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Paraphilic behavior & the use of facilitators in a serial murderer population

Dissertation
Author: Jack Cusator
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between facilitators (i.e., alcohol, drugs and pornography) and paraphilic behavior in a serial murderer population. The data utilized in this study was archival (n = 137) and consisted of predominantly United States-based serial killers from 1950-2008. For the purposes of scoring the data, a novel instrument (Facilitator and Paraphilia-Questionnaire or FAP-Q) was used. The FAP-Q consisted of a Facilitator Index, as well as a Paraphilia Index. The archival data covered characteristics of gender, age, socio-economic status, ethnicity and demographics. After an analysis of the data, the author concluded that there was a mild positive correlation between the listed variables. Unexpectedly, the data revealed a tendency for serial killers to use pornography after committing their crimes. This reveals a novel function for the aforementioned facilitator, instead of being utilized as a disinhibitor it seems to be more often used as a reward upon completion of their crime. This study contributes to the body of literature seeking to ascertain a comprehensive model of serial killers who engage in paraphilic behavior.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Signature page ii Abstract viii Chapters: 1. Introduction 1 2. Literature Review 6 The Continuum Begins: The Fetishist 6 The Foot Fetishist 7 Paraphilic Etiology and Development 9 Paraphilia and Comorbidity of Personality Disorders 15 Further Profiles of Paraphilics and Sexual Criminality 16 Hickey's Trauma Control Model 17 The Burgess Motivational Model 18 Purcell and Arrigo's Integrative Theoretical Model and Money's Biological Potential 19 Paraphilic Fantasy 22 The Escalation of Fantasy and Violence 28 Freund's Courtship Paraphilia 32 The Telephone Paraphiliac (Scatologia) 34 The Exhibitionist 35 The Etiology of the Exhibitionist 36 Two Types of Exhibitionists 37 The Voyeur 37 The Frotteur 39 The Final Courtship: The "Paraphilic Sleeper"(Somnophilia) 40 Money's "Marauding and Predatory"Paraphilia 42 Marauding and Paraphilic Rape (Biastophilia) 42 Hickey' s "Preparatory and Attack" Paraphilia 44 The Sexual Sadist 46 The End of the Continuum: The Erotophonophiliac (Lust Murderer) ... 50 The Connection: Facilitators (Alcohol, Drugs, and Pornography) ... 54 A Closer Look at Pornography: An Escalation of Violence 56 Under the Influence: A Recipe for Paraphilia and Sexual Criminality... 64 3. Methods 72 Research Questions and Hypotheses 72 Purpose of Study 73 Null Hypotheses 73 Participants 74 The Storage of Data 75 Instruments 75 in

Statistical Analyses 77 Procedures 78 Limitations 79 4. Results 80 5. Discussion 90 References 105 IV

List of Tables Table 1. Descriptive Statistics by Group 81 Table 2. Facilitator & Paraphilic Index Correlation Matrix 82 Table 3. Unpaired t-test for Facilitator Index 83 Table 4. Results from Chi Square & Residual Analyses for Time of Use x Facilitator type 84 v

List of Figures Figure 1. Unpaired t-test for Facilitator Index 83 Figure 2. Facilitator Frequency Before, During, and After a Crime 85 Figure 3. Facilitator Frequency Before, During, and After a Paraphilic Behavior... 86 Figure 4. Disinhibitionary Effects of Facilitators Before, During, and After a Paraphilic Behavior 87 VI

List of Appendices Appendix A: Facilitator and Paraphilia Questionnaire (FAP-Q) 112 Appendix B: Instructions/Guidelines for Facilitator and Paraphilia Questionnaire (FAP-Q) 115 VII

