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Examining the relationship between secondary school head teachers' leadership and teachers' satisfaction in Kerala, India

Dissertation
Author: Joe Mathew
Abstract:
The study's purpose was to examine the correlation between head teachers' leadership practices and teachers' job satisfaction in the Kannur Educational District, Kerala, India and to find whether their satisfaction differed based on their demographics. The study randomly sampled 200 teachers from 10 government and 10 aided secondary schools. The major finding is that all five Leadership factors (LPI) and all 21 job satisfaction factors (MSQ) were related. Other findings were (a) gender, age, educational qualifications, and years of experience of teachers were associated with satisfaction, (b) young teachers looked up to the head teacher for leadership more than their older colleagues, and (c) teachers wanted independence, recognition, creativity, moral values, variety, flexibility, and better working conditions in their job.

TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................xi LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................xii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION........................................................................................1 Background of the Study.....................................................................................................3 Statement of the Problem.....................................................................................................5 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... .6 Significance of the Study.....................................................................................................8 Significance of the Study to Leadership............................................................................10 Nature of the Study............................................................................................................11 Research Questions............................................................................................................1 3 Hypotheses.........................................................................................................................14 Null Hypotheses.....................................................................................................14 Alternate Hypotheses.............................................................................................15 Theoretical Framework......................................................................................................15 Organizational Leadership.................................................................................................16 Job Satisfaction......................................................................................................16 Job Satisfaction and Performance..........................................................................16 Employee Empowerment.......................................................................................17 Motivational Theories............................................................................................17 The Motivation-Hygiene Theory...............................................................18 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory.............................................................18 Leadership Practices and Job Satisfaction.............................................................18

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Demographic Differences and Job satisfaction......................................................19 Definition of Terms............................................................................................................19 Assumptions.................................................................................................................... ...22 Scope and Limitations........................................................................................................22

Delimitations......................................................................................................................23 Summary............................................................................................................................23 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW...........................................................................24 Articles...............................................................................................................................24 Education in India............................................................................................................. .24 The System of School Education in India..........................................................................26 The Structure of School Education in India.......................................................................27 The State of Kerala and its Educational System................................................................27 Leadership..........................................................................................................................32 The Evolution of Leadership Theories..............................................................................34 Great Man Theory..................................................................................................34 Trait Theory...........................................................................................................35 Contingency Theory...............................................................................................35 Transactional Leadership.......................................................................................36 Transformational Leadership.................................................................................36 Servant-Leadership................................................................................................38 Leadership Development...................................................................................................39 Job Satisfaction..................................................................................................................40 Factors Related to Job Satisfaction....................................................................................43

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Independence.........................................................................................................43 Activity..................................................................................................................44 Authority................................................................................................................44 Company Policies and Practices............................................................................45 Coworkers..............................................................................................................45 Creativity................................................................................................................46 Moral Values..........................................................................................................47 Recognition............................................................................................................47 Responsibility........................................................................................................48 Social Service.........................................................................................................48 Supervision-Technical...........................................................................................49 Variety....................................................................................................................50 Working Conditions...............................................................................................50 Personality-Job Satisfaction Relationship..............................................................51 Demographics and Job Satisfaction...................................................................................53 Gender and Job Satisfaction...................................................................................53 Age and Job Satisfaction........................................................................................54 Education and Job Satisfaction..............................................................................55 Work Experience and Job Satisfaction..................................................................57 Performance and Job Satisfaction......................................................................................58 Employee Empowerment and Job Satisfaction..................................................................59 Motivational Theories........................................................................................................60

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory.........................................................................60

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Herzberg’s Motivation and Hygiene Factors.........................................................61 Teacher Job Satisfaction....................................................................................................62 Job Satisfaction and Shared Leadership............................................................................66 Leadership Practices and Job Satisfaction.........................................................................66 Selection of Instruments....................................................................................................69 Instruments for Measuring Leadership Practices...............................................................69 Multifactor Leadership Qu estionnaire (MLQ) Rater.............................................69 Leader Behavior Descrip tion Questionnaire (LBDQ)...........................................70 Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI)....................................................................72 Instruments for Measuring Job Satisfaction......................................................................74 Mohrman-Cooke-Mohrman Job Satisf action Questionnaire (MCMJSS)..............74 Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ)....................................................75 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).......................................................76 Demographic Questionnaire..................................................................................78 Conclusions........................................................................................................................78 Summary............................................................................................................................79 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................81 Research Design.................................................................................................................81 Population..................................................................................................................... .....81 Sample Population.............................................................................................................82 Instruments.................................................................................................................... .....83 Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI)....................................................................83 Reliability and Validit y of LPI-Observer..................................................84

