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Job satisfaction, perceived career plateau, and the perception of promotability: A correlational study in television media

Dissertation
Author: Shon Miles
Abstract:
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 12.8 million new jobs will exist by 2016, increasing employment by 8.5%. Within this timeframe, employment within the broadcast television media industry will increase about 9%. The research problem addressed was the lack of understanding of factors that influence full-time television media employees' job satisfaction, perceived career plateau, and perception of promotability. Researchers have noted the importance of job satisfaction aimed at work attitudes and career plateau, yet career plateau continues to be a source of job dissatisfaction for many employees. Job dissatisfaction and career plateaus can have negative individual and organizational implications. The purpose of the study was to narrow the knowledge gap and understand the relationship among full-time television media employees' job satisfaction, perceived career plateau, and the perception of promotability. The research questions were designed to answer whether correlational relationships exist among full-time television media employees, job satisfaction, and perceived career plateau and to identify the role of certain demographics. Attribution theory was the theoretical framework used in this quantitative correlational study. Data were collected from 83 full-time television media employees via an online survey. Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to test the hypotheses. Results showed a significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and career plateau, and findings invite future research on the relationship between career plateau and gender. The results of the study could afford organizational leaders of any industry the ability to initiate career development and job enrichment programs to reduce the negative effects of plateauing and improve job satisfaction.

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ vii

LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................... viii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY ...........................................................1

Background ....................................................................................................................2

Problem Statement .........................................................................................................5

Purpose of the Study ......................................................................................................7

Theoretical Framework ..................................................................................................8

Definition of Terms......................................................................................................12

Research Design...........................................................................................................12

Research Questions ......................................................................................................13

Research Hypotheses ...................................................................................................14

Assumptions .................................................................................................................16

Limitations ...................................................................................................................16

Scope and Delimitations ..............................................................................................16

Significance of the Study .............................................................................................16

Summary ......................................................................................................................17

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ...........................................................................20

Research Strategy.........................................................................................................21

Historical Overview .....................................................................................................22

Attribution Theory ................................................................................................ 23

Job Satisfaction ..................................................................................................... 24

Career Plateau ....................................................................................................... 26

History of the Broadcast Industry ......................................................................... 28

Career Plateau and Job Satisfaction Relationship to Promotability.............................32

Perception of Promotability .........................................................................................37

Literature Gap ..............................................................................................................39

Conclusion ...................................................................................................................40

Summary ......................................................................................................................42

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS ...........................................................................44

Research Design...........................................................................................................45

Sample Design .............................................................................................................46

Research Questions ......................................................................................................48

Research Hypotheses ...................................................................................................48

Target Population and Sample .....................................................................................50

Instrumentation and Measures .....................................................................................50

Survey Instruments ......................................................................................................51

Data Collection ............................................................................................................52

Data Analysis ...............................................................................................................53

v Reliability and Validity ................................................................................................56

Job Satisfaction Survey ......................................................................................... 57

Career Plateau Survey ........................................................................................... 59

Ethical Procedures .......................................................................................................61

Summary ......................................................................................................................61

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS ...................................................................................................63

Tools, Data Collection, and Analysis ..........................................................................65

Demographic Variables ...............................................................................................68

Hypothesis Tests ..........................................................................................................73

Hypothesis 1.......................................................................................................... 73

Hypothesis 2.......................................................................................................... 76

Hypothesis 3.......................................................................................................... 77

Hypothesis 4.......................................................................................................... 78

Hypothesis 5.......................................................................................................... 80

Hypothesis 6.......................................................................................................... 81

Testing of Assumptions ...............................................................................................83

Hypothesis 1.......................................................................................................... 84

Hypothesis 2.......................................................................................................... 87

Hypothesis 3.......................................................................................................... 89

Hypothesis 4.......................................................................................................... 92

Hypothesis 5.......................................................................................................... 94

Hypothesis 6.......................................................................................................... 96

Power Analysis ..........................................................................................................100

Summary ....................................................................................................................101

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............104

Findings and Interpretations ......................................................................................105

Hypothesis 1........................................................................................................ 107

Hypothesis 2........................................................................................................ 108

Hypothesis 3........................................................................................................ 108

Hypothesis 4........................................................................................................ 108

Hypothesis 5........................................................................................................ 109

Hypothesis 6a ...................................................................................................... 109