ABSTRACT Paraphilic Behavior and the Use of Facilitators in a Serial Murderer Population By Jack Cusator Doctor of Psychology Alliant International University, Irvine California 2009 Eric W. Hickey, Ph.D., Chairperson The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between facilitators (i.e., alcohol, drugs and pornography) and paraphilic behavior in a serial murderer population. The data utilized in this study was archival (n = 137) and consisted of predominantly United States- based serial killers from 1950-2008. For the purposes of scoring the data, a novel instrument (Facilitator and Paraphilia-Questionnaire or FAP-Q) was used. The FAP-Q consisted of a Facilitator Index, as well as a Paraphilia Index. The archival data covered characteristics of gender, age, socio-economic status, ethnicity and demographics. After an analysis of the data, the author concluded that there was a mild positive correlation between the listed variables. Unexpectedly, the data revealed a tendency for serial killers to use pornography after committing their crimes. This reveals a novel function for the aforementioned facilitator, instead of being utilized as a disinhibitor it seems to be more often used as a reward upon completion of their crime. This study contributes to the body of literature seeking to ascertain a comprehensive model of serial killers who engage in paraphilic behavior viii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Murder is born of love, and love attains the greatest intensity in murder. . . When one tears away the veils and shows them naked, people's souls give off such a pungent smell of decay. Octave Mirbeau The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between facilitators (i.e., alcohol, drugs, and pornography), and paraphilic behavior. The researcher examines several facets of paraphilia, including, but not limited to, erotophonophilia (lust murder). Paraphilia, as it would appear on a large continuum, will be explored to gain a better understanding of how paraphiliac's develop their sexual appetites and behaviors. This continuum will also investigate how these paraphilias move from being nuisance paraphilia, to becoming illegal in nature (misdemeanor to felony), to the ultimate lethal paraphilia—erotophonophilia. The continuum will further explore the etiology of paraphilia, as well as the role of fantasy in the paraphiliac's early development. Also, this study will examine the "courtship paraphilias," as well as other types such as preparatory/attack, as well as marauding/predatory paraphilias to ascertain escalations of violence and the progression and development of sexually aberrant behavior. Facilitators (alcohol, drugs, and pornography) that are often correlative with paraphilic behaviors and sexual homicide will be explored. The research question to be answered: Is there a correlation between facilitators and paraphilic behavior? There are literally hundreds of paraphilias, several being known as sexually deviant or sexually aberrant in behavior. The term paraphilia, according to Money (1990), comes from the "(Greek, para-, beyond, amiss or altered and philia, love)" (p.27). The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) states that "the essential features of 1

a paraphilia are recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving 1) nonhuman objects, 2) the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or 3) children or other nonconsenting persons" (American Psychiatric Association, p.566). Paraphiliacs are persistent in their sexual fantasies and/or behaviors, which vary in their nature. Additionally, another researcher had coined the term "paraphilia-related disorder (PRE))" when describing sexual endeavors that are accepted as normative within society, but might mirror paraphilias when they involve compulsion, impulsiveness, repetitiveness, or become addictive (involving intrusive sexual fantasies) in their nature and cause distress to the individual (Kafka, 1994; as cited in Saleh & Vincent, 2005). Many researchers had concurred that these types of behaviors included prolonged promiscuity, compulsive masturbation, pornography dependence, telephone scatalogia, and internet/cyber sex (Saleh & Vincent, 2005). Arrigo and Purcell (2001) have written: "Inquiries addressing the connection between facilitators and paraphilic activity suggests that alcohol, drugs, and pornography are positively correlated with sexual and serial homicide" (e.g., Hazelwood & Warren, 1989; Jackson & Bekarian, 1997; Ressler, Burgess, Hartman, Douglas, & McCormack, 1986) (p.9). The literature review will ascertain an etiological framework regarding the development of paraphilic behavior(s) and sexual fantasies that fuel this behavior. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be on all populations; including no specificity regarding age, gender, or ethnicity. Hickey (2006), opined the following regarding paraphilic development in men, and how with certain offender-types, it can gradually escalate: In paraphilia development, men affected by them often engage in several over a period of time. Most men who engage in paraphilia often exhibit three or four different forms, 2

