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Leadership in green schools: School principals as agents of social responsibility

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Carly R Ackley
Abstract:
This study examines the leadership practices of school principals who are promoting a social responsibility agenda; specifically through their work in a "green school." The study specifically investigated how social responsibility agendas like green schools are promoted and advanced on a daily basis by school based advocates in administrative roles. The role of the green school principal was specifically examined throughout this study to gain an understanding as to how principals lead and function on a daily basis. The central questions that guided this research were grounded in three separate bodies of literature that were all necessary to gaining an understanding of the principal's role. These research questions are: (1) Green Schools: What is the genesis of the Green Movement and its integration as a component of educational processes? Are there roles and responsibilities associated with leadership within a green school? If so, what are they? Is there a relationship between the Green Movement and the leadership styles adopted by school leaders working in green schools? If so, what is it? (2) School leadership practices associated with green schools: Do individuals come to the school leadership role as a priori advocates of green schools or do they become advocates as an outcome of their appointment? What educational leadership styles, models, and frameworks, documented by research and literature, are most representative of the practices of school leaders in green schools? How is school leadership in a green school similar or different from that in other schools? What are the challenges faced by school principals who are involved in a green school? (3) Social justice, responsibility, agency and the school principal: What are the attitudes, values and actions of school leader advocates of social justice, responsibility and agency? What do school leaders describe as their motivations for becoming involved in the Green School Movement? A case study methodology was adopted to conduct the study with five green school principals whose schools were located in Maryland, Washington D.C., Arizona and the two remaining schools were in Pennsylvania. The researcher implemented a three phase methodology that included examination of a document related to the principal's work as a leader of a green school, an observation in the principal's school and two separate interviews that focused on both the principals' day to day work and also their values, beliefs, motivations and challenges. The document analysis shed light on the principals' early experiences with ecological issues and in the greening process. The in-school observation period allowed the researcher to see how the green school was currently functioning and the actual degree to which the principal was implementing green school agendas in their school. The interviews revealed information about the principals' previous experiences, influences, and what they believe about the Green School Movement. The study shows that a green school leader plays six distinct roles. The roles are: inspirational/motivational/role model, supporter, collaborator, student, instructional leader and manager/planner. The study also revealed that the principals demonstrate actions related to instructional, participative, transformational and environmental leadership. Additionally it was discovered that while some of the participants came to the Green School Movement as a prior advocate for environmental issues, other principals became advocates of environmental education after the greening of the school began. In looking at what green school principals' value, five key values were identified. Green school principals are student-centered, they have a profound respect for teaching and collaboration, they feel it is important to include families and communities into the school, and then also promote ownership and stewardship of environmental action in the school. Finally the principals each communicated their own personal commitment to the environment and were able to discuss at length why it is important to them. These values motivated characteristic actions on the part of the principals. The key actions that the principals manifested were self-educating, shaping the curriculum around environmental issues, and then promoting powerful professional development experiences for the staff so that they too can be motivated to promote ecological issues in their practice. The study also found that green school principals are motivated by an internal need to feel challenged and the opportunity to task risks for what they feel are worthwhile causes. The principals discussed being externally motivated by environmental issues which in turn motivates them to become dedicated advocates. Finally, the researcher found that there were characteristic challenges associated with being a green school leader. The challenges were the construction and building process that takes place, the need for additional funding for green building and the hiring of teachers who are both highly qualified as educators as well as having knowledge of how to incorporate the environment into the subject matter. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables……………………………………………………………………….. x Acknowledgements ………………… ……………………………………………… xi

Chapter 1-Introduction……………………………………………………………... 1

Introduction………………………………………………………………… 1 Statement of Purpose……………………………………………………… 3 Research Questions………………………………………………………… 4 Significance of Study……………………………………………………… 5 Structure and Organization of Dissertation……………………………….. 5 Key Terms………………………………………………………………… 7 Chapter 2- Review of Relate d Literature………………………………………….. . 9 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 9 The Green School Move ment……………………………………………… 9 Leadership Styles Appropriate for Green Schools....................................... 21 Roles, Responsibilities and Characteristics of a Green School Leader…… 28 Social Responsibility and School Leadership............................................... 32 Chapter 3- Research Methodology………………………………………………… 37 Research Sites……………………………………………………………… 37 Research Design…………………………………………………………… 37 Case Study………………………………………………………… 38 Sampling………………………………………………………….. 39 Participant Selection………………………………………………. 41 Data Collection …………………………………………………………… 42 Phase One………………………………………………………… 42