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Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).......................................................84 Reliability and Validity of MSQ................................................................85 Research Questions............................................................................................................8 7 Hypotheses.........................................................................................................................88 Null Hypotheses.....................................................................................................88 Alternate Hypotheses.............................................................................................88 Procedures..................................................................................................................... .....89 Feasibility and Appropriateness.........................................................................................90 Data Analysis.....................................................................................................................91 Summary............................................................................................................................91 CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION A ND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA.............................93 Presentation of the Data.....................................................................................................94 Descriptive Statistics......................................................................................................... .94 The Demographic of the Sample...........................................................................94 LPI Descriptive Statistics.......................................................................................97 MSQ Descriptive Statistics....................................................................................97 Analysis of the Data...........................................................................................................99 Testing the Research Hypotheses....................................................................................100 Null Hypothesis One............................................................................................100 Null Hypothesis Two...........................................................................................101 Null Hypothesis Three.........................................................................................104 Null Hypothesis Four...........................................................................................107 Null Hypothesis Five...........................................................................................111

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Summary..........................................................................................................................116 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................................119 Conclusions......................................................................................................................119 The Relationship between Leadership and Satisfaction.........................................120 Findings of the Study in Relati on to the Global Literature..............................................124 The Study’s Contribution to Leadership..........................................................................129 Recommendations............................................................................................................130 Developing a Leadership Training Program..........................................................130 Recommendations for Future Research...........................................................................132 Summary..........................................................................................................................133 REFERENCES................................................................................................................134 APPENDIX A: TABLE A1 LITERATURE REVIEW...................................................181 APPENDIX B: PERMISSION TO REPRIN T THE POLITICAL MAPS OF INDIA AND

THE STATE OF KERALA.............................................................................................183

APPENDIX C: TABLE C1 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN FIVE LPI FACTORS AND 21 MSQ FACTORS.........................................................................................................184 APPENDIX D: TABLE D1 R-SQUARE D VALUES OF 21 MSQ FACTORS AND FIVE LPI FACTORS.......................................................................................................186 APPENDIX E: GENERAL INFORMATION.................................................................187 APPENDIX F: APPROVAL LETTER TO CONDUCT SURVEYS IN SCHOOLS IN KERALA, INDIA............................................................................................................188 APPENDIX G: PERMISSION TO USE SCHO OL FACILITIES IN KERALA, INDIA190 APPENDIX H: PERMISSION TO USE EXISTING SURVEYS..................................191

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APPENDIX I: CONSENT TO AC T AS RESEARCH SUBJECTS...............................196 APPENDIX J: COVER LETTERS TO INDIVIDUAL HEADTEACHERS..................197 APPENDIX K: COVER LETTERS TO INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPANTS....................198

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Descriptive Statistics from Demographic Variable.............................................96 Table 2. Means and Standard Deviation of LPI Factors....................................................97 Table 3. Means and Standard Deviation of MSQ Factors.................................................98 Table 4. Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Tests of the 21 MSQ Factors for Gender Variable…….102 Table 5. Sum of the Rankings between Male and Female Teachers of the MSQ Factor…………………………………………………………………………………...103 Table 6. Kruskal-Wallis Tests of the 21 MSQ Factors for the Age Variable..................104 Table 7. Sum of the Rankings of Age Groups for MSQ Activity....................................106 Table 8. Post Hoc Comparisons of Age Variable with Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Tests........107 Table 9. Kruskal-Wallis Tests of the 21 MSQ Factors for Educational Variable...........108 Table 10. Sum of the Rankings for Educational Variable...............................................110 Table 11. Post Hoc Comparisons for Edu cational Variable with Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Tests.................................................................................................................................111 Table 12. Kruskal-Wallis Tests of the 21 MSQ Factors for Experience Variable..........113 Table 13. Sum of the Rankings for Experience Variable................................................114 Table 14. Post Hoc Comparisons with Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Tests for Experience Variable............................................................................................................................115 Table 15. Differences in Satisf action Based on Demographics.......................................118