some of them simultaneously. For those with violent tendencies, soft paraphilia can quickly lead to experimentation with hardcore paraphilia that often involves the harming of others in sexual ways (p. 172). The development of paraphilic behavior(s), regarding these individuals, suggests that a rigorous compulsivity manifests itself regarding their sexual acting out. They become more comfortable with their actions, as well as making allowances for the emotional and psychological underpinnings that correlate with these types of sexually aberrant behaviors. Further, Bogaerts, Daalder, Vanheule, Desmet, & Leeuw (2008) had stated that "most of the offenders who come to the attention of the criminal justice system or child protective system have one or more paraphilias" (p.22). In most cases, paraphilia is a disorder or condition that is diagnosed in males, but the literature has cited cases of female paraphilic behavior as well. For the purposes of this study, again, only Caucasian males' paraphilia will be examined due to its high prevalence, and, in order to gain further insight into the darker side of their paraphilic behaviors that result in the intimidation, terror, mutilation and, ultimately, the death of women and (at times) men. According to Kafka & Hennen (2002), they found that "In males, the commonly identified paraphilia-related disorders are compulsive masturbation, pornography dependence, protracted promiscuity, telephone sex dependence, and severe sexual desire incompatibility" (p.350). These paraphilias, at times, led some males to pursue more severe or illegal forms of paraphilic behaviors. It would be fitting to begin with the exploration of some milder types of paraphilia to offer an understanding of the etiology and development of these behaviors. To properly explore this behavior and its underpinnings, the continuum of paraphilia warrants exploration. 3

In examining several of the different types of paraphilia, it is important to explore paraphilias that are not illegal, dangerous, or violent in order to attain a better understanding of the behavior and its potential for a pathological direction. As stated above, paraphilic behaviors rest on a large continuum; from fetishism (sexual preference for objects) to erotophonophilia or lust murder (sexual gratification from the torture, murder, and mutilation of the victim). Additionally, certain researchers suggest that paraphilia are conceptualized as a continuum of behavior, ranging from mild, moderate, and severe; and some of these individuals frequently employ paraphilic fantasies for sexual excitement (Abel & Osborne, 1992). Some individuals engage in paraphilic behaviors that are object-oriented paraphilia (i.e., retifism—foot and shoe fetishism; statuophilia—arousal from statues; or xylophilia—arousal brought on by wooden objects; the latter two will not be discussed). These types of paraphilias result in sexual gratification, but because they are enmeshed with inanimate objects, they do not necessarily lead to the power and control of others. This individual does not have the burden or responsibility regarding their expending deep emotional and psychological investment into another human being (Hickey, 2009). It is important to point out that paraphilic behavior is born from an individual's attaining sexual gratification through the use of bizarre imagery and/or acts (Hickey, 2009). There is a distinguishing factor between the individual's usage of typical or nuisance-type paraphilia, and that person's practice of aberrant/illegal (sadistic and dangerous) paraphilia. The distinguishing factor states as follows: If two consenting adults engage in bondage-type sexual behavior, this could be considered a typical paraphilic encounter (with no legal implications), however, when one individual follows his aberrant (and often sadistic) impulses and harms an unwilling victim for his sexual gratification (regarding bondage), then this is considered aberrant, as well as illegal 4

in nature. Also, the behavior is only considered paraphilic when the individual needs and depends on the paraphilic stimuli, as well as the fantasy for sexual arousal and gratification (Hickey, 2006). These individuals become so entrenched and dependent in the paraphilic fantasy that it causes them significant impairment in several areas of functioning in their lives (Purcell, 2000). To examine the continuum further, it is important to place the names of certain paraphilias with what constitutes sexual gratification in the engenderment of these types of sexually aberrant practices. For instance, looking further into fetishism, the enthrallment with inanimate objects can cause impairment in other areas of functioning in one's life. The DSM-IV- TR listed that "Fetishism involves intense sexually arousing fantasies (recurrent over a 6 month period) involving nonliving objects (e.g., female undergarments), fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors that cause clinically significant distress in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning" (American Psychiatric association, 2000). Also, according to the DSM-IV- TR, the fetish objects are not limited to articles of female clothing used in cross-dressing (e.g., Transvestic Fetishism) or devices utilized to stimulate the genitals (e.g., a vibrator) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In the following literature review, the continuum of paraphilic behavior will be investigated. Fetishism will begin the journey as a way of ascertaining a further understanding of sexual aberrant behaviors. Also, along the continuum of paraphilia, the darker side of this disorder will be revealed in order to digest the level of sadistic fantasy that accompanies this behavior. Finally, the investigation will cite the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography and how they correlate with these listed paraphilias.

