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Long term behavior of integral abutment bridges

Dissertation
Author: Matthew D. Lovell
Abstract:
Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To expand their applicability, studies were implemented to define limitations supported by rational analysis rather than simply engineering judgment. Previous research investigations have resulted in larger length limits and an overall better understanding of these structures. However, questions still remain regarding IA behavior; specifically questions regarding long-term behavior and effects of skew. To better define the behavior of these structures, a study was implemented to specifically investigate the long term behavior of IA bridges. First, a field monitoring program was implemented to observe and understand the in-service behavior of three integral abutment bridges. The results of the field investigation were used to develop and calibrate analytical models that adequately capture the long-term behavior. Second, a single-span, quarter-scale integral abutment bridge was constructed and tested to provide insight on the behavior of highly skewed structures. From the acquired knowledge from both the field and laboratory investigations, a parametric analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of a broad range of parameters on the behavior of integral abutment bridges. This study develops an improved understanding of the overall behavior of IA bridges. Based on the results of this study, modified length and skew limitations for integral abutment bridge are proposed. In addition, modeling recommendations and guidelines have been developed to aid designers and facilitate the increased use of integral abutment bridges.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ viii  LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................................... x  ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... xx  CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ............................................................. 1  1.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1  1.2. Overview of Integral Abutment Bridges .............................................................................. 2  1.3. Previous Research ................................................................................................................ 3  1.3.1. Analytical Modeling of the Behavior of Piles ............................................................... 3  1.3.2. Experimental Component Testing of Pile-Abutment Connection ................................. 3  1.3.3. Effects of Abutment Soil ............................................................................................... 4  1.3.4. Full-Scale Modeling of Integral Abutment Structures .................................................. 5  1.4. INDOT Standards ................................................................................................................. 6  1.5. Limitations of Current Knowledge ....................................................................................... 9  1.6. Objective and Scope ........................................................................................................... 10  CHAPTER 2. FIELD MONITORING PROGRAM ...................................................................... 11  2.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 11  2.2. Southbound I-65 over SR-25 .............................................................................................. 11  2.2.1. Structural Materials ..................................................................................................... 15  2.2.2. Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 15  2.2.3. Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 17  2.2.4. Results ......................................................................................................................... 17  2.2.5. Evaluation of Results ................................................................................................... 20  2.3. SR-18 over The Mississinewa River .................................................................................. 25  2.3.1. Structural Materials ..................................................................................................... 27  2.3.2. Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 27  2.3.3. Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 30  2.3.4. Results ......................................................................................................................... 30  2.3.5. Evaluation of Results ................................................................................................... 34  2.4. US-231 over Railroad Spur ................................................................................................ 39  2.4.1. Structural Materials ..................................................................................................... 43  2.4.2. Instrumentation ............................................................................................................ 43  2.4.3. Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 44  2.4.4. Results ......................................................................................................................... 45 

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Page 2.4.5. Evaluation of Results ................................................................................................... 50  2.5. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 54  CHAPTER 3. ANALYSIS OF FIELD RESULTS ........................................................................ 55  3.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 55  3.2. Structural Elements ............................................................................................................ 55  3.2.1. Girders ......................................................................................................................... 56  3.2.2. Piles ............................................................................................................................. 58  3.2.3. Deck ............................................................................................................................. 60  3.2.4. Abutments .................................................................................................................... 60  3.3. Soil Elements ...................................................................................................................... 61  3.3.1. Pile Springs .................................................................................................................. 61  3.3.2. Abutment Springs ........................................................................................................ 67  3.3.3. SR-18 Soil Springs ...................................................................................................... 75  3.3.4. US-231 Soil Springs .................................................................................................... 78  3.4. Loading System .................................................................................................................. 80  3.4.1. Temperature ................................................................................................................. 80  3.4.2. Shrinkage ..................................................................................................................... 81  3.4.3. Total Load .................................................................................................................... 82  3.5. Analysis Results ................................................................................................................. 84  3.5.1. SR-18 – Two Dimensional .......................................................................................... 84  3.5.2. SR-18 – Three Dimensional ........................................................................................ 88  3.5.3. US-231 – Three Dimensional ...................................................................................... 93  3.6. Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 102  CHAPTER 4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ................................................................ 105  4.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 105  4.2. Specimen Design .............................................................................................................. 106  4.3. Construction Materials ..................................................................................................... 107  4.3.1. Concrete ..................................................................................................................... 107  4.3.2. Reinforcing Steel ....................................................................................................... 111  4.3.3. Steel Piles .................................................................................................................. 111  4.3.4. Pile Soil-Structure Interaction ................................................................................... 114  4.4. Specimen Construction .................................................................................................... 127  4.4.1. Piles ........................................................................................................................... 127  4.4.2. Abutment ................................................................................................................... 131  4.4.3. Superstructure ............................................................................................................ 135   4.4.4. Transfer Beam ........................................................................................................... 137  4.4.5. Loading System ......................................................................................................... 139  4.4.6. Casting and Curing .................................................................................................... 140  4.5. Instrumentation ................................................................................................................. 140  4.5.1. Displacement ............................................................................................................. 141  4.5.2. Load ........................................................................................................................... 141  4.5.3. Strain Gages ............................................................................................................... 142  4.5.4. SAA Rope .................................................................................................................. 143  4.5.5. Test Procedure ........................................................................................................... 143  4.6. Results .............................................................................................................................. 144 