Hypothesis 6b...................................................................................................... 110

Implications................................................................................................................110

Limitations .................................................................................................................111

Power of Hypotheses 5 and 6.............................................................................. 111

Coefficient of Determination .............................................................................. 113

Recommendations for Future Research .....................................................................113

Implications for Social Change ..................................................................................114

Conclusion .................................................................................................................115

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................118

vi APPENDIX A: JOB SATISFACTION AND CAREER PLATEAU SURVEY ............126

APPENDIX B: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS .............................................129

CURRICULUM VITAE ..................................................................................................130

vii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for the Variables Used in the Study (n = 83) ................... 67

Table 2. Regression Results for Hypothesis Tests 1 Through 6 (n = 83) ......................... 74

Table 3. Descriptive Statistics for Job Satisfaction Scores for Women and Men ............ 80

Table 4. Descriptive Statistics for Internal (Job Content) and External (Hierarchy) Career Plateau Scores for Women and Men ......................................................................... 82

Table 5. Power of the Regression Analyses for the Research Hypotheses ( α = .05, n = 83) ................................................................................................................................. 101

viii

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Frequency distribution for gender (n = 83). ...................................................... 69

Figure 2. Age distribution of the study participants. ........................................................ 69

Figure 3. Frequency distribution for number of years in the current organization. .......... 70

Figure 4. Frequency distribution for the number of years in the current position. ........... 70

Figure 5. Frequency distribution shows the number of years in the industry. .................. 71

Figure 6. Frequency distribution shows the level of education of the participants. ......... 72

Figure 7. Geographic distribution of the study participants (n = 83)................................ 72

Figure 8. Frequency distribution shows participants’ level in an organization (n = 83). . 73

Figure 9. Scatter plot with regression line and R 2 show the relationship between overall job satisfaction and internal (job content) career plateau. ........................................ 74

Figure 10. Scatter plot with regression line and R 2 show the relationship between overall job satisfaction and external (hierarchy) career plateau. .......................................... 78

Figure 11. Scatter plot with regression line and R 2 show the relationship between contingent rewards job satisfaction subscale and external (hierarchy) career plateau. ................................................................................................................................... 79

Figure 12. P-P plot for normality for Hypothesis 1 (n = 83). ........................................... 85

Figure 13. Histogram of the standardized residuals from the Hypothesis 1 regression analysis (n = 83, mean = 0.00, and standard deviation = 0.994). ............................. 86

Figure 14. Plot of standardized residuals against the standardized predicted values for the Hypothesis 1 regression analysis (n = 83). ............................................................... 86

Figure 15. P-P plot for normality for Hypothesis 2 (n = 83). ........................................... 88

ix Figure 16. Histogram of the standardized residuals from the Hypothesis 2 regression analysis (n = 83, mean = 0.00, and standard deviation = 0.988). ............................. 88

Figure 17. Plot of standardized residuals against the standardized predicted values for the Hypothesis 2 regression analysis (n = 83). ............................................................... 89

Figure 18. P-P plot for normality for Hypothesis 3 (n = 83). ........................................... 90

Figure 19. Histogram of the standardized residuals from the Hypothesis 3 regression analysis (n = 83, mean = 0.00, and standard deviation = 0.994). ............................. 91

Figure 20. Plot of standardized residuals against the standardized predicted values for the Hypothesis 3 regression analysis (n = 83). ............................................................... 91

Figure 21. P-P plot for normality for Hypothesis 4 (n = 83). ........................................... 92

Figure 22. Histogram of the standardized residuals from the Hypothesis 4 regression analysis (n = 83, mean = 0.00, and standard deviation = 0.994). ............................. 93

Figure 23. Plot of standardized residuals against the standardized predicted values for the Hypothesis 4 regression analysis (n = 83). ............................................................... 93

Figure 24. P-P plot for normality for Hypothesis 5 (n = 83). ........................................... 94

Figure 25. Histogram of the standardized residuals from the Hypothesis 5 regression analysis (n = 83, mean = 0.00, and standard deviation = 0.994). ............................. 95

Figure 26. Plot of standardized residuals against the standardized predicted values for the Hypothesis 5 regression analysis (n = 83). ............................................................... 95

Figure 27. P-P plot for normality for Hypothesis 6a (n = 83)........................................... 97

