Gender differences in gambling-related beliefs: The role of types of gambling
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII ABSTRACT 2 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 4 Statement of Problem 4 Statement of Purpose 6 Research Hypotheses 7 Research Hypothesis #1 7 Research Hypothesis #2 7 Research Hypothesis #3 8 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 9 Gambling Defined 9 Gambling: A Brief Historical Perspective 10 Gambling Research: An Overview 13 Gender differences and gambling 20 Gambling-related beliefs 25 Gender differences and gambling related beliefs 30 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 33 Participants 43 Procedure 44 Definition of Terms 35 Assessment 37 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-TR 47 Independent Variables: Gender and Gambling Behavior 39
viii Dependent Variables: Measure of Gambling Relation Beliefs & Cognitive Distortions. 39 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 43 Gender and Demographic Variables 43 Gender and Gambling Behavior 43 Gender and Gambling Severity 44 Gender and Cognitive Variables 44 Data Analysis 44 Gender Differences by Type of Gambling Activity 45 Gender Differences by Gambling Skill 46 Gender Differences by Perceived Randomness 48 Summary of Results and Hypotheses 50 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION 53 REFERENCES 63 LIST OF TABLES 75 LIST OF FIGURES 75 APPENDIX 110 Appendix A: Consent to use Archival Data 110
ix List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Gender by Employment Status Gender by Education Status Gender by Relationship Status Gender by Gambling Problem: Gambling Activity Gender by Gambling Problem: Perceived Skill Gender by Gambling Problem: Perceived Randomness M (SD) for the Measures of Gambling Severity by Gender. M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Gender. M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Gambling Activity and Gender (Part 1) M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Gambling Activity and Gender (Part 2) M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Gambling Activity and Gender (Part 3) M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Skill and Gender (Part 1) M(SD) for the Dependent Variables by Skill and Gender (Part 2) M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Skill and Gender (Part 3) M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Randomness Activity and Gender (Part 1) M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Randomness Activity and Gender (Part 2) M (SD) for the Dependent Variables by Randomness Activity and Gender (Part 3) Summary of Results
List of Figures Figure 1: Means of the IBS by Gender and Sub-type Means of the IBS by Gender and Perceived Skill Means of the IBS by Gender and Perceived Randomness Mean of the GABS by Gender and Perceived Randomness Means of the Gambling Systems subscale of the GCQ by Gender and Skill Means of the Number subscale of the GCQ by Gender and Randomness Means of the Gambling Systems subscale of the GCQ by Gender and Randomness Means of the Gambling Systems subscale of the GCQ by Gender and Subtype Means of the Illusion of Control subscale of the GBQ by Gender and Subtype Means of the External locus of control subscale of the BPCS by Gender and Skill Means of the God-mediated locus of control subscale of the BPCS by Gender and Skill Mean of the Illusion of Control subscale of the GBQ by Gender and Randomness Mean of the Luck and Perseverance subscale of the GBQ by Gender and Randomness Mean of the Illusion of Control subscale of the GBQ by Gender and Skill Mean of the Luck and Perseverance subscale of the GBQ by Gender and Skill Means of the Luck and Perseverance subscale of the GBQ by Gender and Subtype Figure 17: Mean of the GABS by Gender and Skill Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16:
2 ABSTRACT Historically, gambling has been considered a male activity. However, in recent years, the increase and accessibility of gambling venues has lead to an increase in female gamblers. To date, the "feminization" of gambling has not been reflected in the gambling literature therefore this study's aim was to contribute to this area of research in order to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of the female problem gambler. The purpose of this study was to explore whether there are gender differences in gambling- related beliefs among types gambling. Archival data collected at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health was used for this study. In the original study, a sample of two hundred and forty (240) subjects who were experiencing gambling problems was recruited from the Greater Toronto Area. Subjects were administered a battery of psychometric tests including the Gambler's Belief Questionnaire (GBQ), Gambling Attitudes and Belief Survey (GABS), Gambling Cognition Questionnaire (GCQ), Magical Ideation Scale (MIS), Irrational Belief Scale (IBS), and Belief in Personal Control Scale (BPCS) and a brief demographic questionnaire. Three approaches to classifying gambling types were evaluated: (a) six gambling types (bingo, lotteries, cards, track, sports, and slot machines, (b) perception of skill (skilled versus non-skill games), (c) perceived randomness (non- random, random, casino). The results revealed that there were some unique gender differences in gambling-related beliefs among individuals who have problems with gambling. More specifically, the outcome of this study revealed that female problem gamblers expressed higher scores on the IBS indicating a tendency to express dysfunctional beliefs about oneself, others, relationships, and the world, for all gambling activities except for lotteries. For the lottery problem gamblers, men showed higher IBS
3 scores. For perception of skill, results showed little difference between genders for the non-skill games on the IBS. However, the skilled female problems gamblers had much higher IBS scores than did skilled males problem gamblers suggesting that this sub- sample of female problem gamblers tended to have more extreme dysfunctional beliefs about the self, others and relationships. Similarly, women who reported difficulty with skill games had higher scores on the GABS than did men. A reverse pattern was observed on the non-skill games with the men who reported difficulty with these games showing higher scores on the GABS. Results from the perceived randomness classification revealed little difference between genders for casino games (i.e., slot machines, card games) on the IBS. However, for the non-random (i.e. sports, track) and random games (i.e. bingo, lotteries), the female non-random gamblers had much higher IBS scores than did men non-random gamblers. These results suggest that female non-random gamblers have more extreme dysfunctional beliefs about the self, others and relationships when compare to male non-random gamblers. Similarly, the male gamblers who preferred random games tended to have higher IBS scores than the females who preferred random games. On the GABS, results showed that female non-random gamblers tended to score more severe than did the male non-random gamblers therefore suggesting that female non-random gamblers believe gambling to be exciting, socially meaningful and strategies (even illusory one), as well as luck, are important. Likewise, the male random gamblers tended to score more severe on the GABS than did the female non-random gamblers. Lastly, females non-random gamblers tended to endorse stronger beliefs regarding illusion of control and luck than did male-random gamblers.
4 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Gambling is old as mankind itself and has strong historical roots. Sports betting can be traced back to 1450 B.C.E. when Egyptians competed against each other in jumping, wrestling, and ball game competitions, centuries before the first Greek 01ympics_("Gambling History", 2002). Similarly gambling on horses began soon after animals were domesticated. While gambling has been prevalent throughout history, it has only been very recently, in the 1990's, that the prevalence of gambling has increased significantly throughout North America with widespread expansion of new forms of legalized gambling such as video lottery terminals (VLT) in the community, a wide array of lottery games and permanent casinos (Cox, Yu, Afifi & Ladouceur, 2005). In 2004, Canadians gambled roughly $12.4 billion on some form of government-run gambling activity. This was 4.5 times the level of $2.7 billion in 1992 and nearly double the $6.8 billion gambled in 1997 (Canada: Gambling, 2006). Subsequently, the drastic increase in opportunities for gambling has unfortunately, but not unpredictably, led to an increase in the prevalence of problem gambling behaviour. According to Statistics Canada's 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey, almost 1.2 million people exhibited at least one indication of some problem gambling behaviour suggesting that, on the whole, almost 1 in 15 gamblers or 6.3% of the gambling population may be exhibiting some at-risk behaviors (Azmier, 2005). Statement of Problem Historically gambling has been predominately a male activity. However, with the legalization of new forms of gambling, changing social norms, accessibility of gambling venues, and widespread presence of women in the work force, women are gambling more