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Page 4.6.1. Abutment Displacement ............................................................................................ 144  4.6.2. Pile Displacement ...................................................................................................... 154  4.7. Evaluation of Results ....................................................................................................... 174  4.7.1. Abutment Movement ................................................................................................. 174  4.7.2. Pile Movement ........................................................................................................... 180  4.8. Analysis of Results ........................................................................................................... 181  4.8.1. Loading ...................................................................................................................... 181  4.8.2. Results ....................................................................................................................... 182  4.9. Conclusions from Experimental Investigation ................................................................. 196  CHAPTER 5. ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION ..................................................................... 198  5.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 198  5.2. Parametric Study .............................................................................................................. 198  5.2.1. Length ........................................................................................................................ 199  5.2.2. Skew .......................................................................................................................... 200  5.2.3. Span Length ............................................................................................................... 200  5.2.4. Temperature ............................................................................................................... 201  5.2.5. Shrinkage Model ........................................................................................................ 203  5.2.6. Pile Sections .............................................................................................................. 205  5.2.7. Pile Orientation .......................................................................................................... 206  5.2.8. Soil Stiffness .............................................................................................................. 207  5.2.9. Analytical Model ....................................................................................................... 211  5.3. Results .............................................................................................................................. 215  5.3.1. Effects of Length ....................................................................................................... 215  5.3.2. Effects of Skew .......................................................................................................... 218  5.3.3. Effect of Span Length ................................................................................................ 234  5.3.4. Effect of Temperature ................................................................................................ 237  5.3.5. Effect of Shrinkage Models ....................................................................................... 241  5.3.6. Effect of Pile Section and Orientation ....................................................................... 242  5.3.7. Effect of Soil Stiffness ............................................................................................... 249  5.4. Conclusions of Parametric Analysis ................................................................................. 253  CHAPTER 6. INTEGRAL ABUTMENT BRIDGE DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS .......... 257  6.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 257  6.2. Simplified Displacement Demand .................................................................................... 258  6.3. Pile Deformation Capacity ............................................................................................... 260  6.4. Recommended Deign Curves for Bridge Length and Skew ............................................ 267   6.5. Integral Abutment Modeling Recommendations and Guidelines .................................... 270  CHAPTER 7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ................................................................... 273  7.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 273  7.2. Research Phases ............................................................................................................... 274  7.2.1. Phase 1: Field Monitoring Program ........................................................................... 274  7.2.2. Phase 2: Analysis of Field Results ............................................................................. 274  7.2.3. Phase 3: Experimental Investigation ......................................................................... 275  7.2.4. Phase 4: Analytical Investigation .............................................................................. 275 

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Page 7.2.5. Phase 5: Design Recommendations ........................................................................... 275  7.3. Conclusions: ..................................................................................................................... 276  7.3.1. Long-Term Behavior ................................................................................................. 276  7.3.2. Skew .......................................................................................................................... 276  7.4. Design Recommendations ................................................................................................ 277  7.5. Further Research .............................................................................................................. 279  LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 280  APPENDICES Appendix A. Construction Plans ............................................................................................. 284  Appendix B. SR-18 over the Mississinewa River Bridge Soil Borings .................................. 291  Appendic C. US-231 over Railroad Spur Soil Borings ........................................................... 294  Appendix D. Bowen Lab Soil Borings ................................................................................... 302  Appendix E. INDOT Design Manual 2010: Selected Recommendations for Integral Abutment Bridges .............................................................................................. 323  VITA ............................................................................................................................................ 336 

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page 1.1: INDOT Limitations for Integral Abutment Bridges ........................................................... 6  2.1: General Bridge Details ...................................................................................................... 11  2.2: Critical Temperature Records for I-65 over SR-25 .......................................................... 18  2.3: Theoretical and Measured Lateral Earth Pressures for I-65 over SR-25 .......................... 24  2.4: Critical Temperatures for SR-18 ....................................................................................... 31  2.5: In-situ Soil Profile for US-231 .......................................................................................... 42  2.6: US-231 Critical Temperature Values ................................................................................ 46  3.1: SR-18 Beam Properties ..................................................................................................... 57  3.2: US-231 Beam Properties .................................................................................................. 58  3.3: CFT14x0.312 Transformed Section Properties ................................................................ 59  3.4: Abutment Dimensions for Analytical Models .................................................................. 61  3.5: Undrained Shear Strength and Soil Modulus Parameters ................................................. 64  3.6: Initial Values for Young’s Modulus for Sand ................................................................... 73  3.7: Soil Spring Stiffnesses for SR-18 Piles ............................................................................ 76  3.8: Soil Properties of SR-18 Abutment Fill ............................................................................ 76  3.9: Soil Properties of Backfill and In-situ Soil for US-231 .................................................... 78  3.10: Soil Spring Stiffness along the Depth of US-231 Piles .................................................... 78  3.11: Soil Properties for US-231 Abutment Fill ........................................................................ 79  3.12: SR-18 Temperature Strains ............................................................................................... 81  3.13: US-231 Temperature Strains............................................................................................. 81  3.14: Properties of SR-18 and US-231 for Shrinkage Computations ........................................ 82  3.15: Input Strain Values for SR-18 Loading Program .............................................................. 83  3.16: Input Strain Values for US-231 Loading Program ........................................................... 83  3.17: Analysis Matrix ................................................................................................................. 84  4.1: Batch Weights – Abutments and Superstructure ............................................................ 108  4.2: Batch Weights – CFT Concrete ...................................................................................... 108 