Figure 28. Histogram of the standardized residuals from Hypothesis 6a regression analysis (n = 83, mean = 0.00, and standard deviation = 0.994). ............................. 97

x Figure 29. Plot of standardized residuals against the standardized predicted values for the Hypothesis 6a regression analysis (n = 83)............................................................... 98

Figure 30. P-P plot for normality for Hypothesis 6b (n = 83). ......................................... 99

Figure 31. Histogram of the standardized residuals from the Hypothesis 6b regression analysis (n = 83, mean = 0.00, and standard deviation = 0.994). ............................. 99

Figure 32. Plot of standardized residuals against the standardized predicted values for the Hypothesis 6b regression analysis (n = 83). ........................................................... 100

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY The current study involved a search to examine what relationship exists between job satisfaction and the perceived career plateau among full-time employees from television media organizations across the United States. The television media industry has a reputation of being an exciting, creative, and evolving industry both internally and externally (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics [USBLS], 2007a). Through the technological integration of new media platforms such as Web sites, digital media, video games, advertising, and production, the nature of the television media industry is very innovative but often complex with dedicated employees who are aware of their futures within the growing industry (Buchwalter, 2005). With the changing realities of the television media environment, economic shift, mergers and acquisitions, and the goal to remain top industry competitors, some employees feel that with the evolving media culture there should be internal career growth opportunities, most notably for seasoned employees. The USBLS (2007b) projects 12.8 million new jobs will be created by 2016, increasing employment by 8.5%. It is also estimated that employment within the television industry will increase approximately 9% between 2006 and 2016. However, some employees perceive internal growth upward or laterally is not happening fast enough-if at all-and believe they have reached a career plateau (Ference, Stoner, & Warren, 1977; Heslin, 2005). According to Simmering (2007), while the opportunities for advancement might be motivating to employees who believe that they can move up within the organization at

2 a future date, employees who feel that they have been passed over for a promotion or are at a career plateau are likely to become discouraged and might choose to leave the organization. The crowned prince syndrome (Goldstein & Ford, 2002) occurs when upper management considers for advancement only those employees who have become visible to them. Rather than looking at a wider array of individual employees and their capabilities, upper management focuses on only one person, the crowned prince. This person is often involved in high-profile projects, has a powerful and prominent mentor, or has networked well with organizational leaders. There are often employees throughout an organization who are capable of, and interested in promotion, who management might overlook because of the more visible and obvious crowned prince, and who are likely to be promoted even if these other employees are available. Not only are performance problems a potential outcome of the syndrome, but also the motivation of current employees might suffer if they feel that management has overlooked their high performance. Any disparity might result in the turnover of high-quality employees overlooked for promotion (Simmering, 2007). The current research investigated what relationship exists between job satisfaction and the perceived career plateau of full-time television media employees across the United States within a thriving and evolving organizational culture that has employees feeling stalled in their career development (Broady-Preston & Steel, 2002). Background Researchers first studied the issue of career plateau in the 1970s, much after the inception of mass media outlets that began in the 1920s. These mass media outlets, which

3 consist of radio, print circulation, television, and Internet, were designed to reach a very large audience. With hundreds of television channels, the broad audience appeal could reasonably indicate a growing need for staffing and leadership exists within these media networks. Economic tendency and its resulting media factors (e.g., mergers and layoffs), and the number of employees seeking advancement opportunities appears low (Gunnink, 2008). Literature shows a direct relationship between job satisfaction and career plateau in the television media environment and experiencing a level of career plateau is likely (Heider, 1958). Within television media organizations, the practice of internally hiring gifted employees is customary, but some employees do not believe this is happening often or it is not happening to them (Patrick & Laschinger, 2006; Simmering, 2007). Vertical hiring practices or promoting senior employees are not as common as they used to be. A common practice has been to promote based on talent or who you know. Experienced employees are aware of the practice and can sometimes understand its rationale, but most do not agree with its practice (Huffman & Torres, 2002). Employees believe they are eligible for promotion if they work hard at their jobs and follow industry rules. As the television media industry grows and new challenges and responsibilities increase, some employees feel so should the reward and recognition of a new title and not just the customary merit increase sometimes used as a tool to quiet promotion talk (Patrick & Laschinger, 2006). Despite the demanding nature of the work, the television media environment is a vibrant industry due to the glamour aspect of celebrity and parties embedded in its core

