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Influence of teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences on implementation of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education in rural, public primary schools in the Kakamega districts, Kenya

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Phoebe Khasiala Wakhungu
Abstract:
Sub-Saharan Africa has been severely affected by HIV and AIDS. Kenya's education sector, aiming to protect learners from HIV infection, has developed the Education Sector Policy on HIV and AIDS and an HIV/AIDS curriculum. This policy mandates the incorporation of HIV/AIDS information in curricula and extra-curricular activities in learning institutions, including primary schools, by teachers. The goal of this dissertation study was to investigate the factors influencing teachers' implementation of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education in rural, public, mixed, day, primary schools in Kakamega Central, East, North, and South districts in Kenya. A mixed-methods approach was applied, combining quantitative and qualitative methods and techniques. A self-administered survey was conducted of 516 teachers in 40 primary schools in the four districts, with a 92 percent response. Survey data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The independent variables included teachers' attitudes and beliefs derived from the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) framework that guided the study. These constructs were teacher attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Variables external to the theory--teacher training in HIV/AIDS education and the class level taught--were also examined. Qualitative data was collected from interviews of teachers in two schools that had participated in the quantitative part of the study; the data was analyzed using an ethnographic approach. Quantitative findings showed that teachers' in-service training in HIV/AIDS education, attitudes, and class level taught, and their perceived behavioral control had an effect on their implementation of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education. The qualitative results were consistent with these findings. The study's findings have several policy implications in terms of the significance and value of teacher training and teachers' access to knowledge and resources in relation to teaching HIV/AIDS education in the classroom.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

................................ ................................ ................................ .........

iii

A BSTRACT

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . v

LIST OF TABLES

................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... x

LIST OF FIGURES

................................ ................................ ................................ ...................

xi

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

................................ ................................ ................................ ......................

1

Research Questions

................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 2

Conceptual Framework

................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 3

An Overview of Data Collection Methods

................................ ................................ .................. 4

Context of Study

................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 4

Overview of HIV/AIDS in Sub - Saharan Africa

................................ ................................ .......... 7

HIV/AIDS Pr evention in Sub - Saharan African Countries

................................ .......................... 9

Background on HIV/AIDS in Kenya

................................ ................................ ......................... 11

Government Policy on HIV/AIDS Education ................................ ................................ ........ 12

Teacher Training on HIV/AIDS Curriculum

................................ ................................ ......... 15

Significance of the Study

................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 16

Structure of the Dissertation

................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 18

Limitations of the study

................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 20

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 22

Introduction

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 22

Overview of the Impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa

................................ ................................ ....... 22

Approaches to Handling the HIV/AIDS Crisis

................................ ................................ .......... 25

The Role of Teachers and HIV/AIDS Education in Schools

................................ ..................... 29

Formal Education and HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................................ ............ 33

Teacher training in HIV/AIDS education

................................ ................................ .................. 37

Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Teacher Training Programs

................................ .... 41

School Communities and HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................................ ....... 43

Stakeholders‘ Participation in School - based HIV/AIDS Programs ................................ ....... 43

Communities and their Influence on HIV/AIDS Education

................................ .................. 45

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a Framework

................................ ......................... 48

The Rationale for Selecting the Theory of Planned Behavior

................................ ............... 49

Variables Related to HIV/AIDS Implementation

................................ ................................ ...... 51

Teachers‘ Attitudes

................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 52

Teachers‘ Perceived Subjective Norms

................................ ................................ ................. 53

Teachers‘ Perceived Behavioral Control

................................ ................................ ............... 54

Teacher Training in HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................................ ............ 56

Class Level Tau ght

................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 57

Summary

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 57

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 60

Introduction

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 60

The Research Design

................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 60

Data Collection

................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 61

Sampling Procedures

................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 62

Selection of Schools and Teachers to Participate in the Study

................................ .............. 62

viii

Target Population

................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 66

Quantitative Data Collection Instru ment

................................ ................................ ................... 66