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Table Page 4.3: Casting Dates .................................................................................................................. 109  4.4: Pile Cross Sectional Properties ....................................................................................... 111  4.5: Tension Coupon Dimensions .......................................................................................... 113  4.6: Tension Coupon Results ................................................................................................. 113  4.7: Soil Profile for Lateral Pile Test ..................................................................................... 115  4.8: Soil Spring Stiffnesses for Lateral Pile Model ............................................................... 124  4.9: Lateral Load for Single Pile ............................................................................................ 126  4.10: Predicted and Measured Longitudinal Displacements for South Abutment ................... 186  4.11: Predicted and Measured Longitudinal Displacements for North Abutment ................... 187  4.12: Predicted and Measured Lateral Displacements for South Abutment ............................ 187  4.13: Predicted and Measured Lateral Displacements for North Abutment ............................ 187  5.1: Parametric Analysis ........................................................................................................ 199  5.2: Temperature Loading Cases ........................................................................................... 202  5.3: Strain Values for Temperature Differentials ................................................................... 202  5.4: Strain Values for Three Prediction Models .................................................................... 205  5.5: Section Properties for H-Piles ......................................................................................... 206  5.6: Section Properties for Steel Pipe-Piles ........................................................................... 206  5.7: Soil Properties for Parametric Analysis .......................................................................... 208  5.8: Lateral Pile Spring Stiffness for Sand ............................................................................. 209  5.9: Lateral Pile Spring Stiffness for Soft Clay ..................................................................... 210  5.10: Lateral Pile Spring Stiffness for Very Stiff Clay ............................................................ 211  5.11: Girder Properties for Reference Structure ...................................................................... 213  5.12: Long-Term Demand Lateral Deflection of Supporting Piles .......................................... 216  5.13: Comparison of Analytical and Theoretical Demand Displacements .............................. 218  5.14: Ultimate Deflection in Longitudinal Direction ............................................................... 229  5.15: Ultimate Deflection in Transverse Direction .................................................................. 229  5.16: Total Ultimate Deflection ............................................................................................... 229  6.1: Testing Matrix for Chovichien (2004) ............................................................................ 261  6.2: Laboratory Test Matrix (Talbott 2008) ........................................................................... 262 

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page 1.1: Methods of Construction .................................................................................................... 1  1.2: INDOT Suggested Detail “A” ............................................................................................ 8  1.3: INDOT Suggested Detail “B” ............................................................................................. 9  2.1: Northbound I-65 over SR-25 ............................................................................................ 12  2.2: Elevation View of Southbound I-65 over SR-25 .............................................................. 13  2.3: Plan View of Southbound I-65 over SR-25 ...................................................................... 13  2.4: Typical Cross-section of I-65 over SR-25 Abutment ....................................................... 14  2.5: Plan View of Location of Piles for I-65 over SR-25 ......................................................... 14  2.6: Plan View of I-65 over SR-25 Instrumentation Plan ........................................................ 16  2.7: Cross-section A-A of I-65 over SR-25 Instrumentation Plan ........................................... 16  2.8: I-65 over SR-25 Temperature Record ............................................................................... 18  2.9: Abutment Pressure Cell Locations for I65 over SR-25 .................................................... 19  2.10: Record of Pressure Cell #1 – Center / Top of I-65 over SR-25 ........................................ 19  2.11: Record of Pressure Cell #2 – Center / Bottom of I65 - over SR-25.................................. 20  2.12: General Behavior of I-65 over SR-25 ............................................................................... 22  2.13: SR-18 over The Mississinewa River ................................................................................. 25  2.14: Elevation View of SR-18 over The Mississinewa River .................................................. 26  2.15: Plan View of SR-18 over The Mississinewa River ........................................................... 26  2.16: Typical Cross-section of Abutment for SR-18 over The Mississinewa River .................. 27  2.17: Plan View of SR-18 Abutment Instrumentation ............................................................... 28  2.18: Elevation View of SR-18 Abutment Instrumentation ....................................................... 29  2.19: Location of Pile Strain Gages on Pile 6, Bent 1, on SR-18 .............................................. 29  2.20: SR-18 Temperature Record .............................................................................................. 30  2.21: Collected Displacement Records for SR-18 ..................................................................... 31  2.22: Earth Pressure Records for SR-18 .................................................................................... 32  2.23: Recorded Strain Values for the East Side of Pile 6, Bent 1 for Selected Days ................. 33 