4 (USBLS, 2007). Regarding the long-term career aspect of working in television media, there are sometimes considerations to the nature of the industry where one could argue he or she is at a plateau and do not know how to get out of it. Because the television media industry is a challenging industry in which to gain employment (the basis of gaining entry is often whom you know), most full-time employees will not voluntarily leave their job (Huffman & Torres, 2002). Having employees who want to stay in their occupation is an advantage to some organizations for employers retain skilled employees. However, some employees are dissatisfied in the course of their career and may seek opportunities elsewhere. The often unspoken causes of job dissatisfaction are career plateau, heavy workload, and low salary (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007). In the television media industry, most full-time employees are nonunion and are considered at-will ,

which means an employer can terminate an employee for any or no reason at any time (Frank & Breslow, 2000). The who-you-know factor to getting hired or promoted into new roles has an effect on individuals who feel organizational leadership should do the right thing (as far as the senior and deserving employee is concerned) and promote him or her and not create an atmosphere or relationship that reflects the negative components of job satisfaction such as absenteeism and low morale. Trust among employees and leadership is critical for the strength and success of an organization. As such, the reputation of an organization must match its external perception (Kotter, 2008). Human resource and leadership personnel must both work diligently with senior employees to improve low job satisfaction levels and keep in mind the reputation of the

5 organization

and its overall mission. Organizational growth and satisfied employees are the ingredients to success (Jensen & Luthans, 2006; Kansas State University, 2009). Understanding the causes of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among staff can be an important step to ensuring the continued success of business organizations (Heslin, 2005; Roberts & Fusfield, 1988). Problem Statement Approximately 73% of workers within the media industry work in television and radio broadcasting, with 39% employed within television (USBLS, 2007). Media organizations depend on employees for operational continuity. Researchers (i.e., Bardwick, 1986; McCleese & Eby, 2006; Milliman, 1992; Sutton, 2005) have noted the importance of job satisfaction aimed at work attitudes and career plateau, yet career plateau continues to be a source of job dissatisfaction for many employees (Chao, 1990; Heslin, 2005). The general problem and focus of the current research study was that although the allure of the television media industry can appear glamorous, the nature of the work is demanding, and as such, job dissatisfaction and perceived career plateau exist among full-time television media employees. The goal to investigating the problem was understanding television media employees’ perception of promotability by examining the relationship between job satisfaction and perceived career plateau. Organizational leaders who do not demonstrate an awareness and sense of urgency to the job dissatisfaction and perceived career plateau expressed, documented, or experienced by some of its employees might negatively affect morale and experience some forms of resistance (Kotter, 2008). Despite the need to improve employee morale,

6 researchers observed that most organizational leaders focus more on job performance (i.e., attitude and behavior) than job satisfaction (McCleese & Eby, 2006; Wright State University, 2007). Failure to focus on job satisfaction and career plateau initiatives can result in job dissatisfaction symptoms such as low productivity and turnover (Heslin, 2005; Sparta, 2008). Job dissatisfaction can have an impact on television media employees’ enthusiasm to maintain effective performance levels because they no longer feel challenged by their job responsibilities and perceive they are experiencing a career plateau (Bardwick, 1986; Ference et al., 1977; Sutton, 2005). Sutton (2005) noted that the concept of a career plateau frequently evokes negative connotations for both individuals and organizations; however, these might be unreasonable assumptions. Patterson et al. (1987) proposed that the majority of organizational workers are solid citizens who perform satisfactorily though they have reached their career pinnacle. Other researchers have similarly reported that plateaus are not synonymous with poor performance (Bardwick, 1986; Feldman & Weitz, 1988). Despite arguments to the contrary, evidence indicates that career plateaus can have negative implications for individuals and organizations. Career plateaus, for example, have a negative association with attitudes such as job satisfaction (Allen, Poteet, & Russell, 1998; Burke, 1989; Chao, 1990; Tremblay, Roger, & Toulouse, 1995), organizational commitment (Allen et al., 1998; Stout, Slocum, & Cron, 1988) and organizational identification (Chao, 1990). Plateaued employees have also reported more absences (Near, 1985) and strong intentions to leave their organizations (Allen et al.,