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW The Continuum Begins: The Fetishist The literature review begins with an operational definition of fetishism, and the role it plays in the sexual lifestyle of a paraphilic. Fetishism, as described by researchers below, consists of an individual's sexual gratification, and, completion of orgasm brought on by an inanimate object. This paraphilic behavior would be considered benign or typical, but could be suggestive of its becoming a further nuisance or an escalation into other aberrant avenues of sexual criminality if the individual makes the choice to seek further gratification through darker fantasies. Money (1986) defined fetishism by stating it is "a paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to, and dependent upon a particular talisman or fetish object, substance, or part of the body belonging to the partner" (p.261). [Note: Talisman, from Greek, telesma, initiation, incantation; which is something like an amulet or charm that produces extraordinary effects, as in averting evil or danger; Money, 1986]. Most of the research points in the direction of adolescence regarding the etiology of this disorder. Several of the personality characteristics of the fetishist denote similar characteristics of a certain percentage of the current population. Kenworthy & Litton (2006) stated that "the typical fetishist is usually described as someone who has not developed appropriate social skills and is emotionally estranged" (p. 157; as cited in Hickey, 2006). The fetishist is a person who is described as depressed, reserved, and inhibited, and may have devastating feelings of being 6

inadequate regarding the typical male, social role (Nagler, 1957, as cited in Hickey, 2006). This might appear to suggest that this type of individual may be suffering from depression, but the theme, when coupled with other personality dynamics, suggests an individual who could be capable of this type of behavior. The Foot Fetishist In regards to the development of the fetishist, some are enthralled with inanimate objects (e.g., shoes), while others are attracted to the feet (retifism), which are among the most common of fetishes (Kenworthy & Litton, 2006). A large scale study was done (N = 262 males) to ascertain their foot fetish. The Foot Fraternity, who is a large-scale mail organization in the United States, where members can mail order different foot fetish items, such as photographs of feet, videos and books on feet as well (Kenworthy & Litton, 2006). Less than 10 percent of these individuals had received therapy for this disorder, 89 percent of the respondents were white, with (88 percent) of those same participants reporting to be of homosexual orientation. These participants denied ever having negative events in their childhood that predisposed them to fetish behaviors (Weinberg, Williams, and Calhan, 1995, as cited in Hickey, 2006). Their study also claimed that 45 percent of the participants reported having pleasurable childhood memories, with no particular events that led them to develop a foot fetish; and 30 percent stated that they had masturbated, during their adolescence, to feet or footwear (Weinberg et al., 1995, as cited in Hickey, 2006). These participants were not diagnosed with fetishism nor were they clinical patients under treatment for this disorder at the time of this study (Kenworthy & Litton, 2006). Overall, fetishism or retifism can be looked upon as innocent, slightly deviant sexual behaviors of the paraphile's preference. However, depending on how the fetishist fulfills his 7

fantasy, and how he attains his sexual arousal and gratification, can connote an illegal or criminal act if taken to the next level, which many paraphiliacs have done (Hickey, 2006, 2009). Retifism or (podophilia), which denote foot fetishism, are explored further to acquaint the reader with this type of paraphile's potential to break the law. In detecting further characteristics of an individual foot retiphile, another intriguing finding came from Weinberg, Williams, & Calhan (1994), who stated that "58 percent of the fetishists stated that footwear that had never been worn by anyone was not exciting at all. . . . Several respondents indicated that they were especially aroused by footwear that had been worn by an attractive person" (Konrad-Torres & Nickchen, p. 167; as cited in Hickey, 2006). It appears that the true level of excitement and arousal comes from the person inside of the shoes (or with the feet) that provokes this sexually deviant behavior. Weinberg et al. (1994) study went on to mention, further, that two-thirds of the men who participated in their study reported that it did not matter to them whether the footwear was worn by heterosexual or homosexual males (Konrad-Torres & Nickchen, p. 167; as cited in Hickey, 2006). Also, Konrad-Torres & Nickchen (2006) cited the work of Weinberg et al. (1994), to include in their study and findings, that the connection with the living person was more important than the object itself (as cited in Hickey, 2006). This has implications for the potential for a retiphile or fetishist to commit a crime if the desire or impulse would be too strong to resist, and the pathway to that sexual gratification were to be blocked by unavoidable (unbeknownst to the victim) circumstances. Some investigators suggest that fetishism stems from early classical conditioning. Other researchers advocate that fetishists had been influenced by operant conditioning in their development. Konrad-Torres & Nickchen stated that these researchers argue that this population of paraphiliacs "initial experiences with a fetish object can be used in masturbatory fantasies, and 8