The Survey Instrument

................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 66

Pretest of Survey

................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 69

Designing a Database and Screening Survey Data

................................ ................................ .... 70

Depende nt and Independent Variables and their Measurement Scales

................................ ..... 72

Dependent Variable Measure: Implementation of Classroom - based

................................ .... 73

HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 73

Independent Variable Measure: Teachers‘ Attitudes

................................ ............................. 74

Ind ependent Variable Measure: Teachers‘ Perceived Subjective Norms

.............................. 75

Independent Variable Measure: Teachers‘ Perceived Behavioral Co ntrol

............................ 75

Independent Variable Measure: In - service Training in HIV/AIDS Education

..................... 76

Independent variable measure: Class Level Taught

................................ .............................. 76

Quantitative Data Analysis

................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 77

Structural Equation Model A nalysis (SEM)

................................ ................................ .............. 78

Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses

................................ ................................ ..... 81

Research Question #1

................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 82

Research Question # 2

................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 82

Research Question # 3

................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 83

Sample Descriptive Questions

................................ ................................ ................................ ... 83

Qualitative Research Question

................................ ................................ ................................ ... 84

Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis

................................ ................................ .................. 84

Selecting Sch ools for Collecting Qualitative Data

................................ ................................ 84

Collection of Qualitative Data

................................ ................................ ............................... 87

Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation

................................ ................................ ......... 89

Validity and Reliability Requirements of the Data Collected

................................ ................... 90

Quantitative Data

................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 90

Qualitative Data

................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 91

Strengths and Weaknesses of t he Methodology

................................ ................................ ........ 92

Summary

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 93

CHAPTER 4: QUANTITATIVE FINDINGS

................................ ................................ ............................. 94

Introduction

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 94

Missing Data and Normality

................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 95

Descriptive Data Findings of the Survey

................................ ................................ ................... 96

Characteristics of Respondents

................................ ................................ .............................. 96

Description of the Surv ey Data

................................ ................................ ................................ .. 99

Age and Gender

................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 100

In - service Training in HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................................ ....... 101

In - service Training in HIV/AIDS Education and Class Level

................................ ............ 102

Number of Lessons and Hours spent Teaching HIV/AIDS and In - service Training

.......... 103

Teaching HIV/AIDS Education in Terms of Lesso ns and Class Level Taught

.................. 104

Perceived Benefits of Teaching HIV/AIDS and Class Level

................................ .............. 105

Perceived Adequacy of Teaching Materials and Class Level

................................ .............. 108

Summary

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 109

Modeling Implementation of Classroom - based HI V/AIDS Education

................................ ... 111

Measurement Scales of Variables

................................ ................................ ............................ 113

ix

Dependent Variable Measure

................................ ................................ ................................ ... 114

Implementation of Classroom - based HIV/AIDS Education ................................ ................ 114

I ndependent Variable Measures

................................ ................................ ............................... 115

In - service Training in HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................................ ....... 115

Teachers‘ Attitudes

................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 116

Teachers‘ Perceived Subjective Norms

................................ ................................ ............... 117

Teachers‘ Perceiv ed Behavioral Control

................................ ................................ ............. 118

Model Assessment of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Model

................................ .... 123

Parameter Estimates of the TPB Measurement Models

................................ ...................... 123

Reliability of Indicators of the TPB Model

................................ ................................ ......... 123

The Structural Model of the TPB Model

................................ ................................ ............. 124

Assessment of t he TPB Model as a Whole

................................ ................................ .......... 125

Model Assessment the Modified TPB Model

................................ ................................ .......... 126

Parameter Estimates of the Modified TPB Measurement Models ................................ ....... 126