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Phase Two………………………………………………………… 43 Phase Three……………………………………………………….. 45 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………… 46 Grounded Analysis of Data………………………………………. 47 Coding …………………………………………………………… 47 Credibility………………………………………………………… 49 Generalizability …………………………………………………… 51 Limitations…………………………………………………………………. 52 Chapter 4- Portraits of Green School Leadership………………………….. 54 Introduction………………………………………………………. 54 Diane……………………………………………………………… 56 Kristen …………………………………………………………… 60 Kaitlin…………………………………………………………….. 65 Charles …………………………………………………………… 70 Laura……………………………………………………………… 74 Summary………………………………………………………….. 78 Chapter 5- Cross-Case Analysis…………………………………………... 81 Do particular roles and responsibilities exist that can be closely associated with leadership within a green school? If so, what are they?........ 82

What educational leadership styles, models, and frameworks, documented by research and literature, are most representative of the practices of school leaders in green schools?………………………………………… 92

Do individuals come to the school leadership role as a priori advocates of green schools or do they become advocates as outcomes of their appointment?.................................................................................. 99

How is school leadership in a green sc hool similar or different from that in other schools?.................................................................................. 102

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What are the characteristic values and actions of school leader advocates of social justice, responsibility and agency? ………………………… 104

What do school leaders describe as their motivations for becoming involved in the Green Education Movement?.................................................... 115

What are the challenges faced by school principals who are involved in a green school?.................................................................................. . 118

Chapter Summary............................................................................ 121 Chapter 6- Discussion, Implications, Conclusions……………………….. . 123 Profile of a Green School Leader.................................................... 123 Key Dimensions of Green School Leadership................... 124 Roles and Responsibilities of Green School Leaders......... 126 Leadership Styles for Green Schools................................. 126 Values of Green School Leadership..................................... 127 The Characteristic Actions of Green School Leaders........ 129 Motivations of Green School Leaders................................ 130 Special Challenges of Green School Leadership................ 131 Synthesis of Key Themes………………………………………… 132 Early Adopters…………………………………………… 132 Risk-Taking........................................................................ 133 Personal Transformation.................................................... 133 Implications for Research and Future Projects ................................ 134 Implications for Practice.................................................................. 138 Implications for Theory ………………………………………….. 140 Concluding Comments.................................................................... 141 References……………………… ………………………………………… 144

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Appendix A: Invitation for Pa rticipation……………………………… 151 Appendix B: Signed Consent Form...…………………………………. 152 Appendix C: Interview Sc hedule……………………………………… 154 Appendix D: Sample of Coding Strategy..…………………………….. 156

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LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 : Leithwood’s Synthesis of Leadership Styles.........................................................21

Table 4-1 : Summary of Participant Information.....................................................................55 Table 6-1 : Categories Included in the Study for Green School Leadership.............................124

Table 6-2 : Key Dimensions of Green School Leadership......................................................125 Table 6-3 : Leadership Styles Demonstrated by Green School Leaders...................................127

Table 6-4 : Values of Green School Leaders...........................................................................128 Table 6-5 : Actions of Green School Leaders...........................................................................130

Table 6-6 : Motivations of Green School Leaders....................................................................131 Table 6-7 : Challenges of Green School Leadership................................................................132

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To My Family: Ben, Yvonne, Yvette and Chas Ackley Always the ones to take the road less traveled, yo u have forever been my inspiration, motivation and support. I love you.