that the ensuing orgasm acts as an operant conditioning reinforcer" (Weinberg et al., 1995, p. 18; as cited in Hickey, 2006). Operant conditioning suggests that the development of the paraphiliac's excitation over the object, and, when coupled with masturbatory fantasies, this reinforces the compulsive behavior that recycles through a feedback loop and engrains itself within their ideations. Often, these reinforced, compulsive ideas/fantasies stem from one's childhood and maturate themselves as the individual becomes older. Paraphilic Etiology and Development The discussion of the continuum, which will examine several paraphilic behaviors, describes an overview of the etiological premise of paraphilia. However, further discussion of its etiology is required in order to trace its origins and conceptualize the disorder. Later in this study, when exploring the violent end of the paraphilic continuum, one grasps an understanding of the progression (from a deviant perspective) of how a paraphiliac begins to escalate and charter a course toward and through violence and reprehensible paraphilic behavior. It is important, also, to examine certain areas of etiological development (childhood and adolescence) to further comprehend its underpinnings. Examining some of the external and internal stressors or cues that manifest themselves through the development of sexually deviant behavior is warranted. Many researchers have examined this phenomenon in search of its origins and explanations. The etiology of paraphilic behavior continues to be researched in the field of forensics and criminality, as well as in the fields of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Many have investigated the reasons why, or how an individual manifests such behaviors. One way to gain understanding is to ascertain the progression (from its inception) of paraphilic behavior. 9

Additionally, later in this study, the "courtship" paraphilias are discussed to acknowledge more of the pathological nature, as well as the origins of this behavior. Some researchers have said that the natural history of sexual deviancy, and the age of conception regarding onset of the behavior, varies from person to person and depends upon the influence of the paraphilia in question (Saleh & Berlin, 2003). Paraphiliacs commonly report an awareness of their sexually deviant tendencies around the time of puberty (Saleh & Berlin, 2003). Even though the inception of sexual deviant behavior appears around the time of puberty, individuals usually do not engage in sexual offending behaviors until years later. Also, an establishment of sexually deviant behaviors does not appear until around the age of late adolescents or early adulthood (Abel, Becker, Cunningham-Rathner, Mittelman, & Roul, 1988; Abel & Rouleau, 1990; Bradford, 1993; as cited in Saleh & Berlin, 2003). What might cause this behavior in certain individuals? It is vital to examine the childhood and adolescence of a paraphilic person to make sense of the answers. Childhood becomes an important, as well as learned time in the early development of a person's psyche and psychosexual ideations. A young child's psychosexual development lays a foundation for future stages of growth (Healey, 2006). This psychosexual growth and maturity, including the ability to love, begins in infancy when they are lovingly touched all over their bodies (Strong & DeVault, 1997; as cited in Hickey, 2006). The opposite can also have devastating effects on a child's immature perspectives regarding sexual growth. If a child (at an early age) embodies feelings of inadequacy, fear, or aggression, by way of a dysfunctional family system, then by puberty these feelings may well be engrained (Hickey, 2006). The family system provides a wealth of developmental knowledge regarding its norms and values for sexual behavior. However, in the case of paraphilic development in the child/adolescent, it is likely that 10

