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Exploring the effects of media on the self-concepts and achievement of African American high school students

Dissertation
Author: Jaclyn D. Conner
Abstract:
Television is a medium that transmits messages to mass audiences daily. African American adolescents view more television than any other demographic group. Historically a disparity in educational achievement has existed among African American students and White students, but there are few studies that have examined the impact of television on this disparity. This study explores the amount of television that is viewed by African American adolescents and its relation to their academic achievement and self-concept. The purpose of the study is to determine whether a significant correlation exists between television viewing and academic success of African American high school students and their self-concept. The results compare the variables of gender, socio-economic status, and mainstream viewing versus minority-oriented viewing in the correlation findings.

iv Table of Contents Dedication ii Acknowledgements iii List of Tables vi List of Figures vii Abstract viii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 4 Purpose of the Study 5 The Importance of the Study 7 Limitations, Delimitations, Assumptions 8 Definitions 9 Theoretical Framework 9 Chapter 2: Literature Review 13 Media Theories 14 Media and Their Effects 25 Research to Explore 53 Chapter 3: Methodology 57 Purpose of Study 57 Sample and Population 59 Data Collection Procedures 62 Data Analysis Procedures 63 Limitations and Delimitations 65 Ethical Considerations 66 Summary of Methodology 67

v Chapter 4: Results 68 Television Viewing Habits 68 Television Viewing and Self-Concepts 74 Television Viewing and Achievement 78 Summary of Results 83 Chapter 5: Discussion 85 Implications 87 Limitations and Recommendations 89 Future Research 90 Conclusion 91 References 92 Appendices 99 Appendix A: Sample Letter to Principals 99 Appendix B: Parental Consent Form 100 Appendix C: Survey 103

vi List of Tables

Table 3.1: Piers-Harris 2 Reliability Statistics 65 Table 3.2: Television Viewing Habits Reliability Statistics 65 Table 4.1: Prime Time Television Viewing Frequency 71 Table 4.2: Self-concept and Television Viewing Correlations 75 Table 4.3: Self-concept and Television Viewing for Six or More Hours a Week 77 Table 4.4: Achievement – GPA and Grades 78 Table 4.5: Grade Point Average (GPA) and Television Viewing Correlations 80 Table 4.6: GPA and Television Viewing for Six or More Hours a Week 82

vii List of Figures Figure 2.1: Shrum’s (2002) Cultivation Analysis Model

Figure 3.1: Correlation Analysis and One-way Analysis of Variance

17

64

viii Abstract

Television is a medium that transmits messages to mass audiences daily. African American adolescents view more television than any other demographic group. Historically a disparity in educational achievement has existed among African American students and White students, but there are few studies that have examined the impact of television on this disparity. This study explores the amount of television that is viewed by African American adolescents and its relation to their academic achievement and self- concept. The purpose of the study is to determine whether a significant correlation exists between television viewing and academic success of African American high school students and their self-concept. The results compare the variables of gender, socio-economic status, and mainstream viewing versus minority-oriented viewing in the correlation findings.

1 Chapter 1: Introduction Media has a strong impact on the minds of those who choose to consume it. This pertains to a majority of Americans, who are now viewing television in enormous amounts compared to ever before (Facts and Figures About Our TV Habit, n.d.; Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, Signorielli, & Shanahan, 2002; Nielsen Media Research, 2005b). The average American physically consumes over four hours of television per day (Facts and Figures About Our TV Habit, n.d.; Gerbner et al., 2002; Kubey, 2004; Nielsen Media Research, 2005b) and the television is technically on, watched or not, for over 7.5 hours a day (Facts and Figures About Our TV Habit, n.d.; Gerbner et al., 2002; Nielsen Media Research, 2005b). Television methods bombard our youth who spend more time watching television than actual hours learning in school (Facts and Figures About Our TV Habit, n.d.; Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1986; Stroman, 1991). Television is an extremely potent medium that sends messages to the masses. Some viewers adopt these messages, others reject them (Fujioka, 1999), or store them in memory and refer to them when reality presents the opportunity for their use (Shrum, 2002). This single medium, which often consists of only five major networks for non-cable owners, can create a modified reality and cultural acceptable norms for society at large (Gerbner et al., 1986; Gerbner et al., 2002). Americans rely on television to inform them of world, national, and local events, provide updates on pop-culture’s expectations and latest trends, confirm or introduce accepted behaviors and ideologies, and present entertainment on a daily basis. For

