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Modernization, ethnicity, and nationalism: Developing a unifying national identity in multicultural countries formerly subjugated to colonialism

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Robert B O'Quinn
Abstract:
This dissertation examines the role of increases in rates of urbanization, adult literacy, and media usage in the development of a unifying national identity in multicultural countries formerly subjugated to colonialism. More than one hundred of the one hundred seventy five countries ranked by the United Nations 2006 Human Development Report were subjugated to colonialism and are multicultural with populations consisting of more than one ethnic group. The ethnic groups that populate multicultural countries previously subjected to colonialism were often united under coercion. Thus, if opposing collective consciousnesses react to each other vigorously, the potential for conflict in these nation-states impacts the potential for long term sustainable development. Emile Durkheim and Daniel Lerner theorized that the modernization process could bring about pluralism in diverse social environments. Utilizing bivariate and multiple regression analysis, this dissertation combines the modernization approaches of Durkheim and Lerner with data gathered via the fourth wave of the World Values Survey to gauge the degree to which the modernization process has impacted social attitudes and national identity in these countries. The study finds that (1) the explanatory power of the modernization process to explain variations in social change and national identity is very weak; (2) increases in the modernization variables education level, size of town , and frequency following politics in the news were related to respondents reporting belonging to broader geographical areas ("the world" rather than "my nation" or "my local area"); and (3) after controlling for colonial subjugation and multicultural status, the modernization process has a stronger influence in countries that are not multicultural.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT........................................... ................................................... ..........................ii LIST OF TABLES..................................... ................................................... ....................vii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.............................. ................................................... .............x Chapter 1.

INTRODUCTION....................................... ................................................... .............1 Context of Modernization Literature................ ................................................... .......6 Hypotheses......................................... ................................................... ......................9 Terminology........................................ ................................................... ...................12 2.

METHODOLOGY........................................ ................................................... .........15 UNDP Sample........................................ ................................................... ................16 UNDP Data Collection............................... ................................................... ...........16 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2008 Sample........ .............................................16 World Almanac and Book of Facts 2008 Data Collectio n.......................................16 WVS Sample......................................... ................................................... .................17 WVS Data Collection................................ ................................................... ............17 Dependent Variables................................ ................................................... ..............18 Independent Variables.............................. ................................................... .............20 Study Sample....................................... ................................................... ..................21 Research Method.................................... ................................................... ...............22

v

Multicollinearity.......................... ................................................... ..........................25 3.

MODERNIZATION

AND

SOCIAL

CHANGE............................................. ..........26 The Case for Modernization and Social Change....... ...............................................32 4.

MODERNIZATION

AND

NATIONAL

IDENTITY........................................... ....42 The Case for National Identity..................... ................................................... ..........46 5.

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

MODERNIZATION

IN

MULTICULTURAL

COUNTRIES

THAT

WERE

SUBJUGATED

TO

COLONIALISM........................................ ...........55

The Case for Modernization and National Identity in Multicultural Countries Formerly Subjugated to Colonialism................. ................................................... ....78

Modernization in Multicultural Countries that were Colonized and have One or More Remaining Indigenous Groups................... ................................................... ..83

Modernization in Multicultural Countries that were Colonized and have Zero Remaining Indigenous Groups........................ ................................................... .......88

Modernization in Multicultural Countries that were not Colonized and have One or More Remaining Indigenous Groups................... ................................................... ..91

Modernization in Countries that were Colonized but are not Multicultural ............93 Modernization in Countries that are not Colonized a nd are not Multicultural ........96 The Case for Age and Gender........................ ................................................... ........98 Summary............................................ ................................................... ..................101 Limitations........................................ ................................................... ...................103 6.