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Figure Page 2.24: Recorded Strain Values for the West Side of Pile 6, Bent 1 for Selected Days ............... 33  2.25: Evaluation of Collected Data from SR-18 ........................................................................ 35  2.26: Approximated curvature for SR-18, Pile 6, Bent 1 on Selected Dates ............................. 38  2.27: Calculated Pile Deflection for SR-18 Pile 6, Bent 1 ......................................................... 39  2.28: US-231 over AEP Railroad Spur ...................................................................................... 40  2.29: Elevation View of US-231 ................................................................................................ 40  2.30: Plan View of US-231 ........................................................................................................ 41  2.31: Typical Cross-section of Abutment for US-231 ............................................................... 42  2.32: Plan View of US-231 Instrumentation .............................................................................. 44  2.33: Elevation View of US-231 Instrumentation ..................................................................... 44  2.34: Temperature Record for US-231 ...................................................................................... 46  2.35: Longitudinal Movement of the US-231, North Abutment ................................................ 47  2.36: Longitudinal Movement of US-231, South Abutment ...................................................... 48  2.37: Transverse Movement of US-231, North Abutment ......................................................... 48  2.38: Transverse Moment of US-231, South Abutment ............................................................ 49  2.39: Lateral Earth Pressure for US-231, North Abutment ........................................................ 50  2.40: Lateral Earth Pressure for US-231, South Abutment ........................................................ 50  2.41: Evaluation of Collected Data from US-231 ...................................................................... 52  3.1: SR-18 Beam Cross Section ............................................................................................... 56  3.2: US-231 Beam Cross Section ............................................................................................. 57  3.3: Transformed Section of Pile Cross-Section ...................................................................... 59  3.4: Analytical Representation of Composite Girder and Deck Connection ........................... 60  3.5: Typical p-y Curve ............................................................................................................. 62  3.6: Lateral Pile Resistance (p-y curves) Along the Depth of a Pile ........................................ 62  3.7: Definition of B for Griemann p-y Curve Expression ........................................................ 64  3.8: Typical Force-Displacement of a Pile Spring ................................................................... 66  3.9: Soil Spring Configuration on Piles to Account for Skew Angle ...................................... 66  3.10: Rankine’s Solution to Passive Earth Pressure .................................................................. 68  3.11: Assumed Failure Mechanism of Log-Spiral Theory ......................................................... 70  3.12: Typical Abutment-Soil Force-Displacement Relationship Using Rankine’s Theory ....... 72  3.13: Walking Spring Cyclic Behavior ...................................................................................... 72  3.14: Approximated Elastic-Plastic Relationship for Abutment Soil ........................................ 75 

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Figure Page 3.15: Abutment Spring - Rankine Theory .................................................................................. 77  3.16: Abutment Spring - Log Spiral Method ............................................................................. 77  3.17: US-231 Abutment Spring - Rankine Theory .................................................................... 79  3.18: US-231 Abutment Spring - Log Spiral Method ................................................................ 80  3.19: Prediction Models for Shrinkage Strains in SR-18 and US-231 ....................................... 82  3.20: SR-18 Results of Two-Dimensional Structure – Case 1 ................................................... 86  3.21: SR-18 Results of Two-Dimensional Structure – Case 2 ................................................... 86  3.22: SR-18 Results of Two-Dimensional Structure – Case 3 ................................................... 87  3.23: SR-18 Results of Two-Dimensional Structure – Case 4 ................................................... 87  3.24: SR-18 Results of Two-Dimensional Structure – Case 5 ................................................... 88  3.25: SR-18 Results of Two Dimensional Model ...................................................................... 88  3.26: SR-18 Results of Three-Dimensional Structure – Case 1 ................................................. 89  3.27: SR-18 Results of Three-Dimensional Structure – Case 2 ................................................. 90  3.28: SR-18 Results of Three-Dimensional Structure – Case 3 ................................................. 90  3.29: SR-18 Results of Three-Dimensional Structure – Case 4 ................................................. 91  3.30: SR-18 Results of Three-Dimensional Structure – Case 5 ................................................. 91  3.31: SR-18 Results of Three-Dimensional Structure – Case 6 ................................................. 92  3.32: SR-18 Results of Three Dimensional Model .................................................................... 92  3.33: Predicted Pile Deflection for SR-18 ................................................................................. 93  3.34: US-231 Case 1 Results ..................................................................................................... 95  3.35: US-231 Case 2 Results ..................................................................................................... 96  3.36: US-231 Case 3 Results ..................................................................................................... 97  3.37: US-231 Case 4 Results ..................................................................................................... 98  3.38: US-231 Case 5 Results ..................................................................................................... 99  3.39: US-231 Case 6 Results ................................................................................................... 100  3.40: US-231 Case 7 Results ................................................................................................... 102  4.1: Plan View of Quarter-Scale Integral Abutment Experimental Model ............................ 107  4.2: Elevation View of Quarter-Scale Integral Abutment Experimental Model .................... 107  4.3: Abutment Concrete Compressive Strength ..................................................................... 109  4.4: Pile Concrete Compressive Strength .............................................................................. 110  4.5: Remaining Material from Which Tension Coupons Were Cut ....................................... 112  4.6: Set of Material Coupons ................................................................................................. 112 