Reliability of Indicators of the Modified TPB Model

................................ ......................... 129

T he structural Model of the Modified TPB Model

................................ .............................. 131

Assessment of the Modified TPB Model as a Whole

................................ .......................... 132

Comparison of the TPB and Modified TPB Models

................................ ............................... 134

Testing Hypotheses using the Modified TPB Model

................................ ............................... 135

Hypot hesis 1a: Teachers‘ Attitudes

................................ ................................ .................... 135

Hypothesis 1b: Teachers‘ Perceived Subjective Norms

................................ ...................... 136

Hypothesis 1c: Teachers Perceived Behavioral Control

................................ ...................... 136

Hypothesis 2: Class Level Taught

................................ ................................ ....................... 136

Hypothesis 3: In - service Training in HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................ 137

Summary

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 137

CHAPTER 5: QUALITATIVE FINDINGS

................................ ................................ ..............................

139

Introduction

................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 139

Context of the Two School Sites

................................ ................................ ............................. 140

Mulembe Primary Schoo l

................................ ................................ ................................ .... 141

Weru Primary School

................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 145

Demographics of Interviewees

................................ ................................ ................................ 150

Qualitative Findings that Substantiate Quantitative Findings

................................ ................. 153

Teachers‘ Attitudes toward Teaching HIV/AIDS Education

................................ .............. 153

Perceived Behavioral Control towards Teaching HIV/AIDS Education

............................. 156

Subjective Norms (Social Norms) and Teaching HIV/AIDS Education

............................. 158

In - service Training of Teachers

................................ ................................ ........................... 163

Class Level

................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 165

Qualitative Findings that Go Beyond Quantitative Findings

................................ ................... 175

Myths and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS

................................ ................................ ...... 175

HIV/AIDS Victims as HIV/AIDS A dvocates in Schools

................................ .................... 177

Sexual Abuse of Young Girls in the Community

................................ ................................ 179

Community Support and HIV/AIDS Education in Schools

................................ ................ 181

CHAPTER

6:DISCUSSION

................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................

184

Introduction

................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 184

A Synopsis of the Study Problem and Methodology

................................ ............................... 184

x

Discu ssion of the Findings of the Study

................................ ................................ .................. 187

In - service Training

................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 188

Class Level Taught

................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 191

Teachers‘ Attitudes

................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 194

Teachers‘ Perceived Behavioral Co ntrol

................................ ................................ ............. 195

Teachers‘ Perception of Subjective Norms (Social norms)

................................ ................. 198

Theoretical Reflection on the Theory of Planned Behavior

................................ .................... 204

Policy Implications

................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 206

Directions for Further Research

................................ ................................ ............................... 210

CONCLUSION

................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 212

Appendix A: Location of the Four Kakamega Districts

................................ .......................... 215

Appendix B: Research Permit from the National Council for

................................ ................. 217

Research and Technology, Kenya

................................ ................................ ........................... 217

Appendix C: Human Subjects Approval

................................ ................................ ................. 218

Appendix D: Research Permit from Kakamega South, District E ducation Office

.................. 219

Appendix E: The Survey for the Study

................................ ................................ .................... 220

Appendix F: Interview Guide for the Study

................................ ................................ ............ 225

Appendix G:

Informed Consent Statement

................................ ................................ .............. 226

Appendix H: Survey Results

................................ ................................ ................................ .... 228

Appendix I

................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 233

REFERENCES

................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 240

CURRICULUM VITAE

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Kakamega Administrative Divisions and Demographics Statistics (2005)

.......................

6

Table 1.2: Num ber of Primary Schools in the Four Districts (2009)

................................ .......................

7

Table 1.3: Number of boys and girls in the four districts (2009)

................................ ..............................

7

Table 3 .1: Specification of Dependent and Independent Variables

................................ ......................

77

Table 4.1: Implementation of HIV/AIDS Education Dependent Variable Scale

............................

115

Table 4.2: Class Level Taught

................................ ................................ ................................ .......................

115

Table 4.3: In - service Training in HIV/AIDS Education

................................ ................................ ........