5 often (Boughton & Brewster, 2002). With the increase of women gamblers (and resulting women problem gamblers), only recently has gambling research adequately reflected this demographic shift. Problem gambling research continues to include primarily male samples. The significance of this tendency has been the reliance on the male experience as the benchmark for decisions regarding the prevention, education, and treatment of problem gambling. In fact, until recently, approximately 95% of the literature on problem gambling includes men only (Boughton, 1999). Consequently, very little is known about gender differences in the large number of psychological variables that are believed to influence the development, maintenance and recovery from problem gambling. One of the constructs believed to be particularly important in understanding problem gambling and recovery from problem gambling is maladaptive, distorted or dysfunctional gambling-related cognitions. Relatively little is known about gender differences on this important variable (Toneatto, 1999). This dissertation will contribute to the current literature on problem gambling- related gender differences by examining whether men and women differ in the relationship between gambling-related distortions and problem gambling. More specifically, this study will explore whether there are gender differences in gambling- related beliefs within the six types of gambling behaviors (i.e. bingo, cards, lotteries, track, slot machines, and sports). Three approaches to classifying gambling types will be examined: (a)gambling subtype (i.e. bingo, cards, lotteries, slots, and sports), (b) perception of skill (i.e. skill [cards, sports, and track] versus non-skill games [slot machine, bingo, and lotteries]) and (c)perception of randomness (non-random [sports and track], random [bingo and lotteries], casino [cards, and slot machines]. The results of this
6 study will help to provide additional knowledge about differences in cognitive processes of both male and female gamblers and will aid in the development of effective problem gambling treatment programs specifically designed for female gamblers. Statement of Purpose In recent years, the availability of gambling venues in Canada and on-line gambling has increased significantly and has placed people at risk of developing gambling problems. Specifically, there has been an increase of female problem gamblers (Blanco, Hasin, Petry, Stinson & Grant, 2006; Nelson, LaPlante, LaBrie, & Shaffer, 2006). However, the empirical research has not reflected this change and has not sufficiently addressed possible gender differences of problem gamblers. Subsequently, in order to fully appreciate and treat the unique struggles experienced by female gamblers, additional research in this area is crucial. The implications of this type of research will be essential in the development of treatment programs for female gamblers. Understanding the cognitive aspects of gambling is an area of interest that is currently be explored in the gambling literature in order to gain a deeper understanding of problem gambling behaviour. More specifically, the current research on male gamblers suggests that there is a strong cognitive component to problem gambling, however this research has not focused on the female gambler's experience. As such, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences in gambling-related beliefs, and if so, to gain a better understanding about the types of cognitive distortions that would characterize the female problem gamblers' experience. The outcome of this research will be extremely useful in understanding the beliefs system and cognitive processes of the
7 female gambler and will be provide vital information to aid in the program development of problem gambling treatment protocols to treat female problem gamblers. Research Hypotheses Research Hypothesis #1. When gambling behaviours are examined individually, a gender effect will be observed on the dependent variables. Specifically, female problem gamblers will demonstrate greater dysfunction on cognitive measures than male problem gamblers. The female gamblers will score higher on the GBQ subscale Luck/Perseverance, on the GABS, GCQ subscale's favorite places, lucky numbers, gut instinct, rituals; MIS, IBS and BPCS's External and God-Mediated subscales. Research Hypothesis #2. When gambling behaviours are examined on the basis of whether perceived skill or non-skill is involved, an interaction effect between perceived skill and gender will be observed on measures of cognitive functioning. Specifically, female problem gamblers will demonstrate greater dysfunction on cognitive measures in the form of higher scores on GBQ subscale's Luck/Perseverance, on the GABS, GCQ subscale's lucky numbers, gut instinct, rituals, MIS, IBS and BPCS's External and God-Mediated sub-scales when compared to male problem gamblers on games of non-skill (i.e. slot machine, bingo, lotteries). Male problem gamblers will demonstrate greater dysfunction on cognitive measures in the form of higher scores on the GBQ subscale Illusory Control, on the GCQ subscale's Reward Salience, Persistence, Attitude and Systems, IBS and BPCS's personal subscale when compared to female problem gamblers on games of skill.
