in Tennessee indicate a substantial reading gap between Black and White students that surpasses the reading gap in many other states (NAEP, 2005; NAEP, 2007; National Center for Educational Statistics, 2005). Scores for both 2005 and 2007 demonstrate an increase in the reading gap between the two groups as illustrated in Figure 4. Black students performing at or above

9

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percent at or Above Proficiency 2005 2007 Yearly Changes NAEP Scores for TN Fourth Graders 2005-2007 TN 4th Graders Black White

Figure 4. NAEP Reading Scores for Tennessee Fourth Graders (NAEP, 2005; NAEP, 2007) proficiency in 2005 was 9% and dropped to 8% in 2007 while the score of 25% of White students performing at or above proficiency in 2005 increased to 34% in 2007. The reading gap between the two groups in Tennessee increased from 16% in 2005 to 26% in 2007.

Tennessee administers the Tennessee Comprehensive Achievement Program (TCAP) assessment to measure student performance in reading and reports results as advanced, proficient, and below proficient. Since results for 2007 are unavailable until July 2008, data from 2005 documents reading performance of fourth graders on Tennessee assessments. According to 2005 TCAP results (Tennessee Department of Education, 2005), 85% of all fourth graders in the state performed at or above proficiency. Only 27% performed at or above proficiency according to NAEP scores (NAEP, 2005; The Education Trust, 2006; Tennessee State Board of Education, 2007).

10 When scores were compared by groups, 75% of Black fourth graders demonstrated at or above proficiency performance on the TCAP compared to 9% on NAEP and 94% of White students performed at or above proficiency on the TCAP compared to 25% on NAEP results (Tennessee State Board of Education, 2005; NAEP, 2005). NAEP results for 2007 indicate that 8% of Black fourth graders in Tennessee (TN) performed at or above proficiency compared to 34% of White fourth graders (NAEP, 2007). Results for the 2007 TCAP scores will be available in 2008. Figure 5 compares TCAP and NAEP scores for Black and White fourth graders in Tennessee for 2005 and 2007. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percent 2005 TCAP 2005 NAEP 2007 NAEP 2007 TCAP TCAP and NAEP Scores Comparison of TCAP and NAEP Scores for TN Fourth Graders All TN 4th Graders Black 4th Graders White 4th Graders Black/White Gap

Figure 5. TN TCAP and NAEP results (NAEP, 2005; NAEP, 2007) The Memphis City School System, which is the largest public school system in TN and the eighteenth largest in the nation, is composed of 87% Black, 9.5% White, and 4% other nationalities (Memphis City Schools, 2005; Benner, 2005). The school system has 112 elementary schools and 46, 418 students in kindergarten through fourth grade.

11 The Memphis City School system uses the Tennessee Comprehensive Achievement Program (TCAP) test as a standards-based assessment of children in grades 3-8 measuring student performances each year in several areas including reading and math. Proficiency scores demonstrate a significant discrepancy between Black and White elementary school students (Tennessee Department of Education, 2005). Test results for fourth graders in Memphis indicate that in 2005, 86% of Black fourth graders performed at or above proficiency compared to 96% of White children (Tennessee Department of Education, 2005). Scores for 2006 indicate that 81% of Black fourth graders performed at or above proficiency while 92% of White fourth graders performed at the same level (Tennessee Department of Education, 2007). The gap increased by 1% or from 10% to 11% between 2005 and 2006. A report in a local newspaper, The Commercial Appeal (Kumar & Abdullah, 2005), revealed that TN is one of several states that have relaxed performance standards on standards-based assessments for students. Kumar and Abdullah (2005) reported that questionable grading formulas used by more than 40 states, including Tennessee, are resulting in higher proficiency scores for students on state standards-based assessments allowing schools to meet proficiency standards outlined in the No Child Left Behind Act and meet Annual Yearly Progress (AYP). According to the U. S. Department of Education (Stephenson, 2006), states are allowed to enforce actions that assist in avoiding some of the No Child Left Behind mandates for meeting proficiency by national standards which has led to increased numbers of students accomplishing proficiency levels on state standards-based assessments. The high proficiency levels on state

12 assessments fail to coincide with NAEP results. The techniques permitted by the U. S. Department of Education allow states, including Tennessee to manage testing results to the advantage of individual states and reduces the accuracy of proficiency reports and performance levels of students (Stephenson, 2006).