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Figure Page 4.7: Dimensions of Tension Specimen .................................................................................. 113  4.8: Initial Stress-Strain Relationship of Test Coupons ......................................................... 114  4.9: Single Pile for Lateral Pile Test ...................................................................................... 115  4.10: Lateral Pile Test Setup .................................................................................................... 116  4.11: Strain Gages Along the Length of the Pile ..................................................................... 117  4.12: Cross-Section of Strain Gage Location ........................................................................... 117  4.13: Lateral Pile Test Cracked Support Block ........................................................................ 118  4.14: Pile Load-Deflection Response (±0.25 in.) ..................................................................... 119  4.15: Pile Load-Deflection Response (±0.50 in.) ..................................................................... 120  4.16: Pile Load-Displacement Response (±0.75 in.) ................................................................ 120  4.17: Pile Load-Displacement Response (±1.00 in.) ................................................................ 121  4.18: Pile Load-Deflection Response (±1.50 in.) ..................................................................... 121  4.19: Pile Deflected Shape ....................................................................................................... 122  4.20: Modeling Schematic of Lateral Pile Test ........................................................................ 123  4.21: Predicted vs. Measured Pile Deflected Shape (Soft Clay) .............................................. 125  4.22: Predicted vs. Measured Pile Deflected Shape (Stiff Clay) ............................................. 125  4.23: Predicted vs. Measured Pile Deflected Shape (Very Stiff Clay) .................................... 126  4.24: Piles (6 in. O.D. Round Section) ..................................................................................... 128  4.25: Pile Driving Caps ............................................................................................................ 128  4.26: Drilling 6 ft. Starter Hole for Pile ................................................................................... 129  4.27: Driving Piles with Movac Vibrator ................................................................................. 130  4.28: Abutment Piles after Driving .......................................................................................... 130  4.29: Actual Depth of Bridge Piles .......................................................................................... 131  4.30: Plan View of Abutment .................................................................................................. 132  4.31: Abutment Cross-Section (Section A-A) ......................................................................... 133  4.32: Abutment Formwork ....................................................................................................... 133  4.33: Reinforcement Cage for Abutment ................................................................................. 134  4.34: Close-up of Abutment Reinforcement ............................................................................ 134  4.35: Superstructure Details ..................................................................................................... 135  4.36: Superstructure Formwork and Reinforcement ................................................................ 136  4.37: Formwork for Gap in Superstructure .............................................................................. 136  4.38: Transfer Beams ............................................................................................................... 137 

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Figure Page 4.39: Transfer Beam Details .................................................................................................... 138  4.40: Elevation Schematic of Transfer Beam .......................................................................... 138  4.41: Transfer Beam Ends ........................................................................................................ 139  4.42: Two-Way Hydraulic Cylinder ........................................................................................ 140  4.43: String Potentiometer Locations ....................................................................................... 141  4.44: Locations of Pile Strain Gages in South Abutment ........................................................ 142  4.45: Gap Displacements ......................................................................................................... 145  4.46: Load-Deflection Response at Gap .................................................................................. 145  4.47: Longitudinal Load-Deflection Response – SW, Top ...................................................... 146  4.48: Lateral Load-Deflection Response – SW, Top ............................................................... 147  4.49: Longitudinal Load-Deflection Response – SW, Bottom ................................................ 147  4.50: Lateral Load-Deflection Response – SW, Bottom .......................................................... 148  4.51: Longitudinal Load-Deflection Response – SE, Top ....................................................... 148  4.52: Lateral Load-Deflection Response – SE, Top ................................................................ 149  4.53: Longitudinal Load-Deflection Response – SE, Bottom .................................................. 149  4.54: Lateral Load-Displacement Response – SE, Bottom ...................................................... 150  4.55: Longitudinal Load-Displacement Response – NE, Top ................................................. 150  4.56: Lateral Load-Displacement Response – NE, Top ........................................................... 151  4.57: Longitudinal Load-Displacement Response – NE, Bottom ............................................ 151  4.58: Lateral Load-Displacement Response – NE, Bottom ..................................................... 152  4.59: Longitudinal Load-Displacement Response – NW, Top ................................................ 152  4.60: Lateral Load-Displacement Response – NW, Top ......................................................... 153  4.61: Longitudinal Load-Displacement Response – NW, Bottom .......................................... 153  4.62: Lateral Load-Displacement Response – NW, Bottom .................................................... 154  4.63: Identification Scheme for Scale-Model Piles ................................................................. 155  4.64: Longitudinal Movement of Pile N1 ................................................................................ 155  4.65: Lateral Movement of Pile N1 ......................................................................................... 156  4.66: Longitudinal Movement of Pile N2 ................................................................................ 157  4.67: Lateral Movement of Pile N2 ......................................................................................... 158  4.68: Longitudinal Movement of Pile N3 ................................................................................ 159  4.69: Lateral Movement of Pile N3 ......................................................................................... 160  4.70: Longitudinal Movement of Pile N4 ................................................................................ 161 