CONCLUSIONS........................................ ................................................... ..........106 APPENDIX A: COUNTRIES THAT WERE SUBJUGATED TO COLON IALISM (133), WITH HDI RANKING............................ ................................................... .........113

APPENDIX B: WORLD VALUES SURVEY – 2005 FOURTH WAVE. ...................117 APPENDIX C: REGRESSION MODEL ANALYSIS FOR CHAPTERS 2 AND 3....128 APPENDIX D: REGRESSION MODEL ANALYSIS BY CONTROL GR OUP.........130

vi

APPENDIX E: SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS BY CONTROL GR OUP.............135 APPENDIX F: REGRESSION ANALYSIS BY AGE AND GENDER C ONTROL GROUP.............................................. ................................................... ..........................137

BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................... ................................................... .................143

vii

LIST OF TABLES Table

1. Summary Statistics for all UNDP Countries, n = 175............................................5

3. National Percentages for Modernization and Soci al Change Variables by Country, n = 18............................................. ................................................... ....................33

3.1. Influence of Independent Modernization Variab les size of town , urbanization , education level , adult literacy , and frequency following politics on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending society, overall hap piness, belief free choice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable , n = 18.................................36

3.2. Regression Analysis of Independent Moderniza tion Variables frequency following politics , education level , and size of town on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending society, overall happiness, belief free c hoice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable , n = 18,190....................................... ........................37

3.3. Regression Analysis of Independent Variable

socioeconomic status on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending socie ty, overall happiness, belief free choice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable , n = 26,650........39

3.4. Regression Analysis of Independent Variable Human Development Index on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending socie ty, overall happiness, belief free choice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable , n = 18...............40

4. National Percentages for Participation Society Variables by Country, n = 18.....49

4.1. Influence of Independent Modernization Variab les size of town , urbanization , education level , adult literacy , and frequency following politics on Dependent National Identity Variables geographic group belonging to first and national pride , n = 18........................................... ................................................... ............51

4.2. Regression Analysis of Independent Modernizat ion Variables frequency following

viii

politics , education level , and size of town on Dependent National Identity Variables geographical group belonging to first and national pride , n = 18,190 .. ..............52

4.3. Regression Analysis of Independent Variable socioeconomic status on Dependent National Identity Variables geographic group belonging to first and national pride , n = 26,650....................................... .............................................53

4.4. Regression Analysis of Independent Variable Human Development Index on Dependent National Identity Variables geographical group belonging to first and national pride , n = 18........................................... ................................................53

5. Means for Independent Modernization Variables frequency following politics in the news, mid level education, size of town great er than 20,000, Dependent Tradition Variables religion important, scientific advances are helpfu l, attitude society should be defended, Dependent Individuality Variables overall happiness, free choice impacts life, homosexuality is justifia ble, and Dependent National Identity Variables belong to country before locality or region, stron g national pride by Control Group with Rankings for each Variable’s Mean by Control Group, n = 18...................................... ................................................... ...............84

5.1. Regression Analysis of Independent Modernizat ion Variables frequency following politics , education level , and size of town on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending society, overall happiness, belief free c hoice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable and Dependent National Identity Variables geographic group belonging to first and national pride

for Multicultural Colonized Countries with at least One Remaining Ind igenous Group, n = 4,027 .

................................................... ................................................... .........................87

5.2. Regression Analysis of Independent Modernizat ion Variables frequency following politics , education level , and size of town on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending society, overall happiness, belief free c hoice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable and Dependent National Identity Variables geographic group belonging to first and national pride

for Multicultural Colonized Countries with Zero Remaining Indigenous Groups, n = 3,720.........90

5.3. Regression Analysis of Independent Modernizat ion Variables frequency following politics , education level , and size of town on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending society, overall happiness, belief free c hoice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable and Dependent National Identity Variables geographic group belonging to first and national pride

for Multicultural Colonized Countries with Zero Remaining Indigenous Groups, n = 1,827.........92

ix

5.4. Regression Analysis of Independent Modernizat ion Variables frequency following politics , education level , and size of town on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending society, overall happiness, belief free c hoice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable and Dependent National Identity Variables geographic group belonging to first and national pride

for Multicultural Colonized Countries that were Colonized but are not Multicultural, n = 4,093...95