The dismal percentage of Black students exhibiting at or above proficiency performance in reading (NAEP, 2005; Tennessee Department of Education, 2005) encourages the exploration of alternative intervention programs designed to increase reading proficiency levels for Black children and for reducing the gap in reading test scores between Black and White children. Results reported from the utilization of home- based reading intervention programs with parents of White children (Hawes & Ploudes, 2005; McGrath, 2005; Fiala & Sheridan, 2003) supports employing similar programs with parents of Black children. Home-based reading intervention programs with parents of Black children offer the possibility for improving reading test scores and reducing the reading proficiency gap between Black and White children. Literacy programs, classroom activities, and pullout programs have had limited success on improving reading proficiency in Black children (Kasmin & Farmer, 2006; Conner & Craig, 2006; Tivman & Hemphill, 2005; Black 2004; Ogbu, 2003). Over five million students in the United States have participated in basic skills reading programs since 1981 (Burnett, 1992) and the gap continues in reading proficiency between Black and White students. Congress enacted pullout programs such as Basic Skills Interventions, Title I, and Chapter I programs to assist students performing at low proficiency levels in achieving success at grade level (Alawiye & Williams, 2005; Perkins & Cooter, 2005).

13 Several schools in Tennessee received recognition as National or State Title I Distinguished Schools for 2006 because of exceptional student performance or for closing the gap. Exceptional student performance led to recognition for one school in the Memphis City School System (Tennessee Department of Education, 2007). While children participating in Basic Skills Intervention programs demonstrate gains in reading skills, parity with White children remains a problem (Alawiye & Williams, 2005). Research findings indicate that Black children require additional intervention to elevate and maintain reading proficiency (Perkins & Cooter, 2005). Researching the use of a home-based reading intervention program with Black parents and children proffers opportunity to determine the effectiveness of an alternate plan for reducing the gap in proficiency performance between the two groups. The NCLB Act (2002) recognizes the role of parents in a child’s education and designated parental involvement as one of four target areas for educational enrichment. NCLB mandates support the relationship between a child’s education in the classroom and parental influence in the home environment. An increasing number of scholars have recognized the important role of parents in assisting children’s reading skills and the limitations of parental intervention in the homes of many Black children (Hawes & Ploudes, 2005; McGrath, 2005; Faires et al., 2000). Parental intervention and early reading in the home are valuable in the improvement of reading skills and reading test scores in young children (Harris & Goodall, 2007; Morrison, Bachman, & Conner, 2005). According to the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics (FIFCFS, 2005 ) , Black elementary school children often fail to engage in daily storybook reading with parental involvement in the home compared to White children and reading skills and

14 standardized test performance are influenced by this lack of involvement (Roberts, Jergens, & Burchinal, 2005). Reports indicate that Black children in kindergarten whose parents read to them daily have higher vocabulary and literacy scores than children whose parents fail to read to them (Roberts et al., 2005). Young (2000) reported that the assistance of an “expert” produces independent learning in children. The teacher is an expert in a child’s learning in the classroom and parental intervention is a catalyst that influences the child’s learning in the home (Hawes & Ploudes, 2005). Parental involvement is a critical element in a child’s learning and is a valuable intervention tool for enhancing reading skills in elementary school children (Hawes & Ploudes, 2005; McGrath, 2005). Current and past research has focused on the success of parental intervention with White children, older children, and children with special needs (Nail, 2007; Green et al., 2007; Morrow, Kuhn, & Schwanenflugel, 2007; Hawes & Ploudes, 2005; McGrath, 2005; Faires et al., 2000; Edwards & Alldred, 2000). The programs focused on formal and informal literacy activities by parents in the home. Surveys were conducted to determine parental level of involvement with their children’s education and reading and other parents were trained by the researchers and teachers to engage their child in reading with the parent, reading aloud, discussing materials read, and engaging in activities that promoted word and sound recognition. Findings demonstrate that the investigated home-based programs exhibit success in improving literacy development and predicting reading abilities in children (Ferrara & Ferrara, 2006; Bailey, 2006; Senechal & LeFevre, 2002). Chapter 2 describes the results of this research study on home-based parental intervention and offers encouragement for similar effects for improving reading proficiency in Black children (Margolis, 2005).