2 many Americans, television constructs realities and truths about others and about themselves. People tend to value and measure themselves against the norms of the small screen (Gerbner et al., 1986). What is fascinating about this medium is that it has become ubiquitous in our daily routines; it lives in almost two rooms in every household and portrays to us how to live and function (Roskos-Ewoldsen, Roskos- Ewoldsen, & Dillman Carpentier, 2002). The focus of this study is to analyze educational effects of television on Americans, specifically, African American youth morals, philosophies, and acceptable behaviors. Adolescents and Television Adolescents, in general, rely on television as a source of entertainment and as a tool for explaining social behavior in what maturing young people deem as uncomfortable and unfamiliar situations. Television, music, magazines are all media that mold our youth and communicate answers to questions that some adolescents feel awkward discussing with older adults (Signorielli, 1997). The methods in which television characters solve problems, handle dating situations, and interact with friends explain to adolescents how to maneuver such situations. When an adolescent is comparing himself or herself to fictional and non-fictional characters, who are typically glamorized in some fashion, expectations of reality can become warped and misconstrued. With African American youth, this is even more of a concern because of the handicapping obstacles they already face as minorities in America (Fordham, 1988; Fordham & Ogbu, 1986).

3 African American Adolescents and Television African American youth are the primary consumers of television, watching more television than White adolescents (Facts and Figures About Our TV Habit, n.d.; Ward, 2004; Ward, Hansbrough, & Walker, 2005). Television shows easily influence these African American youth, who watch and rely on television to validate their understanding of the world, their peers, and themselves (Ward, 2004). The Black characters that television portrays appear primarily on situation comedies and crime shows (Greenberg, Mastro, & Brand, 2002; UCLA, 2002). In addition, the depictions of these characters prove to be stereotypical in nature and perpetuate negative views of African Americans (Mastro & Greenberg, 2000). The amount of television options may be bountiful in regards to channels and shows; however, the contents of the messages are not varied and most television viewers select from a miniscule variety of options (Gerbner et al., 1986). In the U.S. in the year 2000, less than 20% of the characters on television were African American and most of them played blue collar, comedic, stereotypical roles (Greenberg et al., 2002; UCLA, 2002). The scarcity of successful, traditional, religious characters for African American actors to portray cannot offset the criminal, sacrilegious, unsuccessful characters who dominate Black roles. African American youth internalize and adopt such negative imagery because these messages often confirm other negative social messages. African American youth frequently view music videos and sports shows, genres of entertainment which often demean women and glorify a lifestyle that is generally unattainable by most Americans

4 (Ward, 2004; Ward et al., 2005). With limited role models on television and messages of inferiority spread throughout the African American community, there exists a concern about how television is affecting the minds of African American youth. Other Factors Television is not the only factor molding the minds of African American youth. Parental goals, socioeconomic status, community role models, and educators all participate in the shaping of African American youth (Arroyo, & Zigler, 1995; Conner, 2005; Viadero & Johnston, 2000). However, authorities frequently blame television as the source of adolescent insecurities and failures in school (Hansen & Hansen, 2000). African American students are not reaching the same academic levels of success as their White counterparts (US Census Bureau, 2004b). Studies attribute the disparity to socioeconomic status, single parenting, and education status of the parent, yet television’s role in this disparity is unclear. Statement of the Problem Despite efforts to close the achievement gap between African American students and White students, the disparity in academic performance still exists (Viadero & Johnston, 2000). Given the fact that African American students watch an enormous amount of television (Facts and Figures About Our TV Habit, n.d.; Ward, 2004; Ward et al., 2005), significant studies have yet to determine how much (if at all) television is contributing to the achievement gap (Ball, Palmer, & Millward, 1986). Other factors, such as lack of parental involvement or

5 socioeconomic challenges are contributions to the gap (Conner, 2005; Viadero & Johnston, 2000); however, the impact of television in relation to these factors has not been determined (Stroman, 1991). Another factor that may relate to the achievement gap is that African American students are being led to believe that academic achievement does not automatically lead to success (Arroyo & Zigler, 1995), especially the type of success demonstrated on television. These hindrances may influence the beliefs of African American students and could affect their performance in the classroom. In order to reduce the achievement gap for African American students, it appears that understanding the correlations between television viewing and student achievement would be beneficial. Purpose of the Study This study explores the amount of television that is viewed by African American adolescents and its relation to their academic achievement. The purpose of the study is to learn whether a correlation exists between television and academic success of African American high school students and what factors influence the correlation. The research questions explored are: 1. Is there a correlation between television viewing and the self-concepts of 9 th , 10 th , and 11th grade African American students? a. If there is a correlation, is there a difference in the significance of the relationship of females versus males?