I wish to first relay my deepest and most sincere gratitude to my family. Ben, Yvonne, Yvette and Chas –you have not only encouraged and supported me throughout this process, but throughout my entire life. You have been the driving force in helping me get to where I am today, while allowing me the freedom to grow and explore ideas and path s I did not think were possible. I am incredibly fortunate to have you fo ur as my roots. Together and individually, you are what makes me tick. I also feel compelled to acknowledge the rest of my family, to whom I am forever indebted. My grandmother Ruth and grandfather Orval, who both passed during my third year of this process, but were important in my developmen t as a person. I feel that having a small family has helped me to understand who I am and acknowledge the beauty I see in each of these individuals. In saying this, it is also necessary to acknowledge my Uncle John, Grandmother Laura and Grandfather Charles. I want to also thank Joe Bard –without your motivation, Joe; I might not have ever considered Penn State. I also wish to single out for mention my Aunt Charla, a person who has dedicated her life to education, and sparked my interest in the field. Beyond my family I need to, of course, thank Dan Schochor. Sin ce day one, you have accepted me as I am and continue to be my best friend and my partner in crime. It is your encouragement that has motivated me to follow my heart, and this is something for which I cannot thank you enough. I love you, buddy. I cannot continue without thanking my incred ible advisor Dr. Paul Begley. Words cannot begin to describe how you have selflessly guided me through this process. From the first day that

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I stepped onto Penn State’s campus you encourag ed me to remain active in the program and assured me that I could do this. Dr. Begley, you are truly a wonderful supervisor and an incredible friend. I wish to also thank my brilliant committee of scholars, Dr. Roger Shouse, Dr. Jacqueline Stefkovich and Dr. Ed Yoder. Simply saying thank you for the time taken out of your schedules to work with me and assist with this crazy dissertation process seems like a very small token of appreciation for what you have done. Your words and advice are always welcome and appreciated. I want to also recognize the Green School Principals who took time out of their busy schedules to speak with me. You are fighting the good fight, and I appreciate your work as educators, leaders, advocates for our Ea rth and participants in this study. Finally, I cannot finish without acknowledging my friends and fellow educators at Penn State, the University of Tennessee, and in Sidney, New York. Special thanks to: Angela Duncan, James Montgomery, Dipali Puri, Katie Lavelle, Marilyn Begley, Meghan Pifer, Lance Potter, Becky Contestibile, Cindy Fetters, Cecelia East man, Gus Colangelo, Mary Jane Moran, Sarah Fletcher, Laura Filtness, Stephanie Victory, Meghan Kelly, Katie Adcock, Michael Sellitti, Marcie LaRose, Sarah Porter, Karla Jones, Sean Mack and Tom Morenus. Each of you is a piece of who I am and I want you to know how important you are in my life.

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION AND RA TIONALE FOR STUDY

“Without food to eat, water to drink and air to breathe we are going to be in some pretty sad shape. We can have all of the math and literacy we want but without those basic things we will not have a planet to live on, to do what we are here to do.”(Diane)

Though I have been surrounded by environmenta lly conscious people most of my life, it was not until recently that I realized how it would in fluence me as an adult. As an educator I have always tried to separate my personal inte rests from my professional role and my work as a student. It was not until recently that I realized how these values would influence my work as a researcher. The groundwork for exploring the topic for my di ssertation studies was developed as a result of my participation in an administrative in ternship that took place at a local school district during my third year in the Ph.D program. As a new intern in the school I spent my first few days learning about the student population while monitori ng the cafeteria during the lunch hour. I will admit that I had not stepped into a public school cafeteria since my own high school experience so I was shocked to see that not much had cha nged. As I continued to watch the students’ interactions I noticed that, as in many schools, the students filed through the lunch line, sat down at their tables, and unwittingly began eating a meal of processed foods that were ultimately supposed to sustain them for the remainder of the day. While school lunches have never had the best reputation, I continued to observe the lunch room environment in order make note of anything else that might spark my interest. As I looked around the room I noticed many students who had fini shed eating and were left to read in a room that was inadequately lit by a few windows al ong the walls. My own existing environmental sensitivities drew me to continue to observe and I watched the students throw away their trash in

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the one garbage can provided by the school, without a recycling bin in sight. The students finished their lunch, bounced anxiously in their seats while others sat playing with their fried French toast sticks and flat sausage patties. Wh ile this scene may be typical of every lunchroom in the United States, I was left thinking, th ere has to be something better than this. Later on that same day I spoke to a classmate about my experience and he mentioned that I might find it worthwhile to look into the con cept of green schools. Up until this time, I had briefly read about the existence of this movement, and was interested in the idea of green schools, but more for my own personal interest. This single experience motivated me to look more seriously into the topic however I found that I w as only able to find superficial answers to my questions. My initial searches revealed that my aw areness of the issues was in a beginning stage of development and I simply needed more info rmation on what these schools were all about. I looked into how green schools became certified, what organizational components were associated with a green school, and the way in which the students in these environments were responding both academically and physically. I became incr easingly excited to discover that there were options out there and that a, “Green Movement,” already existed in education. However it struck me that something was still missing from this litera ture. I noticed, after searching for answers, that there was a lack of information detailing th e leader’s role in making the Green Movement come together. It became apparent to me at this point that my time in the Educational Leadership program at the Pennsylvania State University ha d obviously had an effect on me. As I skimmed through literature searches and article reviews my focus began to narrow as I searched for text detailing what the administrator’s role looks like in green schools. In my own practicum experience I began observing my mentor principal more closely and noticed how directly involved she was in the school and the vast numbe r of responsibilities and decisions she juggled throughout the day. I started to put these two co mponents together and created some questions