8 Research Hypothesis #5. When gambling behaviours are examined on the basis of whether perceived randomness, non-randomness, or casino games are involved, an interaction effect with gender will be observed on the measures of cognitive functioning. Specifically, female problem gamblers will demonstrate greater dysfunction on cognitive measures in the form of higher scores on GBQ subscale's Luck/Perseverance, on the GABS, GCQ subscale's lucky numbers, gut instinct, rituals, MIS, IBS and BPCS's External and God-Mediated sub-scale when compared to male problem gamblers on games that are random (i.e. bingo, lotteries). Male problem gamblers will demonstrate greater dysfunction on cognitive measures than female problem gamblers on games that are non-random (i.e. sports, track) as represented by higher scores on the GBQ subscale Illusory Control, on the GCQ subscales Reward Salience, Persistence, Attitude and Systems, IBS and BPCS's personal subscale. No gender effect on cognitive measures for the casino games (i.e. cards, slots machines) is hypothesized.
9 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW Gambling Defined A general definition of gambling has been presented by many scholars researching this topic (Olmted, 1962, Bolen & Boyd, 1968). According to a definition provided by Devereux (1968), a sociologist who researched this topic extensively, gambling is the betting or wagering of valuables on events of uncertain outcome. This definition appears rather simplistic and makes gambling a conscious and deliberate act, where one stakes valuables, usually money but not always, on the outcome of some event. However, this definition includes activities such as wagering on horse racing, playing slot machine and cards but would exclude other activities that could be perceived as a gamble in life such as getting married and taking the risk to change jobs, etc. Defining and understanding what specifically constitutes gambling behaviour remains questionable and activities such as playing the stock market and real estate speculation could be considered quasi-gambling behaviours. Although the distinction between the traditional types of gambling behaviours (i.e. slot machine and wagering on horse racing) and these quasi-gambling behaviours are not entirely clear, one main difference is that quasi-gambling behaviours are often more socially acceptable (Gambling Research, n.d.). Another more interesting way of understanding gambling behaviour is to provide a description of gambling behaviour in moral terms to distinguish gambling from other forms of leisure or economic activity since the discussion of gambling and its consequences are often conducted within an ethical framework. Perkins (1950) and Moody (1965) provided an approach to describe the essential features of gambling. Perkins (1950) suggested that gambling consisted of the following elements:
10 1. The exchange of money which takes place without any equivalent value, material or personal? 2. The possession of money determined solely by luck; 3. The gain of the winner, made possible solely by the loss of the losers; and 4. The risk involved which is unnecessary and often artificial. Although this is a general description of gambling behaviour, these descriptive statements clearly demonstrate the reasons why gambling is often seen to go against society's moral code. The fact that gambling involves the unnecessary appeal to chance and the improper and irresponsible use of money has created a traditional value judgment against gambling behaviour (Devereux, 1968). Gambling: A Brief Historical Perspective There is evidence showing that gambling has existed since ancient times and was an ancient form of recreation. Based on archaeological and historical records, gambling existed in many ancient civilizations, including those of the Egyptians, Chinese, Japanese, Hindus, Persians, Hebrews and Huns (Abbott & Volberg, 1999). Additionally, gambling has been widely documented in prehistoric cultures as well as among indigenous tribal people (Gabriel, 1996). In 6000 B.C., dice were used in games played in the Middle East and dice were found in the pyramids tombs of Egyptian pharaohs. Cockfighting was encouraged in ancient Greece (500-400 B.C.) and Roman soldiers (A.D. 33) wagered to win the robes of Christ during the Crucifixion (Thompson, 2001). Throughout history, gambling continued to emerge independently in a number of different societies. Gambling innovations and practices were widely transported across geographical and cultural boundaries. Additionally, attitudes about the acceptability of