7 1998; Burke, 1989). Allen et al. (1998) found that the most negative outcomes were associated with those people who perceive themselves as double-plateaued ; that is, they felt their jobs lacked challenge and promotional opportunities, an occurrence that Bardwick (1986) had predicted (Allen et al., (1998) as cited in Sutton, 2005). In sum of the Problem Statement, a gap observed in the management literature related directly to the television media industry concerns the relationship that the job satisfaction and perceived career plateau constructs have on full-time employees’ perception of promotability. This research contributes to the current body of media and management literature as it examines the relationship between job satisfaction and perceived career plateau of full-time television media employees. In the current study, employees in an industry with a thriving and evolving organizational culture across the United States, who feel stalled in their career (Broady-Preston & Steel, 2002), identified and discussed the role certain demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, geographic region, tenure, and education level) play in a relationship between job satisfaction and perceived career plateau. Purpose of the Study The primary purpose of the study was to examine what factors of a relationship exists between job satisfaction and perceived career plateau of full-time employees from television media organizations across the United States. Some objectives of the study were (a) to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and career plateau and (b) to identify and discuss certain demographic characteristics that might relate to the job satisfaction and career plateau relationship.

8 In addition to these objectives, the study explored job satisfaction factors of (a) performance (attitude and behavior), (b) motivation and needs, and (c) organizational success. The study also explored career plateau factors of (a) hierarchy, (b) perception, (c) promotion, (d) job content, (e) job enrichment, and (f) outcomes. In examining the relationship between job satisfaction and perceived career plateau, the secondary purpose of the study was to gather quantitative data to render new information in the correlation analysis of demographic factors such as age, gender, geographic region, tenure, and education level and their relationship to job satisfaction and perceived career plateau. Finally, the study explored the existing management literature of job satisfaction and career plateau of television media employees in an attempt to find what respondents attribute to the perceived career plateau. Theoretical Framework Three theories comprised the basis of the study. The first was Heider’s (1958) theory of attribution, which helped to understand the causes of human behavior. The basis of attribution theory is that people want to know the reasons for the actions that they and others take; they want to attribute causes to behaviors they see rather than assume that the behaviors are random, which allows people to assume some feeling of control over their own behaviors and over situations (Heider, 1958, p. 5). Psychologist Fritz Heider (1896–1988) first developed attribution theory in his 1958 book The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. Heider proposed that what people perceived and believed about what they saw dictated how they would act, even if their beliefs about what they perceived were invalid (p. 72). Psychologist Bernard Weiner and

9 colleagues further developed Heider’s proposed theory of attribution in the 1970s and 1980s, and researchers have used this new theoretical framework primarily in current attribution research. Psychologist Harold Kelley (1967), who examined how individuals could use consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus to establish the validity of their perceptions, provided a major development to attribution theory. According to Simmering (2007), attributions are critical to management because perceived causes of behavior might influence managers’ and employees’ judgments and actions. For instance, managers must often observe employee performance and make related judgments. If a manager attributes an employee’s poor performance to a lack of effort, then the outcome is likely to be negative for that employee; he or she may receive a poor performance appraisal rating or even be terminated from the job. Conversely, if a manager perceives that an employee’s poor performance is due to a lack of skill, the manager might assign the employee to further training or provide more instruction or coaching. Making an inaccurate judgment about the causes of poor performance can have negative repercussions for an organization. Attributions also might influence employee motivation. Employees who perceive the cause of their success to be outside of their control might be reluctant to attempt new tasks and might lose motivation to perform well in the workplace. Conversely, employees who attribute their success to themselves are more likely to have high motivation for work. Thus, understanding attributions that people make can have a strong effect on both employee performance and managerial effectiveness (Heider, 1958; Simmering, 2007).

10 The second theory that informed the current study was job satisfaction, which is often considered in terms of job performance (McCleese & Eby, 2006). Research on the topic began in the early 1920s with the Hawthorne studies (Mayo, Roethlisberger, & Dickson, 1924; Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007). At the end of World War II in the 1940s, employers showed an increased interest in understanding relevant issues associated with job satisfaction and new theories emerged. Several studies have indicated that happy or satisfied employees are more productive than those who are not (Heslin, 2005; Mardanove, Heischmidt, & Henson, 2008; Wright State University, 2007). Wright State University (2007) explained that satisfaction and performance are related but declared that satisfaction does not cause performance; rather, satisfaction and performance are the result of employee personality characteristics such as self-esteem, emotional stability, extroversion, and conscientiousness. According to Weiner (1980), high achievers will approach tasks rather than avoid them because of their self-confidence and sense of pride that motivate them to succeed. As Klein (2007) noted in a review of the job satisfaction literature, researchers have been interested in improving productivity among employees for many years. Germinal theorists such as Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966) researched the needs of employees and employee motivation. Both found that the more organizations focus on developing human relationships and motivation internally, the more productive the employees tend to be. However, according to Locke (1969), job satisfaction is the relationship between what a person wants from a job and what the job actually offers.