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that I considered relevant to further research re lated to my topic: How do principals run green schools? What are their responsibilities? How do th ey make decisions that are different from a non-green administrator? If they were at this school before it went green, what was their role in changing it? What draws these individuals to this cause and how do they work with it? As I looked for answers to these questions thr ough journals, books and dissertation searches I continued to come up empty-handed. Clearly, ther e were gaps in the literature on the subject, and as I became aware of the scarcity of inform ation, and my own personal need to find these answers, the topic of my dissertation became clear. In my opinion the Green School Movement is an exciting one, and although the movement continues to grow on a daily basis, it is still in the early stages. If the movement is going to continue to progress it would benefit fro m having a visionary leader who understands the needs of the population while considering ways in which the school can continue to promote its green purpose. Due to the exceptional experi ence it provides for students, knowledgeable administrators must be in place, who understand the needs of the school, the environment, and their student population. While green schools make the environment a priority in the physical building, curriculum and culture of the school, an administrator in this setting must be aware of their role and have the ability to make decisions that will positively impact the current students and also consider how this school can be su ccessful and educate children in the future. Statement of Purpose The purpose of my study is to examine the leadership practices of school principals who are promoting a social responsibility agenda; specifi cally through their work in a “green school.” A green school, as it is defined by the American A ssociation of School Administrators (2008) is a “facility that creates a healthy learning envi ronment for children and educators while reducing environmental impacts and lowering operating co sts, thereby saving schools energy, resources and money. A green school observes green buildin g and maintenance practices by using green

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chemicals or other alternatives to toxic chemicals; seeks to be energy efficient and mindful of resource consumption; serves nutritious food; and teaches students the importance of school, community and the earth’s environment and resources.” With this definition in mind, I investigated how social responsibility agendas lik e green schools are promoted and advanced on a daily basis by school based advocates in administ rative roles. To conduct such an inquiry, I compared the practices and intentional actions of a sample of school leaders working in green schools to the documented practices from the litera ture on leaders of more standard public schools. This comparison highlighted the differe nces and similarities of practice between the skills and knowledge necessary to perform the leader ship duties of a green school versus that of a standard public school. With this information, insights from the study have been revealed and provide a look at the nature of leadership in this specific social responsibility context. Research Questions While green schools are becoming an increasingly popular theme in educational systems, the literature on this topic is still relatively new, and therefore limited. With this in mind it is important to conduct the research through the le ns of both current bodies of literature as well as through the experiences of individuals working da ily in green schools. For the purpose of this study three major themes are highlighted and e xplored through the research questions listed below. Green Schools

What is the genesis of the Green Movement and its integration as a component of educational processes? •

Are there roles and responsibilities associated with leadership within a green school? If so, what are they? •

Is there a relationship between the Green Move ment and the leadership styles adopted by school leaders working in green schools? If so, what is it?

School leadership practices associated with green schools

Do individuals come to the school leadership role as a priori advocates of green schools or do they become advocates as outcomes of their appointment?

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What educational leadership styles, mode ls, and frameworks, documented by research and literature, are most representative of the practices of school leaders in green schools? •

How is school leadership in a green school sim ilar or different from that in other schools?

Social justice, responsibility, agency and the school principal

What are the attitudes, values and actions of school leader advocates of social justice, responsibility and agency? •

What do school leaders describe as their motivations for becoming involved in the Green Education Movement?