5.5. Regression Analysis of Independent Modernizat ion Variables frequency following politics , education level , and size of town on Dependent Social Change Variables importance of religion, belief scientific advances help, basic attitude about defending society, overall happiness, belief free c hoice impacts life, and belief homosexuality is justifiable and Dependent National Identity Variables geographic group belonging to first and national pride

for Multicultural Colonized Countries with Zero Remaining Indigenous Groups, n = 4,515.........97

5.6. National Identity Variables’ Means and Freque ncies by Age and Gender, n = 16,842 ............................................ ................................................... ..................100

5.6a. Percentage of Significant Relationships by C ontrol Group................................102 5.7 Mean Ranking Totals for Tradition, Individuali ty, and National Identity Variables by Control Group................................... ................................................... ..........103

6. 1950 Urbanization and Literacy Rates, n = 73 .. ................................................107

6.1. Modern Literacy Rates for Countries with Low Urbanization Rates ................108

x

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. Modernization and National Identity in Countri es Formerly Subjugated to Colonialism........................................ ................................................... ................11

2. Symbolic Boundaries Typology.................. ................................................... ......70 3. New York...................................... ................................................... .....................78

1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The goal of this dissertation is to analyze the rel ationship between modernization and national identity development in multicultural countries that were subjugated to colonialism. I examine the influence of increases in urbanization rates, adult literacy rates, and national rates of media participation on the importance of the individual, traditional ideas, and national identity. I take t he analysis a step further by investigating the historical impact of colonialization on the mod ernization process and the development of national identity in multicultural c ountries that were subjugated to colonialism. I became highly interested in the importanc e of the relationship between modernization, colonialism and national identity du ring my tenure as a Peace Corps volunteer in the then newly formed Kyrgyz Republic. I was part of the fifth group of volunteers to serve in Kyrgyzstan since the attainm ent of Kyrgyz independence from Russia. For twenty four months I lived with a Kyrg yz family in the remote mountain village of At Bashi, located along the mountainous eastern border of Kyrgyzstan with China. Overall, Kyrgyzstan is a rural, mountainous country. Even in the remote rural outskirts of Kyrgyzstan, however, it was easy to ob serve how modernization under Soviet rule had impacted society. More people owned cars than horses in At Bashi, but every

2

car there was manufactured in Russia. The textbook s used in the school at which I taught were written in Russian, and lessons in English lan guage textbooks told stories of communist superiority to the West. People I met wo uld first speak to me in Russian before learning that I could speak Kyrgyz. There w ere two channels on television, when electricity was available, one in Russian and the o ther in Kyrgyz. The quality of programming on the Russian channel was by far a hig her standard. A number of newspapers were available at the post office, the m ajority of which were in Russian. In order to communicate in the Capital City of Bishkek it was a requirement to be able to speak Russian. During my first konnosh, or daylong feast, I was asked by an ak sakal (older gentleman with a long goatee) where I was from. I gladly explained that I was from the United States. However, he would not accept that a nswer. He was not satisfied until I explained the Irish and German ancestries of my fat her and mother. His conceptualization of being Kyrgyz was based on Kyrg yz cultural history that well predated the formation of The Kyrgyz Republic. It could be argued that this was because he lived in an isolated, rural location, but his cu ltural views had withstood a century of Russian influence. He was also literate in Russian history and culture, watched Russian television, and read Russian newspapers. It became apparent to me that being Kyrgyz to him had very little to do with being a citizen of t he nation of Kyrgyzstan. I believe the 550,000 Kyrgyz citizens of Uz bek descent, fifteen percent of the Kyrgyz population, would agree. Almost the entire Uzbek population in Kyrgyzstan resides in the Ferghana Valley, adjacent to the bor der with Uzbekistan. As recently as