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Figure Page 4.71: Lateral Movement of Pile N4 ......................................................................................... 162  4.72: Longitudinal Movement of Pile N5 ................................................................................ 163  4.73: Lateral Movement of Pile N5 ......................................................................................... 164  4.74: Longitudinal Movement of Pile S1 ................................................................................. 165  4.75: Lateral Movement of Pile S1 .......................................................................................... 166  4.76: Longitudinal Movement of Pile S2 ................................................................................. 167  4.77: Lateral Movement of Pile S2 .......................................................................................... 168  4.78: Longitudinal Movement of Pile S3 ................................................................................. 169  4.79: Lateral Movement of Pile S3 .......................................................................................... 170  4.80: Longitudinal Movement of Pile S4 ................................................................................. 171  4.81: Lateral Movement of Pile S4 .......................................................................................... 172  4.82: Longitudinal Movement of Pile S5 ................................................................................. 173  4.83: Lateral Movement of Pile S5 .......................................................................................... 174  4.84: Shift in Abutment Displacement Record for SW, Top ................................................... 175  4.85: Initial Shift of Longitudinal NE, Top ............................................................................. 176  4.86: Initial Shift of Longitudinal NW, Top ............................................................................ 176  4.87: Similar Longitudinal Movement of Top Obtuse Corners ............................................... 177  4.88: Similar Longitudinal Movements of Top Acute Corners ............................................... 178  4.89: Similar Lateral Movements of Top Acute Corners ......................................................... 178  4.90: Similar Lateral Movements of Top Obtuse Corners ....................................................... 179  4.91: Rotation of Skewed Abutment for Expansion and Contraction ...................................... 179  4.92: Rotation of Abutment ..................................................................................................... 180  4.93: Prediction for Longitudinal Displacement of Abutment Corners ................................... 182  4.94: Prediction of Lateral Displacement of Abutment Corners .............................................. 183  4.95: Relative Displacement Calculation for Longitudinal Displacement (SE, Top) .............. 185  4.96: Relative Displacement Calculation for Longitudinal Displacement (NW, Top) ............ 186  4.97: Comparison of Calculated Longitudinal Displacement and Adjusted Measured Displacement for Top of South Abutment ...................................................................... 188  4.98: Comparison of Calculated Lateral Displacement and Adjusted Measured Displacement for Top of South Abutment ...................................................................... 189  4.99: Comparison of Calculated Longitudinal Displacement and Adjusted Measured Displacement for Bottom of South Abutment ................................................................ 190 

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Figure Page 4.100: Comparison of Calculated Lateral Displacement and Adjusted Measured Displacement for Bottom of South Abutment ................................................................ 191  4.101: Predicted Pile Deflected Shape in Longitudinal Direction for Obtuse Corner ............... 192  4.102: Predicted Pile Deflected Shape in Lateral Direction for Obtuse Corner ........................ 193  4.103: Predicted Pile Deflected Shape in Longitudinal Direction for Acute Corner ................. 194  4.104: Predicted Pile Deflected Shape in Lateral Direction for Acute Corner .......................... 195  5.1: Direction of Skew for Parametric Analysis .................................................................... 200  5.2: Shrinkage Models for Reference Structure ..................................................................... 204  5.3: Pile Orientation ............................................................................................................... 207  5.4: Elevation of Reference Structure .................................................................................... 212  5.5: Plan View of Reference Structure ................................................................................... 212  5.6: Girder Cross-section for Reference Structure ................................................................. 213  5.7: Abutment Cross-Section for Reference Structure ........................................................... 214  5.8: Effect of Temperature ..................................................................................................... 215  5.9: Linear Effect of Total Length of Structure ..................................................................... 216  5.10: Relationship Between Theoretical and Analytical Demands .......................................... 218  5.11: Effect of Skew (200 ft – Acute Corner) .......................................................................... 219  5.12: Effect of Skew (200 ft – Obtuse Corner) ........................................................................ 220  5.13: Effect of Skew (400 ft – Acute Corner) .......................................................................... 221  5.14: Effect of Skew (400 ft – Obtuse Corner) ........................................................................ 222  5.15: Effect of Skew (600 ft – Acute Corner) .......................................................................... 223  5.16: Effect of Skew (600 ft – Obtuse Corner) ........................................................................ 224  5.17: Effect of Skew (800 ft – Acute Corner) .......................................................................... 225  5.18: Effect of Skew (800 ft – Obtuse Corner) ........................................................................ 226  5.19: Effect of Skew (1000 ft – Acute Corner) ........................................................................ 227  5.20: Effect of Skew (1000 ft – Obtuse Corner) ...................................................................... 228  5.21: Relationship Between Theoretical and Total Ultimate Demand..................................... 230  5.22: Longitudinal Demand as a Function of Skew for Various Lengths ................................ 231  5.23: Transverse Demand as a Function of Skew for Various Lengths ................................... 231  5.24: Longitudinal Demand As Caused by Skew .................................................................... 232  5.25: Bilinear Approximation of Longitudinal Displacement as a Function of Skew ............. 233  5.26: Bilinear Approximation of Transverse Displacement as a Function of Skew ................ 234 