Significance of Study The Green Movement is constantly evolving an d impacting more and more facets of our everyday life. In the early stages of carrying out this study the literature on the green school topic seemed limited however it expanded significantly even during the few months during which this research was carried out. This study is therefore very timely in the literal sense of the word and makes an important contribution to our current understanding of the Green Movement and will contribute to the growing body of literature ava ilable on green schools. Through its existence, this dissertation will help to inform, both pr actitioners and researchers and will provide for significant implications for future study and practice. Most importantly this study acts as a support for the actions that are currently being implemented by principals and individuals leadi ng in green schools. While this study highlights the leadership styles, actions, and beliefs of sc hool principals, it should not overshadow the steps that these individuals are taking every day, in th eir schools. While this study provides a glimpse into what green school principals are doing, what they believe, and how they interact on a day-to- day basis, it also allows for the researcher to convey the importance of their actions to this audience, and to future researchers and lead ers who are interested in this topic. Structure and Organization of Dissertation The structure of this dissertation has been organized to give both the background on green schools, school leadership and social responsibility, while also allowing for ample

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discussion of the specific study and its releva ncy to the Green Movement. The dissertation begins with an introduction of how this topic came about and its meaning to the researcher. Chapter two provides a review of current lite rature available on the green school topic as well as supplemental information on important background literature. The literature review opens with a discussion of the green school research and how this movement came to be. With a significant portion of the section dedicated to the history of environmental education, the chapter then shifts to the current organizations , policies and actions that are in place. Chapter two also highlights literature that focuses on school leadership, environmental leadership, social justice and social responsib ility, which helped to tie the study and the information together. The school leadership discussion uses Leithwood’s “Changing Leadership for Changing Times,” as a framework with whic h to assess the leadership styles employed by school principals, which is a substantial portion of this study. Finally the literature review closes with a discussion of social responsibility practices in schools, and what school leaders need to consider when working in this environment. Chapter three of this study provides for a detailed description of the methodology that was employed for the data collection, analysis a nd display of results. While the data for this study was collected through four distinct st eps: document analysis, observation, and two interviews, the data was analyzed using multiple coding methods which ultimately resulted in the final analysis and results that are provided. Chapter four provides a detailed description of the data that was collected from the five participating principals in the form of five por traits of practice. Through this chapter, the researcher was able to describe the kind of school that the principal was working in, the population of children in that environment and th en a detailed profile of the leaders who were involved in this study.

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The display of data provided in chapter four sets the stage for the cross-case discussion and analysis of the data which is presented in chap ter five. Chapter five brings all of the data together to create a comprehensive image of what the role of a green school principal looks like. Finally, the dissertation closes with a concl uding chapter. The concluding chapter, chapter six, provides a brief overview of the study, an overall profile of green school leadership, the final results, as well as discussion of implicati ons for practice, research and theory, plans for future projects and of course a closing discussion about the study as a whole. Key Terms Ecological Literacy: “An understanding of how people and societies relate to each other and to natural systems and how they do so sustainably. It presumes both an awareness of interrelatedness of life and knowledge of how the world works as a physical system” (Orr, 1992a, p.92). Green School: “A facility that creates a healthy learning environment for children and educators while reducing environmental impact s and lowering operating costs, thereby saving schools energy, resources and money. A green sc hool observes green building and maintenance practices by using green chemicals or other altern atives to toxic chemicals; seeks to be energy efficient and mindful of resource consumption; serves nutritious food; and teaches students the importance of school, community and the earth ’s environment and resources” (American Association of School Administrators, 2008).

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED): “…a voluntary, consensus based national rating system for developing high-performance, sustainable buildings. LEED addresses all building types and emphasizes state-of-t he-art strategies in five areas: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials and resources selection, and indoor environmental quality” (USGBC, 2008a).

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US Green Building Council (USGBC): “Non-profit organization that certifies sustainable businesses, homes, hospitals, schools, and neighborhoods. USGBC is dedicated to expanding green building practi ces and education” (USGBC, 2008b).