3

June, 2010, approximately 100,000 Uzbeks were attem pting to seek refuge in Uzbekistan to escape ethnic clashes in Kyrgyzstan. Taking the ak sakal’s perspective into acco unt; I believe that multicultural countries that were subjugated to colonialism are uniquely di sadvantaged when it comes to the prospects of developing a unifying social solidarit y. I further believe the likelihood of this being true would be greater for multicultural countries that were colonized and consist of one or more indigenous populations. The practice of placing different cultures opposite each other was a common goal of colonialis m for the very purpose of stunting indigenous stability. The concept of national identity in multicu ltural countries has come to the forefront over the past twenty years with intra-national conf licts in Afghanistan, Bosnia, the Congo, Croatia, Iraq, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and Tajikistan. Even here in the United States, the in flux of Latin American immigrants has been seen by many in the public as a cultural battl e for national identity. A citizen of the United States may hear the words “national identity” and think, “I’m an American. We drove off the British, invented the automobile, saved Europe from the Germans and put men on the moon.” In the case of n ew immigrants to the United States, national identity may be found in its legal status or the hope for a better lifestyle. For many Americans, national identity is based on the C hristian heritage of the first pilgrims, and for others, it is the desire for independence t hat motivated the pilgrims to come in the first place. For a citizen of Kyrgyz descent living in K yrgyzstan, national identity may be a celebration of the 1995 independence from Russia, b ut remain a distant second to the

4

distinct Kyrgyz cultural identity that has existed there for over four thousand years. A citizen of Uzbek descent living in Kyrgyzstan may s hare the celebration of independence from Russia, but still hold sacred their distinct U zbek cultural identity. Due to its many possible interpretations, the question arises: How is national identity defined in multicultural countries? Historically, a collective consciousness ba sed on localized religion and culture was the source of solidarity for a single society and c ulture. (Durkheim 1893/1964, pg. 233) A nation made up of individuals with a single socie tal and cultural history would arguably have a national identity synonymous to a c ollective consciousness. Within a multicultural nation state, however, national ident ity would refer to a single encompassing, unifying source of social solidarity that exists within the defined boundaries of a particular multicultural state and that surpasses in importance the respective collective consciousnesses of multiple c ultures. The link between multicultural countries an d colonialism is extensive. Prior to the Renaissance, the Catholic Church was the unifying f orce over Europe’s feudal kingdoms. The Renaissance enlightened the masses to alternati ve ways of life to that of Catholicism, and ultimately led to the Protestant Reformation. The Treaty of Westphalia brought an end to the Thirty Years War, a final battle between the champions of Catholicism and Protestantism. From that point forward, powerful n ation states emerged in Europe that evolved to imperialistic empires. These imperialis tic European states came to dominate weaker societies in Eastern Asia, the Middle East ( which had previously been dominated by the expansion of Islam), Africa, and Latin Ameri ca. Russia in turn expanded into the

5

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. European impe rialism, at its peak, dominated ninety percent of the Earth’s soil (Durant, Will. The Reformation , 1957). Since 1945, one hundred and thirty three ne w nation states have emerged. Hundreds of diverse, multicultural states have now joined th e original handful of nations forged in Europe. One hundred and thirty three of the one hu ndred and seventy five 1 countries ranked by the United Nations 2006 Human Development Report are

recognized as having been subjected to colonialism under France, Portuga l, Great Britain, Spain, the Soviet Union, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Of these one hundred and thirty three countries, one hundred and three consist of more than one ethn ic group.

Table 1 Summary Statistics for all UNDP Countries, n = 175 Modernization Modernization Modernization Modernization

All UNDP All UNDP All UNDP All UNDP

Not Colonized Not Colonized Not Colonized Not Colonized

Colonized Colonized Colonized Colonized

Mean Mean Mean Urban Population 53.713 62.781 50.85 Adult Literacy 81.009 93.245 78.371

Ethnicity Ethnicity Ethnicity Ethnicity

Number of Languages 2.98 2.28 2 3.08 3

Number of Religions 2.063 1.619 2.203 Number of Ethnic Groups 6.377 2.024 7.752 Number of Indigenous Groups 5.714 1.976 6.895