6 b. If there is a correlation, is there a difference in the significance of the relationship by socio-economic status (SES)? c. Is there a correlation between the viewing of minority-oriented media and self-concept? 2. Is there a correlation between television viewing and the achievement of 9 th , 10 th , and 11th grade African American students? a. If there is a correlation, is there a difference in the significance of the relationship of females versus males? b. If there is a correlation, is there a difference in the significance of the relationship by socio-economic status (SES)? c. Is there a correlation between the viewing of minority-oriented media and achievement? The study incorporates a quantitative study that includes a survey collecting demographic information about race, gender, socioeconomic levels, academic achievement, selection of television shows and the amount of television viewed and study measuring levels of self-concept. The hypotheses to the research questions are: 1. Television viewing is negatively correlated to self-concepts. a. There is a greater statistical significance for females than males. b. There is a greater statistical significance for low socio-economic status students than middle to high socio-economic status students.

7 c. The viewing of minority-oriented media is positively correlated to self-concepts. 2. Television viewing is negatively correlated to achievement. a. There is a greater statistical significance for males than females. b. There is a greater statistical significance for low socio-economic status students than middle to high socio-economic status students. c. The viewing of minority-oriented media is negatively correlated to achievement. The Importance of the Study This study is important for the body of research that addresses the educational needs of African American students. It is not merely of theoretical interest; if a model could be constructed that explained television’s impact on African American high school students, it may be possible to construct strategies to assist this traditionally at risk population. Little is known about the impact of media on minority youth (Ward, 2004) and few studies of television focus on African American children and adolescents directly (Stroman, 1991). The results of this study inform parents, educators, policymakers, and television show creators about the impact of television on African American youth. Parents and others could benefit from understanding how certain television shows affect their children’s thoughts and self-concepts and how it relates to their schoolwork. Educators could be informed so that they can understand the concepts students are being exposed to and adjust teaching styles and curricula to address the

8 needs of the students. Policymakers could be made aware of the study’s results so that school policies and federal regulations can protect our students, if there is a negative relationship between television and school achievement. Finally, television show creators must be knowledgeable of how shows and storylines impact youth and society as a whole. Limitations, Delimitations, Assumptions The anticipated limitations in the study were finding students and parents who would complete the survey and self-concept measurement. Some parents may be reluctant to allow their children to participate in fear of being measured or evaluated. The consent forms explained the nature of the study and the minimal risks; however, some parents chose to not allow their children to partake. Delimitations in the study were the sample size and selection of the sample. A purposeful sample was used, which included African American 9 th , 10 th , and 11th graders. Ninth, tenth, and eleventh graders were selected due to their developing minds and growing maturity level and age. The sample was from students in the southern state of Tennessee. A southern state was selected since the majority of African Americans live in the south (McKinnon, 2002), and time did not permit the collection of data in other southern states or other states in America. The assumptions were that 30% of the targeted population of students would participate in the survey.

9 Definitions Fictive kinship – “a kinship-like connection between and among persons in a society, not related by blood or marriage, who have maintained essential reciprocal social or economic relationships.” (Fordham, 1988, p. 56) Impression Management - Impression management is used by minorities to manage one’s behavior in the presences of others that are not a part of the group (Richeson & Pollydor, 2002, p. 263) Mainstreaming - “Mainstreaming represents the theoretical elaboration and empirical verification of our assertion that television cultivates common perspectives.” (Gerbner et al., 1986, p. 31) Racelessness – “the desired and eventual outcome of developing a raceless persona, and is either a conscious or unconscious effort on the part of such students to disaffiliate themselves from the fictive-kinship system described above.” (Fordham, 1988, p. 57) Theoretical Framework There are various theories that relate to the impact of media on the viewers who consume smaller amounts of television to those who consume a heavier amount of television. These theories explain the diverse ways in which television may influence a viewer and his or her behavior as a result of consumption. The purpose of this section is to present the Cultivation Theory, which serves as the theoretical framework of the argument, and other theories, the Drench Hypothesis and Social Cognitive and Social Identity theory, which either compliment or counter the