11 Brayfield and Crockett (1955) determined no evidence exists of a relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance. However, much of the research conducted by Locke (1969, 1976; Locke & Schweiger, 1979), Maslow (1954), McGregor (1960), Herzberg (1966), and more recently Bryman (1992) has shown a relationship exists between job satisfaction and performance. Although organizations in the 21st century are much different from organizations following World War II, the impact of employee job satisfaction on an organization can still affect the organization’s success. The third and final theory that informed the study is career plateau. The earliest form of the career plateau term was coined and defined by Ference et al. (1977) as “the point in one’s career where the likelihood of promotion is low” (p. 602). Two circumstances are presumed to result in a career plateau: (a) an individual’s ambition, skills, or abilities are incongruent with the needs of the job in a given career path or (b) the organization lacks job opportunities for qualified or willing candidates. An assumption exists such that when an individual is not advancing in his or her career, it is likely his or her salary will plateau as well (Steen, 2008). Based on Ference et al.’s (1977) definition, researchers historically operationalized plateau status based on job tenure. Employees had plateaued if their current job tenure exceeded 5 or 7 years (Hall, 1985; Slocum, Cron, Hansen, & Rawlings, 1985; Stout et al., 1988). Because of the hierarchical structure of most organizations, early plateau research is typically examined in organizations, as opposed to being a career phenomenon (Blau, Paul, & St. John, 1993; Chao, 1990; Hall, 1985; Sutton, 2005).

12 A further basis for the study was in the rapid changes of the world, particularly within broadcast television media organizations. Career plateau factors include individual skills and abilities, individual needs and values, and the lack of intrinsic motivation. Organizational and demographic changes include advancing technologies, increased work competition, higher education levels, and longer, healthier lives. Definition of Terms Career plateau : The point in one’s career where the likelihood of advancement is low (Ference et al., 1977; Milliman, 1992). Job satisfaction : How content an individual is with his or her job (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007; Mayo et al., 1924). Perception : An individual’s internal idea of where he or she would like to be in his or her career. Perception is an individual’s staunch belief of deserving something that should have been achieved a long time ago (Bem, 1967; Bruner, 1996). Perception of promotability : An individual’s capacity and willingness to perform effectively at higher job levels (De Pater, Van Vianen, Bechtoldt, & Klehe, 2009). An individual’s internal idea of where he or she would like to be in his or her career (Heider, 1958). Perception of promotability is the perception an individual has when he or she has been in a single position for more than 5 years and believes there is an opportunity for internal promotion (Chao, 1990; Stout et al., 1988; Viega, 1981). Research Design The linear regression analysis of the quantitative study examined survey data to obtain job satisfaction and career plateau scores of full-time television media employees.

Full document contains 148 pages
Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 12.8 million new jobs will exist by 2016, increasing employment by 8.5%. Within this timeframe, employment within the broadcast television media industry will increase about 9%. The research problem addressed was the lack of understanding of factors that influence full-time television media employees' job satisfaction, perceived career plateau, and perception of promotability. Researchers have noted the importance of job satisfaction aimed at work attitudes and career plateau, yet career plateau continues to be a source of job dissatisfaction for many employees. Job dissatisfaction and career plateaus can have negative individual and organizational implications. The purpose of the study was to narrow the knowledge gap and understand the relationship among full-time television media employees' job satisfaction, perceived career plateau, and the perception of promotability. The research questions were designed to answer whether correlational relationships exist among full-time television media employees, job satisfaction, and perceived career plateau and to identify the role of certain demographics. Attribution theory was the theoretical framework used in this quantitative correlational study. Data were collected from 83 full-time television media employees via an online survey. Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to test the hypotheses. Results showed a significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and career plateau, and findings invite future research on the relationship between career plateau and gender. The results of the study could afford organizational leaders of any industry the ability to initiate career development and job enrichment programs to reduce the negative effects of plateauing and improve job satisfaction.