116

Table 4.4: Teachers‘ Attitud es Scale ................................ ................................ ................................ ............

117

Table 4.5: Teachers‘ Perceived Subjective Norms Scale

................................ ................................ .......

118

Table 4.6: Teachers‘ Perceived Behavioral Control Scale

................................ ................................ ....

119

Table 4.7: Descriptive Statistics of Latent Variables in the Statistical Analyses (n=475)

...........

120

Table 4.8: Parameter Estimates of the 15 Indicators in the Modified TPB Measurement Model for the Independent Latent Variables

................................ ................................ ................................ ...........

127

Table 4.8 –

(Continued)

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...

128

Table 4.9: Parameter Estimates of the Two Indicators in the Modified TPB Measurement Model for the Dependent Latent Variable

................................ ................................ ................................ ................

129

Table 4.10: Reliability of 17 Indicators in the Modified TPB Mo del

................................ ................

130

Table 4.11: Overall Fit Indices for the Modified TPB Model

................................ ..............................

133

xi

Table 4.12: Correlation Matrix of Variables in the Struct ural Modified TPB Model

...................

133

Table 6.1: Teachers‘ Demographics at Mulembe Primary School Kakamega, North district

....

151

Table 6.2: Teachers‘ Demographics at Weru Primary School in Kakamega, East district

..........

152

Class Level in Relation to Time and Lesson Spent Teaching HIV/AIDS Education

....................

166

Content of HIV/AIDS Education and Class Level Taught

................................ ................................ ....

17 4

Table 1: Parameter Estimates of the 13 Indicators in the TPB Measurement Model for the Independent Latent

Variables

................................ ................................ ................................ .........................

233

Table 1 -

(Continued)

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........

234

Table 2: Parameter Estimates of the 2 Indicators in the TPB Measurement Model for the D ependent Latent Variable

................................ ................................ ................................ .............................

234

Table 3: Reliability of 15 Indicators in the TPB Model

................................ ................................ .........

235

Table 4: Overall Fit Indices for the TPB

Model

................................ ................................ .......................

236

Table 5: Correlation Matrix of Latent Variables in the Structural TPB Model

...............................

237

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1: Conceptual Framework of the Hypothesized TPB Model

................................ .................

79

Figure 3.2: Conceptual Framework of the Hypothesized Modified TPB Model

..............................

80

Figure 4.1: Percentage Distribution of Teachers Based on In - service Training

..............................

102

in HIV/AIDS Education and Class Level

................................ ................................ ................................ ...

102

Figure 4.2: Percentage of Teachers‘ Rating s of how Beneficial HIV/AIDS ................................ ...

106

Education was for Students by Class Level

................................ ................................ ...............................

106

Figure 4.3: Percentage Distribution of Teachers' Perspectives about

................................ .................

108

Adequacy of Materials and Class Level

................................ ................................ ................................ ......

108

Figure 4.4: Conceptual Framework of the Hypothesized TPB Model

................................ ...............

113

Figure 4.5: Conceptual Framework of the Hypothesized Modified TPB Model

............................

113

Figure 4.6: Standardized Structural Regression Coefficients for the Modified TPB Model

.......

131

1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

In 1999, the Kenya n government

declared HIV/AIDS a national disaster (Nyaga et al., 2004). The National AIDS Control Council (NACC) was developed

in 2000 to organize and coordinate a multi - sectoral approach to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country (Mbwika et al., 2004) .

In Kenya today ,

numerous institutions including schools, health clinics, and the media are implementing HIV/AIDS prevention programs (Duflo et al., 2006) . Several non - governmental organizations (NGOs) are implementing HIV/AIDS prevention programs in schools and churches (Duflo et al., 2006). Bilateral donors, the World

Bank and non - governmental organizations are funding efforts to fight against HIV/AIDS (Nyaga et al., 2004) .