10 cultivation theory (Berkowitz & Rogers, 1986; Fujioka, 1999; Gerbner et al., 1986; Gerbner et al., 2002; Greenberg, 1988; Mastro & Greenberg, 2000; Potter, 1986; Shrum, 2002; Ward, 2004). Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, and Signorielli (1986) developed the cultivation theory through their research of the impact of television and the consequences related to the consumption of messages that are viewed over long periods of time. Others have contributed to the theory through their research (Berkowitz & Rogers, 1986; Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Shrum, 2002; Signorielli, & Shanahan, 2002; Ward, 2004) and critics (Greenberg, 1988; Potter, 1986) have challenged the theory, which has led to the acknowledgement that cultivation depends upon the mental state of the consumer as well as other external factors. In relation to the cultivation theory, the drench hypothesis claims that individual messages may have more of an impact versus messages that are repeated constantly and one performance could influence a person more (Greenberg, 1988; Mastro & Greenberg, 2000). According to the drench hypothesis, a viewer of television consumes messages actively and not passively; the viewer is responsible for what is consumed since the consumption relies on the psychological state of the viewer (Greenberg, 1988; Mastro & Greenberg, 2000; Potter, 1986). This method of consumption may occur; however, Oliver (2002) and Shrum (2002) argue that there are limited messages presented via television, which restricts the variations of messages that are portrayed and most people watch television passively and are not conscientious of the messages being consumed.

11 Greenberg (1988) and Gerbner et al. (1986) concur that the state of mind of the television consumer contributes to the extent to which a person cultivates messages. Researchers of social cognitive theory in relation to television viewing also conclude that the mind of the television viewer determines how messages are processed (Cortes, 2005; Fujioka, 1999; Oliver, 2002; Shrum, 2002). The self- concept or perception of oneself affects how a person feels about oneself, especially in relation to others (Byrne, 1984) and the medium of television presents social norms and cultural behaviors that may be assumed by viewers as the model of acceptable behavior. Also, it must be acknowledged that there are other influential factors other than television (such as parenting, socioeconomic status, role models, and parental educational views) that persuade the psyche of individuals and affect self-perceptions (Conner, 2005; Viadero & Johnston, 2000; Ward, 2004). The cognitive and behavioral effects of television have been criticized since the conception of television (Stroman, 1991). Television has a powerful impact on American society and the minds and self-concepts of our youth. This paper explores the effects of media through the principles of cultivation analysis, including the influential factors mentioned that determine the extent of cultivation. This study has both applied and theoretical implications. The applied implications are the benefits to parents, educators, and policymakers, as well as creators of television content. Few studies have analyzed this group of viewers. The theoretical implications are the lack of accounting for the factors on the effects of television on African American youth. Collectively, the importance of this

12 information is rooted in the need for further understanding in the academic disparity that exists between African American students and majority students. The findings of the study contribute to the limited body of knowledge about the television viewing habits of African American students in relation to their achievement and self- concepts.

13 Chapter 2: Literature Review This chapter provides a review of the literature as it pertains to media’s impact on viewers and various media theories explaining the extent and nature of the impact. This chapter is organized in three main sections: media theories, media and their effects, and research to explore. The media theories section discusses the theoretical explanation of how media influences the minds of viewers. The media and their effects section explains the varieties of effects on minorities, African Americans, adolescents, males versus females, and lower-class versus middle-higher class citizens. Lastly, the research to explore section states the specific research questions this study will investigate in relation to the literature reviewed. Media has an impeccable impact on individuals’ perceptions of themselves, society as a whole, and the methods in which individuals are taught to interact with each other. People evaluate themselves and alter and pattern their identity off of the messages that are presented via the small screen (Schwarz, 2005). In American society, the land of “the melting pot,” there are various cultures, behaviors, religions, philosophies, and protocols for interacting socially within our society and many of these manners are adopted by some based on the fact that the interaction has been depicted on television. The epics on television, be they fictional or non-fictional, become translated into the minds of viewers (Cortes, 2005, Gerbner et al., 1986; Gerbner et al., 2002; Ward, 2004), especially young, “heavy viewers” (Sternheimer,