the family system has become part of the problem. This, combined with additional stressors inside and outside of the home, creates the child's misinterpretations and confusion regarding his/her psychosexual development. Certain types of abuses in early childhood development have been examined to further understand their place in the etiology of paraphilia. Paraphilic behaviors have their roots within the early childhood development of these types of individuals, and, many individuals who have engaged in paraphilic behavior have experienced traumatic events in their early adolescence, usually in the form of sexual and physical abuse (Hickey, 2006; Arrigo & Purcell, 2001; Burgess et al., 1986). Regarding the personal histories of paraphiliacs who have committed murder, it was revealed that there had been evidence of physical abuse and neglect in their family/childhood histories (Ressler, Burgess, & Douglas, 1992). Witnessing incestuous behavior within the family, being a victim of incestuous behavior, and witnessing promiscuous sex within the family are among the contributory factors in the environment of that individual (Beauregard, Lussier & Proulx, 2004). These abuses, coupled with a child or adolescent witnessing, as well as becoming an active participant of these abuses, embeds memories and other cognitions that form a synthesis of pathology. Upon suffering these types of abuses, the child's self-esteem and ego-strength begin to deteriorate and the development of physical and psychological isolation becomes one of the main coping strategies of the child/adolescent. In regards to the above information, an adolescent is apt to explore outside of his home for guidance. Research has shown evidence that when children become adolescents, they seek information from their peers outside of the home (Healy, 2006). Additionally, it was stated that "Boys encourage other boys to be sexually active even if they are unprepared or uninterested and they must camouflage their inexperience with bravado, 11

which increases misinformation" (Strong & DeVault, 1997, p. 167; as cited in Hickey, 2006). Identity development, and sexual identity are two major tasks of the adolescent that end in a new definition of the self, and, this creates a metamorphosis of that individual's personality (Lerner, 2002; as cited in Smith, Wampler, Jones, & Reifman, 2005). This creates more confusion for the adolescent and can manifest itself into the utilization of unhealthy fantasies in order for him to find answers to his frustrations. The social environment offers many outlets for a young person's confused sexual dilemmas and potential outbursts. These researchers proposed that the first sexual offense by an adolescent results from the outcomes of individual, family, and social-environmental problems (Becker & Kaplan, 1998; as cited in Smith et al., 2005). The way that an adolescent attaches to his or her parents, how one perceives of the familial structure, and one's childhood in regards to the early quality of life are significant regarding how these individual's will relate to and value others in their lives (Burgess, Hartman, Ressler, Douglas, & McCormack 1986; Arrigo & Purcell, 2001). In their study on etiological factors regarding paraphilic behaviors, these researchers went on to state the following: All of the individuals either failed to attach with their most important supporters as children or developed discriminatory and limited actions of bonding with others. These unsuccessful collective bonds helped donate to the child's negative acuity of reality as well as their skewed thought patterns regarding sexuality (Burgess et al, 1986; Arrigo & Purcell, 2001). These researchers also suggested that the child had suffered from both normative and nonnormative events. The normative events included illness, divorce, and death, while the nonnormative included physical, psychological, and sexual trauma. These events had either directly or indirectly affected the child during his formative years (Burgess et al. 1986; Arrigo & Purcell, 2001). 12

Some researchers studied the etiology of paraphilia (sexual deviance) through what has been called "self-regulation." In a study of 95 sexually violent predators (SVP's), the following researchers attempted to show correlations as well as causal connections between self-regulation and paraphilic behavior, substance abuse, and antisocial behavior. In their multimodal self- regulation theory, and its etiological underpinnings of paraphilic behaviors, these authors focused on an individual's ability to self-regulate thoughts, emotions, and behaviors and their study utilized additional facets of their (subject's) knowledge and development; such as cognitive, behavioral, and personality psychology in an attempt to explain the etiology of sex offending (Stinson, Becker, & Sales, 2008). The results in the Stinson et al. (2008) study read as follows: "Self-dysregulation causally predicted both paraphilias (std. est. = 0.223, p < .05) and antisocial behaviors (std. est. = 0.508, p < .001), but not substance use (std. est. = .158,/? = .122). There was significant covariance between antisocial behaviors and substance use (std. est. = 0.468,/? < .001). Disturbance measures for each of the outcomes were high (paraphilias = 0.940; antisocial behaviors = 0.734; substance use = 0.965)" (p. 44). In an interpretation of their findings, it appeared that antisocial behaviors were correlated with both paraphilia and substance use, while their study had not yielded a relationship between paraphilias and substance use. The aforementioned findings, according to the above authors, were unusual given that there were frequent overlaps between those two behaviors. However, the correlation between paraphilias and antisocial behaviors did not hold after the author's controlled for self-regulation, but they believed that the shared variance was due to another cause—deficits in self-regulation (Stinson et al, 2008). The two behaviors were linked by a shared factor, which they had shown to be eminent from the analysis (Stinson et al., 2008). The author's admitted that this was a 13