T his study focus es

on how formal education

in Kenya

and teachers are a v ehicle to

fight the spread of HIV infection among schooling - going children

and youth . It is assumed that formal education can play an important role in helping people make informed decisions about their health, including in areas such as sexual behavior (ActionAID, 2003; World

Bank, 2002 a ) . This belief is manifested in the natio nal curriculum on HIV/ AIDS,

encompassing primary through university levels. At the primary school level, the objective is to provide information on basic medical facts about HIV transmission, prevention, and care of people living with AIDS.

While HIV/AIDS

instruction has been

mandated in Kenya for more than a decade, little is known about its implementation in practice, particularly at the primary school level. Anecdotal evidence suggests

uneven implementation of the curriculum by teachers. This dissertati on study attempts to identify factors that influence primary school teachers‘ implementation of classroom - based HIV/AIDS education. It reports

on the findings of a cross - sectional survey and interviews

2

conducted with teachers in rural, public, mixed 1 , day 2 , primary 3

schools in Kakamega Central, East, North, East and South districts in the Western Province of Kenya . See Figure 1 and 2 in Appendix A. The dissertation analyzes rural, public, primary mixed day school teachers‘

implementation of the HIV/AIDS cu rriculum through the lens of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

Research Q uestions

The central question that this research addressed was: What attitudes, beliefs, and experiences influence teachers’ implementation of classroom - based HIV/AIDS education in rur al, public, primary, mixed, day schools in the Kakamega districts? The specific elements of the research question were explored through both quantitative and qualitative research questions. This study drew primarily on a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (A jzen, 1988, 1991, 2002; Ajzen & Madden, 1986)

framework and two additional variables: (a) class level taught by teacher, and (b) teacher training in HIV/AIDS education. These variables are external to the framework, but other studies have shown them to be important (Burak, 1994; Mathews, Boon, Flisher, & Schaalma, 2006) . The specific qualitative question that was explored in this study was: What are teachers’ understandings about classroom - based HIV/AIDS education in terms of their attitudes, perceived beha vioral control, and subjective norms about teaching HIV/AIDS education in the classroom; class level taught; and teacher HIV/AIDS training?

1

These are schools that educate both girls and boys.

2

Students in these kinds of schools come to school in the morning and go home in the evening.

3

It is sometimes referred to as elementary education. It is t he education program that give s

students , ―a

sound basic education in reading, writing, and mathematics along with an elementary understanding of other subjects such as history, geography, natural science, social science, religion, art and music. These sub jects serve to develop pupils‘ ability to obtain and use information they need about

their home, community, and country ‖ (UNESCO 2007, section 5).

3

Conceptual F ramework

Teachers are the main implementers of HIV/AIDS education in Kenyan primary schools. Therefore,

it is important to understand the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences they possess, in addition to the external factors that actually influence the way they teach HIV/AIDS education in the classroom. This dissertation study was primarily guided by the TPB

(Ajzen, 1988, 1991, 2002; Ajzen & Madden, 1986) . These scholars argue that this theory predicts deliberate behavior –

in this case related to teaching HIV/AIDS education –

because behavior can be deliberate and planned. In this study, the theory was used to examine individual teachers‘ attitudes, beliefs, and experiences, and external factors that influenced the implementation of HIV/AIDS education in the classroom. The TPB framework analyzed factors internal to the teacher, while the variables class level

taught by teacher and HIV/AIDS training were considered as factors external to the teacher. The two variables, class level taught by the teacher and HIV/AIDS training received by the teacher, that are not part of the TPB framework were included because ot her studies have shown that these variables are relevant to the implementation of HIV/AIDS in the classroom (Burak, 1994; Mathews et al., 2006) . In sum, there were five independent variables that were investigated in this study. They were: teachers‘ attitu des, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control derived from the constructs of the TPB; in addition to teacher training in HIV/AIDS education; and the class level taught that were external to this theory. Investigating both categories of factors he lped further our understanding of teachers‘ implementation of HIV/AIDS in the classroom and how to prepare them more effectively to implement HIV/AIDS education in primary school classrooms.