National Deve National Deve National Deve National Development lopment lopment lopment

Human Development Index 89.32 45.81 103.06 Sources: 2006 UNDP Development Report, The World Almanac 200 8

1 See Appendix A for complete list of countries in Ta ble 1: The Influence of Colonialism on Multicultur al Countries. Occupied Palestinian Territories and Hon g Kong not included due to absence of overall comparable data. In addition, I only considered et hnic groups that either make up approximately ten percent of a country’s overall population or ten pe rcent of a country’s largest ethnic group. 2 Papua New Guinea was excluded due to outlier statu s. Listed as having over 800 indigenous languages.

3 Chad was excluded due to outlier status. Listed a s having over 120 indigenous languages.

6

Context of Modernization Literature

In the post World War II era, modernization was theorized to be the means by which these new, undeveloped nations could attain and sus tain development. (So 1990, Levy 1967, Smelser 1964, Rostow 1964, McClelland 1964, I nkeless 1964) However, the views of the “modernization school” have become out dated and obsolete due to a number of factors: 1) the ethnocentric premise that tradi tion was an obstacle to development; 2) the high level of abstraction in methodology with n o actual case studies; 3) the premise that there only exists one path of modernization, w hich can only lead to something comparable to Western development; 4) the absence o f the importance of foreign domination. (So 1990, pgs. 55-59) Because of thes e reasons, modernization theory has rarely been readdressed in recent years. Neverthel ess, I believe modernization theory serves as an appropriate starting point for my rese arch and I account for all of these reasons by highlighting the importance of pluralism , including qualitative analysis, and controlling for history of colonialism. In the post Cold War world, the competing i deologies of communism and democracy that once defined nations have been repla ced by a renewed emphasis on localized religion and culture. This emergence of nationalism and independence within the European empires and the Soviet Union brought t he sustainability of the nation state model into question. In the mid 1990s, Samuel Hunt ington stressed in Clash of Civilizations that cultural identity had surpassed national ident ity in regard to what people find most important. (Huntington 1996) Benjamin Ba rber added in Jihad vs. McWorld that the traditional nation-state is just a passing phase in transitional development. (Barber 1996) They both emphasized that societies depicted by a shared language,

7

religion, culture, and history not only predate the concept of a national identity, but they will not soon disappear because they are the products of ce nturies. As the world becomes a smaller place, it ca nnot be denied that instances of longstanding, isolated, localized identities are de clining in numbers. Faced with the potentially homogenizing forces of modernization, m any people are looking to the past via religion and/or customary lifestyles for meanin gful identities. Others are looking to the future, embracing opportunities previously deni ed by religion and/or customary lifestyles. However, national identity cannot be e asily dismissed. No other commonly used classification of human beings on a global sca le offers a more commonly referenced depiction of distinguishing social customs than the term national identity. No other classification of human beings provides a better in sight into the number and kind of opportunities that are available to an individual, how many, where they can lead, or how fast. In order to better understand the dilemmas f acing the future of the nation-state, I believe the question needs to be asked: Is moderni zation, via increases in urbanization, adult literacy, and mass media participation enough to lead to the development of a unifying national identity in multicultural countri es that were subjugated to colonialism? A collective consciousness within a culture , and arguably a unified national identity in a multicultural country, is a prerequisite for t he stability necessary for development. (Lerner 1958, pg. 93) It must be stressed that, as a direct result of colonialism, many countries consisting of individuals from multiple s ocieties, often multiple indigenous societies, were formed under coercion. With the fo rced integration of cultures under colonialism, the values of each society are very li kely to be magnified in the presence of each other. This is very likely because social asp ects such as religion, language, and