14 1998; Stroman, 1991); and often messages are consumed independent of the fact that the presented information may or may not be credible (Cortes, 2005; Gerbner et al., 1986). Passive, non-critical viewers are often impressionable and their perceptions of reality can become warped from the messages that are broadcasted to the masses. Popular culture is often created and developed through common messages that are prevalent in a plethora of shows (Gerbner et al., 1986). These themes of projected acceptable forms of behavior are overwhelmingly showcased across networks, day after day, hour after hour and embraced by the masses (Sternheimer, 1998). This implementation of a popular message and mode of living is evident in all genres of television, including prime time, news (Sternheimer, 1998), soap operas, sitcoms, dramas, and made for television movies. Such modes of behavior define the American culture and become the societal, acceptable norm (Gerbner et al., 1986). Unfortunately, these modes of behavior are often times unattainable for the majority. Media Theories As introduced in the conceptual framework, many theories explore the impact of media on consumers. This section will explain what the theories reveal about consumers of television and the various ways in which television could influence viewers based on the amount of consumption and other factors.

15 Cultivation Theory The cultivation theory was developed in the sixties when American television consisted of three major networks, NBC, CBS, and ABC (Gerbner et al., 1986). Although there are currently more channels and networks to consider when selecting a television show to view, Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, and Signorielli (1986) argued that there is not a great amount of diversity of content; therefore, the messages have not developed, expanded, or diversified significantly. Cultivation theory explores the consequences of television and the impact of messages that are portrayed and consumed over extended periods (Berkowitz & Rogers, 1986; Gerbner et al., 1986; Gerbner et al., 2002; Ward, 2004). The original concept of the theory stated the assumption to be that individuals who spend more time viewing television and popular messages tend to cultivate the normalized themes and embody them in their daily lives (Gerbner et al., 1986). After criticism by other scholars (Greenberg, 1988; Potter, 1986), the theory has been clarified to emphasize the point that the amount of cultivation is dependent upon the psychological state of the television consumer (Gerbner et al., 2002). Gerbner, Gross, Morgan Signorielli, and Shanahan (2002) stated the theory as the following: We use the concept of ‘cultivation’ to describe the independent contributions television viewing makes to viewer conceptions of social reality. The most general hypothesis of cultivation analysis is that those who spend more time ‘living’ in the world of television are more likely to see the ‘real world’ in terms of the images, values, portrayals, and ideologies that emerge through the lens of television. (p. 47)

16 Although Gerbner et al. (1986) stated “cultivation should not be confused with reinforcement,” (p. 24) for amplification, Gerbner et al. (2002) explained that the theory focuses solely on the influence of television on the developed perceptions of a viewer’s reality and construction of social behavior. Other scholars have confirmed and validated cultivation theory through empirical research (Berkowitz & Rogers, 1986; Fujioka, 1999; Shrum, 2002; Ward, 2004). Berkowitz & Rogers (1986) concluded that frequent viewers cultivate “at least a short lived belief” (p. 66) that information presented via television and consistently on television is perceived as normal and prevalent in society. Shrum (2002) also conducted a study which confirmed the hypothesis and verified that accessibility to media channels affected the cultivation experience. The cultivation effect had a stronger effect when viewers were not critical of the messages being portrayed (Shrum, 2002). This process of “heuristic processing” versus “systematic processing” describes the minds acceptance of information as the rule (heuristic processing) versus the minds ability to decode information (systematic processing). Therefore, it is vital to emphasize Shrum’s (2002) finding in relation to the cultivation theory since cognitive processing of information is emphasized as an essential factor to the extent of cultivation that will occur (see Figure 2.1).

17 Figure 2.1 Shrum’s (2002) Cultivation Analysis Model Mass Media Heavy TV Light TV Memory Search Direct Experience Word of Mouth Motivation to Process Source Prime Present Heuristic Processing Systematic Processing Source Discount No Cultivation Effect Cultivation Effect Ability to Process { Cultivation Judgment Required No No Yes Yes Yes No Shrum’s (2002) altered flow diagram of the heuristic processing model of television effects (p. 87).