4

An Overview of Data Collection M ethods

A concurrent, mixed metho ds design was used in this study. In accordance with this design, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected at the same time (Creswell, 2003; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998; Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003) . The data were collected by means of a self - ad ministered, structured survey and individual, face - to - face interviews with teachers in participating primary schools in the four districts. A concurrent mixed methods design was used because

this study was

exploratory; therefore, a self -

administered surve y and individual, face - to - face interviews were the most appropriate methods to apply (Creswell, 2003; Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003) . These two approaches also allowed for a comparison of findings from the two methods, which enriched understanding of the phen omenon that was studied. The survey enabled data collection from a large sample of teachers

and the interviews provided details about important findings in this study (Creswell, 2003; Greene, Caracelli, & Graham, 1989; Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003) .

Context

of S tudy

The former Kakamega district was one of eight districts that make up Kenya‘s Western Province. This study was conducted in four new districts that resulted from division of the former Kakamega district.

4

Consequently historical information pro vided about them comes from information that was collected on the Kakamega district.

The former Kakamega district was comprised of seven administrative divisions, which were Ikolomani, Ileho, Kabras, Kakamega - municipality, Lurambi, Navakholo and Shinyalu (See

4

At the pre - dissertation fieldwork (2006) and proposal defense phases of this study (2008), Kakamega distric t was divided into seven adminis trative divisions. By the time data for this dissertation was being collected (2009) ,

this district had been subdivided into four districts: Kakamega Central (former Lurambi, Navakholo, and Kakamega Municipality divisions), Kakamega East (former Ileho and Shinyalu divisions), Kakamega North (former Kabras division) and Kakamega South (former Ikolomani division) districts .

5

Figures 1 and 2 in Appendix A). Presently, Kakamega Central is made up of former Lurambi, Navakholo, and Kakamega Municipality; Kakamega East of former Ileho and Shinyalu divisions; Kakamega North of former Kabras division; and Kakamega South of forme r Ikolomani division.

The majority of the Kakamega district‘s inhabitants are from the Luhya tribe 5

and most of them are subsistence farmers. Eighty percent of the people in the former Kakamega district live in the rural areas with 62% of the household ge nerating their income from agriculture. This district is densely populated and has a yearly population growth rate of 2.12% (Dose, 2007) . Unlike other divisions in the district, Shinyal u and Ikolomani are considered to be the poorest (Government of Kenya, 2002) . Shinyalu and Kabras divisions had the second highest (69) and lowest (50) poverty indices among the seven divisions in 2005, respectively 6

. The human poverty index measures basic dimensions of deprivations that include: a short life; lack of basic

education, access to public and private resources. The highe r the poverty index

the more the deprivation of these basic requirements (UNDP, 1997) 7 . At the time of data collecting and writing of this dissertation, demographic data for the new districts ha d not been compiled.

See Table 1.1 below that provides demographic information of the divisions in the former Kakamega district before they were upgraded into four districts.

5

The Luhya are a Bantu ethnic group in Kenya and live

in Western Kenya, North of Lake Victoria. This ar ea is considered to be one of the

densely populated areas in the world. They are one of the largest three ethnic groups in Kenya. They consist of 18 sub - ethnic groups that include: Bukusu, Maragoli, Wanga, Kisa, Idakho, Isukha, Kabras, Saamia, Nyala, Nyore , and Tiriki among others. They speak dialects that are closely related. source: http://orvillejenkins.com/profiles/luhya.html

6

Data obtained from the Kakamega District Statistics O ffice , 2005

7

― The variables used are the percentage of people expected to die before age 40, the percentage of adults who are illiterate, and overall economic provisioning in terms of the percentage of people without access to health services and safe water and the

percentage of underweight children under five ‖ (UNDP 1977 , p. 14 ).