8

culture become highly valued over generations as so cieties reciprocally reproduce their way of life. The attainment of stability in multic ultural countries subjugated to colonialism will very likely be challenging at best . Historically, modernization defined the mea ns imperialistic powers utilized to exploit, conquer and assimilate peripheral localiti es of colonized regions from a core center of power. Modernization was a tool of domin ation rather a naturally occurring process of cultural evolution. This process was ta king place before the widespread development of nation states. Beyond subjugation a nd exploitation, however, modernization is perceived to be a naturally occurr ing cultural process that facilitates the increased exposure of isolated societies to people, objects, and ideas previously foreign to them. This process has been theorized to alter soc ietal values. The importance of individualism and the future are presumed to take t he place of isolated cultural values that focused on the past, creating increased social tole rance and a system of social solidarity that can unify multiple societies. (Durkheim 1893/ 1964, pg. 53) Within the borders of multicultural nation states, the new system of soli darity would arguably replace or surpass in importance the existence of previous iso lated cultural identities with a unifying national identity. Contrasting these realizations of moderniza tion led me to the fundamental query of this paper: Did modernization as a tool of coloni al domination impact the potential for modernization as a process of cultural evolution to create social solidarity in multicultural countries? Or, can multicultural countries that we re subjugated to colonialism develop a unifying national identity? Through my analysis, t his dissertation provides the empirical

9

findings for comparative studies throughout the wor ld on the impact of modernization and the meaning of national identity in multicultur al countries. Focusing on the specializations of the soci ology of modernization, nationalism and ethnicity while utilizing in depth regression analy sis, I analyze urbanization, literacy, mass media and social change regarding tradition an d national identity. I explore these questions in greater depth with the following four questions.

1.

Does modernization lead to an increase in the impor tance of the individual and the future over traditional values in multicultural states formerly subjugated to colonialism?

2.

Does modernization increase social empathy in multi cultural countries formerly subjugated to colonialism? Does modernization infl uence the growth of participant society in multicultural countries form erly subjugated to colonialism?

3.

Does modernization cause increases in national rate s of tolerance in multicultural states formerly subjugated to colonia lism?

4.

Does modernization increase national rates of natio nal identity in multicultural states formerly subjugated to colonialism?

Hypotheses Figure 1 illustrates my hypothesis concerni ng multicultural nations that were subjugated to colonialism. I predict that moderniz ation will most reflect the changes outlined in Durkheim’s Division of Labor and Lerner’s Passing of Traditional Society in multicultural countries that were colonized but hav e no remaining indigenous groups. Increases in rates of urbanization, adult literacy, and usage of mass media will lead to:

a)

decrease in importance of religion b)

increase in belief scientific advances will help

10

c)

decrease in belief society must be radically defend ed d)

increase in opinion that free choice and control in fluence how life turns out e)

increase in belief that homosexuality is justifiabl e f)

increase in overall happiness g)

increases in participant society gauged by knowledg e of taxation, corporate management, voter participation, and confidence in government

On the contrary, I predict that modernization will have the least impact on social change in multicultural countries that were colonized and have one or more remaining indigenous groups. In regard to national identity, I predict t hat modernization will also have the greatest impact on national identity development in multicul tural countries that were colonized but have no remaining indigenous groups. Increases in rates of urbanization, adult literacy, and usage of mass media will lead to:

a) increases in national pride b) increases in size of area reporting geog raphical allegiance to first c) increases in willingness to fight for co untry

I predict the modernization process will ha ve the greatest impact overall upon national identity development and social change in non-multicultural countries, regardless of colonial history.

11

Colonial Power Collective identity *Indigenous population(s) (see terminology, pg. 6)

Collective identity Indigenous population(s) not eradicated

Creation of Multicultural Nation State Cultural differences strongly maintained No Unifying National Identity Evolves

**1 or more Colonizing immigrant populati ons may or may not be introduced *1 or more populations m ay be present Figure 1: Modernization and National Identity in M ulticultural Countries Formerly Subjugated to Colonialism *Indigenous population(s) (see terminology, pg. 6)

Collective identity Unifying National Identity Evolves

Creation of Multicultural Nation State Colonial Power Collective identity **Colonizing