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Figure Page 5.27: Effect of Span Length for Longitudinal Displacement ................................................... 235  5.28: Effect of Span Length for Transverse Displacement ...................................................... 235  5.29: Effect of Span Length for Longitudinal Displacement for Top of Abutment ................. 236  5.30: Total Demand Deflection for Piles for Various Span Lengths ....................................... 237  5.31: Effect of Temperature Differential in Longitudinal Direction ........................................ 239  5.32: Effect of Temperature Differential in Transverse Direction ........................................... 239  5.33: Effect of Increase in Negative Temperature Differential on Longitudinal Displacement Demand .................................................................................................... 240  5.34: Effect of Increase in Negative Temperature Differential on Transverse Displacement Demand .................................................................................................... 241  5.35: Effect of Shrinkage Prediction Models ........................................................................... 242  5.36: Effect of Pile Section for Structures with Zero Skew (Longitudinal Direction) ............. 243  5.37: Effect of Pile Section for Structures with 30° Skew (Longitudinal Direction) ............... 244  5.38: Effect of Pile Section for Structures with 30° Skew (Transverse Direction) .................. 244  5.39: Effect of Pile Section for Structures with 60° Skew (Longitudinal Direction) ............... 245  5.40: Effect of Pile Section for Structures with 60° Skew (Transverse Direction) .................. 245  5.41: Effect of Pile Orientation for Structures with 30° Skew (Longitudinal Direction) ........ 247  5.42: Effect of Pile Orientation for Structures with 30° Skew (Transverse Direction) ........... 247  5.43: Effect of Pile Orientation for Structures with 60° Skew (Longitudinal Direction) ........ 248  5.44: Effect of Pile Orientation for Structures with 60° Skew (Transverse Direction) ........... 248  5.45: Effect of Soil Stiffness on Longitudinal Displacement (Zero Skew) ............................. 250  5.46: Effect of Soil Stiffness on Longitudinal Displacement (30° Skew) ............................... 251  5.47: Effect of Soil Stiffness on Transverse Displacement (30° Skew) .................................. 251  5.48: Effect of Soil Stiffness on Longitudinal Displacement (60° Skew) ............................... 252  5.49: Effect of Soil Stiffness on Transverse Displacement (60° Skew) .................................. 252  6.1: Test Setup for Lateral Pile Capacity ............................................................................... 262  6.2: Confinement Reinforcement Details ............................................................................... 263  6.3: Comparison of Test by Talbott (2008) and Chovichien (2004) ...................................... 264  6.4: Load-Displacement Relationship for HP12x53 .............................................................. 265  6.5: Load-Displacement Response Envelope for HP14x89 ................................................... 266  6.6: Integral Abutment Design Curves for Zero-Damage Limit ............................................ 268  6.7: Integral Abutment Design Curves for Acceptable-Damage Limit ................................. 269 