11 gambling have varied from liberalization to restriction depending on the different eras and cultures (Abbott & Volberg, 1999). In the middle ages, gambling appeared to be widespread throughout Europe and Asia. In the 16th century, gambling in England was commonplace through all social strata. However, gambling was mostly tolerated amongst the aristocracy and the upper class and legal measures were introduced during the seventh century to control gambling among the lower class. In fact, gambling was made illegal for commoners except during Christmas time (Abbott & Volberg, 1999). As a result, there appeared to be a reduction of gambling during the mid-part of the century but by the beginning the eighteenth century, gambling practices remerged and expanded throughout society. There was a proliferation of gambling clubs and houses. For instance, George II established the first national lottery and horse race wagering and betting on other sporting events became increasingly popular (Abbott & Volberg, 1999). The gambling practices and attitudes in England and other areas of Europe eventually spread to the colonies. Colonial societies in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and other parts of the world began to incorporate gambling practices into their societies; however, there was a lack of established leisure infrastructure (Abbott & Volberg, 1999). In Australia and New Zealand the colonial upper class went to private gambling clubs and participated in racing, cards and dice games. The lower class also participated in gambling and betting, however, their attitude differed from the upper class in that they believed gambling and betting were legitimate pursuits that should be allowed to prosper (Grant, 1994; O'Hara, 1987). In North America, the history of gambling appeared to be fraught with ambivalence and the attitude toward gambling fluctuated between leniency and
12 repression (Abbott & Volberg, 1999). In the early Nineteenth Century, there was an emergence of professional gamblers, new casinos and there was a spread of games, especially card and dice games, across North America. By the mid-Nineteenth Century, professional gamblers were prosecuted throughout the Southwest while casino games flourished in California and the newly popular games were syndicated in Eastern cities (Findlay, 1986). By the end of the Nineteenth Century, with the collapse of the Louisiana Lottery, casino games and lotteries were outlawed throughout the United State (Rose, 1986). At that time, legal gambling opportunities became limited in most parts of the United States and in Canada during most the century. After the events that led to the great depression, legalized gambling re-emerged. Antigambling attitudes changed as a result of the extreme financial stress that occurred after the stock market crashed in 1929. Consequently, legalized gambling was seen as a method to stimulate the economy. For example, in Massachusetts, bingo was decriminalized in 1931 as resource to raise money and help churches and charities. Similarly, bingo was legalized in 11 states by the 1950's and the money was primarily used for charity purposes. In 1933, horse racing and pari-mutuel wagering was legalized in Michigan, New Hampshire, Ohio, and California. With the legalization of gambling, there was also a crackdown on illegal gambling (Dunstan, 1997). After the legalization of gambling, in more recent years, gambling has become increasingly popular and prevalent in society. In the 1930's onwards, there was an explosion of casinos in the United States, Canada and across many other countries worldwide. With horse race betting legislation being approved, there was an increase in horse racing establishments. New legislature was implemented to authorize state-run
13 sweepstake games including lotteries. Poker became more popular and the World Series of Poker was created. Instant lottery games became the favourite for many to play. The "numbers game" lottery, with players selecting their own numbers, was created and this became extremely popular. Charity blackjack games were given formal authorization. Slot-machine use became the number one form of gambling in the US casinos (Thompson, 2001). Lastly, more recently, the introduction of the internet and resulting internet gambling has created a new and extremely accessible form of gambling. Internet gambling has quickly evolved from the creation of "free trade zone" in small Caribbean nations such as Antique and Barbados in 1994, which allowed US bookmakers to accept bets by phone on horse racing and sports, to the introduction of gambling software that allows secure online monetary transactions (William & Wood, 2007). Consequently, internet gambling has taken gambling to a new level with easy access to gambling such that individuals could gamble at home, work or really anywhere since the introduction mobile devices. The participation in gambling games, such as online casinos, sports and horse race betting, poker, online lotteries or instant win tickets and online bingo has led to a gambling epidemic worldwide. This increased accessibility of gambling during recent years has unfortunately become problematic for many individuals who participate in gambling behaviour. Gambling Research: An Overview With the explosion of gambling over the last decade and more recently with increased ease of access to gambling establishments (i.e. casinos) and internet gambling, there has been a growing body of research being conducted on gambling behaviour. In fact, the research in gambling is vast and it would be too overwhelming to be addressed