6

Table 1.1: Kakamega Administrative Divisions and D emographics S tatistics (2005)

Division

Population*

Urban population*

Pop. density per sq.km ++

Number of schools +

Poverty Indices ++

Ikolomani

92,104

0

645

62

71

Ileho

32,545

0

4 19

21

59

Kabras

149,510

1,530

352

102

55

Kakamega -

Municipality

74,115

51,770

1,485

25

50

Lurambi

85,863

0

442

48

64

Navakholo

65,337

0

377

38

61

Shinyalu

103,948

0

313

56

69

Total

603,422

53,300

433

3 52

Source: * 1999 census; + Kakamega District Education Office, 2005;

++ Kakamega District Statistics Office, 2005

The area occupied by each of the four new districts is as follows: Kakamega Central (417 km 2 ), East (332.6 km 2 ), North (424.2 km 2 ), and South (142. km 2 ).These districts have a total of 365 public and 28 private primary schools 8 . Kakamega Central has the highest number of public (112) and private (11) primary schools, while Kakamega South has no private schools. The majority (93 percent) of

the schools in these districts are public, primary schools. See Table 1.2 below. Data on the number of teachers per district had not been compiled at the time of getting the data in 2009.

8

This data was collected from the Kakamega Provincial Commissioner‘s Office in Western Kenya , 2009 .

7

Table 1.2: Number of Primary Schools in the Four D istricts (2009)

District Name

Public

Private

Total

Kakamega Central

112

11

123

Kakamega East

83

10

93

Kakamega North

102

7

109

Kakamega South

68

0

68

Total

365

28

393

Source: Provincial Commissioner‘s Office, Western Kenya (2009)

Generally, more boys (53 percent) than girls (43 percent) attend primary school in these districts. However, a closer look at the data shows that the Kakamega North and South districts had

more girls than boys attending primary school. It was the reverse situation in Kakamega Central and East districts, where there were more boys than girls. See Table 1.3 below.

Table 1.3: Number of boys and girls in the four districts (2009)

District Name

Boys

Girls

Total

Kakamega Central

36022

35175

71197

Kakamega East

35063

23410

58473

Kakamega North

27559

28625

56184

Kakamega South

15708

16132

31840

Total

11 4352

103342

217694

Source: Data collected from the Provincial Commissioner‘s office, Western Kenya (2009)

Overview o f

HIV/AIDS in Sub - Saharan Africa

Full document contains 275 pages
Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa has been severely affected by HIV and AIDS. Kenya's education sector, aiming to protect learners from HIV infection, has developed the Education Sector Policy on HIV and AIDS and an HIV/AIDS curriculum. This policy mandates the incorporation of HIV/AIDS information in curricula and extra-curricular activities in learning institutions, including primary schools, by teachers. The goal of this dissertation study was to investigate the factors influencing teachers' implementation of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education in rural, public, mixed, day, primary schools in Kakamega Central, East, North, and South districts in Kenya. A mixed-methods approach was applied, combining quantitative and qualitative methods and techniques. A self-administered survey was conducted of 516 teachers in 40 primary schools in the four districts, with a 92 percent response. Survey data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The independent variables included teachers' attitudes and beliefs derived from the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) framework that guided the study. These constructs were teacher attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Variables external to the theory--teacher training in HIV/AIDS education and the class level taught--were also examined. Qualitative data was collected from interviews of teachers in two schools that had participated in the quantitative part of the study; the data was analyzed using an ethnographic approach. Quantitative findings showed that teachers' in-service training in HIV/AIDS education, attitudes, and class level taught, and their perceived behavioral control had an effect on their implementation of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education. The qualitative results were consistent with these findings. The study's findings have several policy implications in terms of the significance and value of teacher training and teachers' access to knowledge and resources in relation to teaching HIV/AIDS education in the classroom.