18

The extent of cultivation is labeled the “cultivation differential” (Gerbner et al., 2002, p. 47) and this difference is predicated on whether the television consumer is a heavy viewer or light viewer; this analysis is evaluated among similar demographic subgroups (Gerbner et al., 2002). When Gerbner et al. (2002) applied this analysis to all television viewers, factors such as availability to channels and diversity of channels were considered. Despite the numerous genres of television, there are common threads of messages that are present throughout an enormous array of shows (Gerbner et al., 2002). Therefore, cultivation theory is not genre specific, but pertinent to all genres. By cultivating messages and patterns of behavior that are viewed as socially sound, although often fictitious, real world expectations become miscomprehended, especially by heavy viewers (Berkowitz & Rogers, 1986; Gerbner et al, 1986, Gerbner et al., 2002, Ward, 2004). Mainstreaming. Gerbner et al. (1986, 2002) included the concept of mainstreaming in the explanation of the cultivation process; mainstreaming is the push of popular, common messages that are absorbed by the viewer. These messages can be detrimental to heavy viewers, who may deny other factors that would, according to the drench hypothesis (which will be discussed later), alter the processing of the message (Gerbner et al., 2002). Since cultivation is non-unidirectional, cultivation occurs in relation to the position of the viewer and the position of the mainstream

19 message (Gerbner et al., 1986; Gerbner et al., 2002). Hence, an “interaction” must occur; all power is not given to one entity (Gerbner et al., 2002). Studies have indicated strong correlations between self-esteem and the amount of consumption of television content. Ward (2000) conducted a quantitative study of 156 African American high school students who were attending a summer program that addressed the following questions: o Are heavier exposure to and connection with mainstream programs and characters negatively associated with self-esteem and racial self- esteem? Do these associations vary by media genre? o Are heavier exposure to and connection with Black-oriented programs and Black characters positively associated with self-esteem and racial self-esteem? o To what extent does religiosity buffer negative (or positive) media influences concerning self-esteem and racial self-esteem? (p. 287) The study indicated that there was a correlation between self-esteem and television viewing; however, the strength of this correlation is dependent upon the identity and state of mind of the consumer (Ward, 2000). In addition, the type of media content or as Ward (2000) stated “media diets,” have a tremendous influence on how a viewer relates and digests the content that is rendered. The emphasis of media content and the type of media that is viewed leads to the counter hypothesis to cultivation analysis, which is the drench hypothesis.

20 Drench Hypothesis The drench hypothesis is critical of the cultivation theory in that it proclaims that the significance of characters has a greater impact than the frequency in which certain characters are viewed (Greenberg, 1988). Greenberg (1988) criticized the cultivation hypothesis indicating that it has limited empirical support, “demeans” the capabilities of TV viewers, and should not imply that all television portrayals will influence viewers in the same manner. According to the drench hypothesis, certain television portrayals may have a greater impact on a viewer than repetitive messages that are exhibited throughout a range of shows (Greenberg, 1988, Mastro & Greenberg, 2000; Ward, 2004). Ward (2004) explained that “this notion emphasizes the power of individual performances to affect viewers” (p. 286). This inferred that the cultivation theory (Gerbner et al., 1986) is not applicable or could be void if an exceptional performance is delivered that overshadows common messages that may pervert popular culture. Mastro and Greenberg (2000) claimed that strong characters could create a firm basis for judging and viewing others and present acceptable societal behaviors. The gaps between the cultivation analysis and drench hypothesis are collapsed by including more factors that affect the processing of projected media information, which include the amount of television viewing and the content of what is viewed in relation to the individual who is viewing the content, the different types of programs available for viewing, the connection of the television content with the viewer’s perceived reality, the degree to which the viewer believes the television

Full document contains 126 pages
Abstract: Television is a medium that transmits messages to mass audiences daily. African American adolescents view more television than any other demographic group. Historically a disparity in educational achievement has existed among African American students and White students, but there are few studies that have examined the impact of television on this disparity. This study explores the amount of television that is viewed by African American adolescents and its relation to their academic achievement and self-concept. The purpose of the study is to determine whether a significant correlation exists between television viewing and academic success of African American high school students and their self-concept. The results compare the variables of gender, socio-economic status, and mainstream viewing versus minority-oriented viewing in the correlation findings.