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Figure Page 6.8: Recommended Design Curves for INDOT ..................................................................... 270  7.1: Recommended Design Curves for Integral Abutment Bridges. ..................................... 278  Appendix Figure A.1: End Bent Details of Bent 1 (I65 over US25) .................................................................. 285  A.2: Plan and Elevation Views of Bent 1 (I65 over US25) .................................................... 286  A.3: End Bent Details of Bent 1 (SR18 over Mississinewa River) ........................................ 287  A.4: Plan and Elevation Views of Bent 1 (SR18 over Mississinewa River) .......................... 288  A.5: End Bent Elevation View of Bent 4 (US231 over Railroad Spur) .................................. 289  A.6: Plan and Elevation Views of Bent 4 (US231 over Railroad Spur) ................................. 290  B.1: Soil Boring TB-1 (SR-18) ............................................................................................... 292  B.2: Soil Boring TB-2 (SR-18) ............................................................................................... 293  C.1: Location of Soil Borings for US231 over Railway Spur ................................................ 295  C.2: Soil Boring 1001 (US-231) ............................................................................................. 296  C.3: Soil Boring 1002 (US-231) ............................................................................................. 297  C.4: Soil Boring 1003 (US-231) ............................................................................................. 298  C.5: Soil Boring 1004 (US-231) ............................................................................................. 299  C.6: Soil Boring 1005 (US-231) ............................................................................................. 300  C.7: Soil Boring 1006 (US-231) ............................................................................................. 301  D.1: Boring Location Plan for Bowen Laboratory ................................................................. 303  D.2: Boring Log for Soil Boring 1 .......................................................................................... 304  D.3: Boring Log for Soil Boring 2 (1/2) ................................................................................. 305  D.4: Boring Log for Soil Boring 2 (2/2) ................................................................................. 306  D.5: Boring Log for Soil Boring 3 (1/2) ................................................................................. 307  D.6: Boring Log for Soil Boring 3 (2/2) ................................................................................. 308  D.7: Boring Log for Soil Boring 4 (1/2) ................................................................................. 309  D.8: Boring Log for Soil Boring 4 (2/2) ................................................................................. 310  D.9: Boring Log for Soil Boring 5 (1/2) ................................................................................. 311  D.10: Boring Log for Soil Boring 5 (2/2) ................................................................................. 312  D.11: Boring Log for Soil Boring 6 (1/2) ................................................................................. 313  D.12: Boring Log for Soil Boring 6 (2/2) ................................................................................. 314  D.13: Boring Log for Soil Boring 7 (1/2) ................................................................................. 315  D.14: Boring Log for Soil Boring 7 (2/2) ................................................................................. 316 

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Appendix Figure Page D.15: Boring Log for Soil Boring 8 (1/2) ................................................................................. 317  D.16: Boring Log for Soil Boring 8 (2/2) ................................................................................. 318  D.17: Boring Log for Soil Boring 9 .......................................................................................... 319  D.18: Boring Log for Soil Boring 10 ........................................................................................ 320  D.19: Boring Log for Soil Boring 11 ........................................................................................ 321  D.20: Boring Log for Soil Boring 12 ........................................................................................ 322 

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ABSTRACT

Lovell, Matthew D. Ph.D., Purdue University, December 2010. Long Term Behavior of Integral Abutment Bridges. Major Professor: Robert Frosch.

Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To expand their applicability, studies were implemented to define limitations supported by rational analysis rather than simply engineering judgment. Previous research investigations have resulted in larger length limits and an overall better understanding of these structures. However, questions still remain regarding IA behavior; specifically questions regarding long-term behavior and effects of skew. To better define the behavior of these structures, a study was implemented to specifically investigate the long term behavior of IA bridges. First, a field monitoring program was implemented to observe and understand the in- service behavior of three integral abutment bridges. The results of the field investigation were used to develop and calibrate analytical models that adequately capture the long- term behavior. Second, a single-span, quarter-scale integral abutment bridge was constructed and tested to provide insight on the behavior of highly skewed structures. From the acquired knowledge from both the field and laboratory investigations, a parametric analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of a broad range of parameters on the behavior of integral abutment bridges. This study develops an improved understanding of the overall behavior of IA bridges. Based on the results of this study, modified length and skew limitations for integral abutment bridge are proposed. In addition, modeling recommendations and guidelines have been developed to aid designers and facilitate the increased use of integral abutment bridges.

1

CHAPTER 1.

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

1.1.

Introduction

Integral abutment bridges, a type of jointl ess bridge, are the construction option of choice when designing highway bridges in many parts of the country. Traditionally, highway bridges are constructed so the superstruc ture and substructure are separ ate units divided by expansion joints (Figure 1.1a). As the structure under goes expansion and contraction due to volumetric strains caused by temperature, shrinkage, and creep ; these joints allow the superstructure to move independently from the rigid substructure. However, because of many issues caused by expansion joints, it is desirable to remove the joints altogether. Rather than providing an expansion joint to separate the substructure from th e superstructure, an integral abutment bridge is constructed so the superstructu re and substructure are continuous (Figure 1.1b). The abutment is supported by a single row of piles whic h must account for the longitudinal movement previously accommodated by the joints.

Full document contains 362 pages
Abstract: Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To expand their applicability, studies were implemented to define limitations supported by rational analysis rather than simply engineering judgment. Previous research investigations have resulted in larger length limits and an overall better understanding of these structures. However, questions still remain regarding IA behavior; specifically questions regarding long-term behavior and effects of skew. To better define the behavior of these structures, a study was implemented to specifically investigate the long term behavior of IA bridges. First, a field monitoring program was implemented to observe and understand the in-service behavior of three integral abutment bridges. The results of the field investigation were used to develop and calibrate analytical models that adequately capture the long-term behavior. Second, a single-span, quarter-scale integral abutment bridge was constructed and tested to provide insight on the behavior of highly skewed structures. From the acquired knowledge from both the field and laboratory investigations, a parametric analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of a broad range of parameters on the behavior of integral abutment bridges. This study develops an improved understanding of the overall behavior of IA bridges. Based on the results of this study, modified length and skew limitations for integral abutment bridge are proposed. In addition, modeling recommendations and guidelines have been developed to aid designers and facilitate the increased use of integral abutment bridges.