limitation in their study, and that future research would be warranted regarding the relationship between these aforementioned variables. Other authors/researchers in the field who have studied the origins of paraphilic behavior have also made determinations regarding the concept of emotional dysregulation. It would appear that this has become a common factor in the development of paraphilic behavior. According to Seto (2008) and other researchers, the following was forwarded regarding emotional dysregulation: Emotional Dysregulation (problems in regulating one's mood, resulting in anxiety, depression, or distress) is a common factor in many of the theories reviewed here. Emotional dysregulation may impede the development of relationships with peers, and predisposed men may cope with their emotional distress by seeking sex with children (G. C. N. Hall & Hirschman, 1992; W. L. Marshall & Barbaree, 1990; W. L. Marshall & Marshall, 2000; Ward & Siegert, 2002) (pp. 81-82). Moreover, these types of individuals may be less inhibited in their behaviors, in particularly, if they utilize alcohol and drugs to cope with their feelings of distress (Seto, 2008). A study of juvenile sex offenders, who had been incarcerated for rape and child molestation, was conducted to ascertain these offender's ages at the onset of their paraphilic behaviors. Clinical interviews documented the histories of 1,025 paraphiliacs, which revealed that 446 (42.3%) had reported some form of paraphilic behavior prior to the onset of 18 years of age (Abel, Osborn, & Twigg, 1993). Other paraphilias that were listed correlated with these authors' table of paraphilic "average age of onset" shown to indicate that; (60) of the juveniles had onset of Transvestism by age 13.6 years, (48) juveniles with onset of Fetishism by age 16 14

years, (133) with onset of Voyeurism by age 17.7 years, and (50) with onset of Beastiality by age 17.4 years (Abel et al., 1993). This had suggested that the same process leading to paraphilic diagnosis in adulthood, also had functioned within the adolescent population, and this had produced identical reoccurrences of paraphilic diagnoses (Abel et al, 1993). Paraphilia and Comorbidity of Personality Disorders Many paraphiliacs have been embattled with the comorbidity of a personality disorder or have engaged in other deviant criminal activities along with sexual improprieties. Regarding personality disorders, and correlations made between them and the general criminal inmate population, these researchers concluded that sexual offenders are often characterized as schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, and even self-defeating within the realm of their personality (Bogaerts, Daalder, Vanheule, Desmet, & Leeuw, 2008). Conversely, the general population of inmates possessed the more standard criminal personality characteristics or disorders of antisocial, narcissistic, and sadistic (Bogaerts et al, 2008). Further, these researchers concurred with others while attending to the personality characteristics/disorders of paraphilic child molesters, as compared to the non-paraphilic molester. They found that there were significantly higher rates of borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, and depressed personality disorders among the paraphilic child molester population as opposed to the non-paraphilic molesters (Ahlmeyer et al., 2003; Derks, 1996; Dunsieth et al., 2004; Egan, Kavanagh, & Blair, 2005; Kafka & Hennen, 2002; Leue et al., 2004; McAlinden, 2001; as cited in Bogaerts et al., 2008). Finally, these and other researchers discovered that through their regression analysis the depressive personality types were statistically significantly connected with paraphilias, and, found that major depressive disorder was widespread among impulse-control disordered sexual 15

Full document contains 127 pages
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between facilitators (i.e., alcohol, drugs and pornography) and paraphilic behavior in a serial murderer population. The data utilized in this study was archival (n = 137) and consisted of predominantly United States-based serial killers from 1950-2008. For the purposes of scoring the data, a novel instrument (Facilitator and Paraphilia-Questionnaire or FAP-Q) was used. The FAP-Q consisted of a Facilitator Index, as well as a Paraphilia Index. The archival data covered characteristics of gender, age, socio-economic status, ethnicity and demographics. After an analysis of the data, the author concluded that there was a mild positive correlation between the listed variables. Unexpectedly, the data revealed a tendency for serial killers to use pornography after committing their crimes. This reveals a novel function for the aforementioned facilitator, instead of being utilized as a disinhibitor it seems to be more often used as a reward upon completion of their crime. This study contributes to the body of literature seeking to ascertain a comprehensive model of serial killers who engage in paraphilic behavior.