Sustainability: is defined as

“meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

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Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The following literature review is provided to elaborate the purpose of the proposed study, as well as present the current research available on the Green School Movement. The literature review is organized into four sec tions. Each section highlights a separate body of literature, relevant to the research questions . The first section focuses on the historical background of the Green School Movement a nd closes with an overview of literature on environmental leadership, and how this practice applies to green schools. Section two offers a review of the leadership styles potentially appr opriate to a green school leader and presents information on the leadership practices the r esearcher might encounter while conducting the study. The third section discusses environmental leadership and its importance to the Green School Movement. The literature review clo ses with a discussion on the place of social responsibility in education and how a leader with this perspective might perceive their work. The Green School Movement In highlighting how it is that green schools have come to be, it is first necessary to look at where the Green Movement started. With our natural environment becoming ever more sensitive and at-risk, many educational leaders have made preservation and environmental consciousness a top priority. The result of this marriage betw een education and the environment is something called a “Green School.” A green school can take a number of forms and are usually schools that possess certain architectural attributes and have an eco-aware curriculum aimed at instructing students on the importance of environmen tal awareness and conservation. While environmental advocates and informa tion about ecological issues have been around for quite some time, it has not been un til recently that this information has been communicated to the public in a way that has made many people feel threatened and driven them to consequently take action. There are a va riety of reasons why the Green Movement has

Full document contains 171 pages
Abstract: This study examines the leadership practices of school principals who are promoting a social responsibility agenda; specifically through their work in a "green school." The study specifically investigated how social responsibility agendas like green schools are promoted and advanced on a daily basis by school based advocates in administrative roles. The role of the green school principal was specifically examined throughout this study to gain an understanding as to how principals lead and function on a daily basis. The central questions that guided this research were grounded in three separate bodies of literature that were all necessary to gaining an understanding of the principal's role. These research questions are: (1) Green Schools: What is the genesis of the Green Movement and its integration as a component of educational processes? Are there roles and responsibilities associated with leadership within a green school? If so, what are they? Is there a relationship between the Green Movement and the leadership styles adopted by school leaders working in green schools? If so, what is it? (2) School leadership practices associated with green schools: Do individuals come to the school leadership role as a priori advocates of green schools or do they become advocates as an outcome of their appointment? What educational leadership styles, models, and frameworks, documented by research and literature, are most representative of the practices of school leaders in green schools? How is school leadership in a green school similar or different from that in other schools? What are the challenges faced by school principals who are involved in a green school? (3) Social justice, responsibility, agency and the school principal: What are the attitudes, values and actions of school leader advocates of social justice, responsibility and agency? What do school leaders describe as their motivations for becoming involved in the Green School Movement? A case study methodology was adopted to conduct the study with five green school principals whose schools were located in Maryland, Washington D.C., Arizona and the two remaining schools were in Pennsylvania. The researcher implemented a three phase methodology that included examination of a document related to the principal's work as a leader of a green school, an observation in the principal's school and two separate interviews that focused on both the principals' day to day work and also their values, beliefs, motivations and challenges. The document analysis shed light on the principals' early experiences with ecological issues and in the greening process. The in-school observation period allowed the researcher to see how the green school was currently functioning and the actual degree to which the principal was implementing green school agendas in their school. The interviews revealed information about the principals' previous experiences, influences, and what they believe about the Green School Movement. The study shows that a green school leader plays six distinct roles. The roles are: inspirational/motivational/role model, supporter, collaborator, student, instructional leader and manager/planner. The study also revealed that the principals demonstrate actions related to instructional, participative, transformational and environmental leadership. Additionally it was discovered that while some of the participants came to the Green School Movement as a prior advocate for environmental issues, other principals became advocates of environmental education after the greening of the school began. In looking at what green school principals' value, five key values were identified. Green school principals are student-centered, they have a profound respect for teaching and collaboration, they feel it is important to include families and communities into the school, and then also promote ownership and stewardship of environmental action in the school. Finally the principals each communicated their own personal commitment to the environment and were able to discuss at length why it is important to them. These values motivated characteristic actions on the part of the principals. The key actions that the principals manifested were self-educating, shaping the curriculum around environmental issues, and then promoting powerful professional development experiences for the staff so that they too can be motivated to promote ecological issues in their practice. The study also found that green school principals are motivated by an internal need to feel challenged and the opportunity to task risks for what they feel are worthwhile causes. The principals discussed being externally motivated by environmental issues which in turn motivates them to become dedicated advocates. Finally, the researcher found that there were characteristic challenges associated with being a green school leader. The challenges were the construction and building process that takes place, the need for additional funding for green building and the hiring of teachers who are both highly qualified as educators as well as having knowledge of how to incorporate the environment into the subject matter. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)