Immigrant Populations Collective Identity Indigenous population(s) eradicated

Cultural differences not as strongly maintained

**Colonizing

Immigrant Populations Collective Identity

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Terminology

There is little consensus over the definiti on of national identity. It has different cultural, legal, ideological, and historical implic ations for different people and in different arenas of academic discussion. For the purposes of my research, I am defining national identity as a unifying collective identity necessar ily confined within the politically defined boundaries of a nation. Civil Sphere: “ A social sphere or field organized around a particu lar kind of solidarity, one whose members are symbolically represented as i ndependent and self-motivating persons, individually responsible for their actions , yet also as actors who feel themselves, at the same time, bound by collective obligations t o all the other individuals who compose this sphere.” (Alexander 2001, pg. 237) Collective Identity ( collective consciousness ): Shared sentiment within a society that serves the moral function of providing social solid arity. From a Durkheimian perspective, religion is the original source of soc ial solidarity for all societies. With modernization, the importance of the individual bec omes the primary source of social solidarity. Colonialism : The process by which social, cultural, economic, and political dominance is acquired and maintained by a foreign power over another people and land. Sometimes settlers from the ruling power migrate to the colon y, but historically these migrant groups have been a small minority compared to the size of the indigenous population that is subjugated. (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Sociology, Fourth Edition) Ethnic Group : A social group distinguished by language, geogra phic or national origin, race, customs, and religion. (Encyclopedic Diction ary of Sociology, Fourth Edition)

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Indigenous : Not foreign. For the purposes of this study, in digenous refers to the non- foreign populations subjugated to colonialism by fo reign powers. Individualism : Belief in the primary importance of the individu al and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence. Mass Media : Typically refers to broadcasting, the press, and films. Modernization : A combination of urbanization and mass media tha t leads to the development of empathy for people and ideas foreign to an individual’s immediate family and community. Multi-cellular Society : Segmentary society in which each segment has a l ife uniquely its own in addition to its own regulatory system. The society is considered multi-cellular because the segments share ancestral ties, social h abits, and attachments to the same land. As labor becomes divided up between each segment, t he less each segment of society maintains distinctive characteristics. Multicultural : Relating to or including several cultures. A gr oup is multicultural when its members represent multiple cultures. A nation consisting of multiple ethnic groups is multicultural. National Identity : A collective identity that is necessarily confin ed within the politically defined boundaries of a nation. Participant Society : Societal organization in which most people go th rough school, read newspapers, receive cash payments in jobs they may legally change, buy goods in an open market, vote in elections and express opinions on matters not of their personal business. Especially important is that most peopl e have opinions on public matters, and that these people expect their opinions will matter . (Lerner 1958, pgs. 50-51)

Full document contains 159 pages
Abstract: This dissertation examines the role of increases in rates of urbanization, adult literacy, and media usage in the development of a unifying national identity in multicultural countries formerly subjugated to colonialism. More than one hundred of the one hundred seventy five countries ranked by the United Nations 2006 Human Development Report were subjugated to colonialism and are multicultural with populations consisting of more than one ethnic group. The ethnic groups that populate multicultural countries previously subjected to colonialism were often united under coercion. Thus, if opposing collective consciousnesses react to each other vigorously, the potential for conflict in these nation-states impacts the potential for long term sustainable development. Emile Durkheim and Daniel Lerner theorized that the modernization process could bring about pluralism in diverse social environments. Utilizing bivariate and multiple regression analysis, this dissertation combines the modernization approaches of Durkheim and Lerner with data gathered via the fourth wave of the World Values Survey to gauge the degree to which the modernization process has impacted social attitudes and national identity in these countries. The study finds that (1) the explanatory power of the modernization process to explain variations in social change and national identity is very weak; (2) increases in the modernization variables education level, size of town , and frequency following politics in the news were related to respondents reporting belonging to broader geographical areas ("the world" rather than "my nation" or "my local area"); and (3) after controlling for colonial subjugation and multicultural status, the modernization process has a stronger influence in countries that are not multicultural.