15 Teaching parents of Black children to utilize a home-based reading intervention program provides an opportunity for educators to determine program effectiveness for improving reading skills of Black children (Chandler, 2006: Downey, von Hippel, & Broh, 2004). This research study focused on investigating the effectiveness of a home- based reading intervention program with parents of Black children in kindergarten through fourth grade in Memphis, Tennessee by measuring reading results in an intervention and control group of children. Routine pre and post-test results from the Woodcock-Johnson III assessment conducted in the clinic measures change in children’s reading skills and serves as determinants of program effectiveness. Score results on children in the control group and the intervention group where parents received training on techniques to implement a reading intervention program in the child’s home environment are compared and analyzed. Statement of the Problem Reading scores from NAEP results reveal a lack of reading proficiency in elementary school Black children (NAEP, 2007; NAEP, 2005; Craig et al., 2005; U. S. Department of Education, 2003) in the United States. Research studies demonstrate minimal success of in-school literacy and remedial reading programs on improving reading skills in Black children and reducing the literacy gap between Black and White children (Conner & Craig, 2006; Black; 2004; Ogbu, 2003). Research has shown the success of in-home parental intervention programs on the improvement of reading skills in elementary school children (Morrison et al., 2005). Research has also demonstrated the lack of in-home parental intervention activities focusing on reading with Black elementary school children (Hawes & Ploudes, 2005; FIFCFS, 2005; Faires et al., 2000).

16 This quantitative experimental study has investigated the effect of parental intervention on reading skills of Black children in kindergarten through fourth grade, ranging in age from five to nine, by training parents to use a home-based reading program. The research study focused on investigating the effects on reading skills of Black children in kindergarten through fourth grade after training parents to utilize a home-based reading intervention program. The intervention program included material from the No Child Left Behind guidebooks, Helping Your Child Become a Reader (U. S. Department of Education, 2005) and Putting Reading First (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2003). An experimental group and a control group consisting of randomly assigned Black parents and children from the local follow-up clinic and who attend school in the Memphis City School District were included in the study. Parents in the intervention group participated in training sessions to learn to implement the home-based program. Interested control parents received training on the home-base intervention program at the conclusion of the study. The procedure provided equal access to the home-based intervention to the control group of parents and children. The clinic psychologist administered routine pre and post- test using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement on children in both the intervention and control groups using scores to measure growth in reading achievement at the completion of the reading intervention program. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this quantitative experimental study was to investigate the effectiveness of a home-based intervention program using the No Child Left Behind reading programs on enhancing reading skills in Black children. The goal was to determine if a home-based parent program could be instrumental in enhancing Black

Full document contains 206 pages
Abstract: The intent of this quantitative experimental study was to investigate changes in reading skills of Black children when trained parents implement a home-based reading intervention program. The study engaged 70 parent/child dyads in an intervention and control group to determine whether training parents to utilize specific reading tools in the home would enhance reading skills in Black children. Pre and post-test Woodcock-Johnson III Test of Achievement scores measured enhanced reading skills in the children. Parents completed a pre and post-study Parent Survey that provided demographic and socio-economic data on the parent participants. An analysis of study results failed to demonstrate a significant change in reading skills between children in the two groups. Study data revealed a significant change in reading scores within the intervention group and demonstrated the valuable influence of parents on the reading skills of Black children.