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 . Political map of India.........................................................................................28 Figure 2 . Political map of Kerala......................................................................................29 Figure 3 . Secondary school organizational chart..............................................................32

1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The construct of employee job satisf action is an outcome of various organizational and task related factors such as the type of leadersh ip, working conditions, coworkers, company policies and procedures, independence, and the work itself (Jones, Kantak, Futerell, & Johnston, 1996; Okpara, 2006; Rafferty & Griffin, 2006; Zeffane, 1994). Employee job satisfaction is one of the most extensively researched areas in the organizational literature b ecause of its correlation to performance and productivity. Employee satisfaction depends on the type of leadership in an organization, which in turn, affects its success (Roberts & Hirsch, 2005 ). Teacher job satisfaction is an outcome of the various organizational f actors previously mentioned and it is very critical in terms of making teaching and learning processes mo re productive thereby paving the way for creating effective schools (Betancourt- Smith, Inman, & Marlow, 1994; Chittom & Sistrunk, 1990). Woods and Weasmer (2004) summed up the results of teacher satisfaction when they wrote, “teacher satisfaction reduces at trition, enhances collegiabiliy, improves job performance, and has an impact on student performance” (p. 118). Nevertheless, there is far less literature exploring leadership with job satisfaction in the educational literature than in business literature. What literature exists on job satisfaction has linked various aspects of teacher job satisfaction to t eacher retention, including satisfaction with principal leadership and support (Betancour t- Smith et al., 1994; Sistrunk & Chittor, 1990). Like in other organizations, school lead ership has a significant influence on teacher satisfaction as well as school effectiv eness. School leadership plays an important

2 role in creating a school envir onment that is conducive to t eacher job satisfaction. Eagley (2003) reported a statistically significant relationship between hi gh school principals’ leadership and teachers’ job sa tisfaction. Shan (1998) stated th at teacher satis faction is a pivotal link in the chain of educational re form. Teacher satisfaction influences job performance, attrition, and ultimately, student performance. According to Smith (2000), a better understanding of the relationship betw een principal leadership and teachers’ satisfaction can help educational authoritie s develop programs that will strengthen the relationship between principal and teachers, which, in turn, may have a positive impact on student learning. Studies on school effectiveness, school climate, student success, and teacher satisfaction all reveal one co mmon factor, the fact that th e success of a sc hool depends on its leadership (Mcinerney, 2003; Norton, 2002; Taylor & John, 2002). Moreover, a school principal’s leadership is a critical factor for e ffective teaching and learning. According to Cowdery (2004), the principal in a school can greatly influence the school atmosphere and procedures, which, in turn, affect the morale of the school. In other words, the relationship between these two constr ucts, leadership practi ces of the principal and teacher job satisfaction, has a significan t impact on school effectiveness. Effective schools impart quality instructi on to pupils, which in turn, help to create and maintain a knowledgeable, educated, and satisfied workfo rce: an important asset to any modern organization or country. India is a developing country with a strong focus on improving its educational system because the quality of life depends on the quality of it s educational system. Indian leaders support the idea that no country can meet the social and economic challenges of

3 the 21 st century without improving the quality of its educational system (Barli, Kurt, Cabuk, & Bynum, 2005). Most importantly, the educational system at the secondary school level of a country plays a critical ro le in shaping the hu man capital of a nation (Ghailani & Khan, 2004). Though Kerala is geographically one of the smallest states in India, the state government focuses more on education than ot her states in the country. Education in general and the secondary school education in particular, ar e critical in improving the quality of people’s lives in the state. The quali ty of education, to a great extent, depends on satisfied and committed teachers. School l eadership plays an important role in maintaining satisfied teachers. Since school l eadership is critical in forging satisfied teachers and effective schools, the study’s focus was on examining the possible relationship between secondary school head t eachers’ leadership pr actices and teachers’ job satisfaction in selected secondary school s in the Kannur Educational District of Kerala, India. More specifically, the intent of this non-experimental correlational research study was to examine the relationship between secondary school head teachers’ leadership practices as perceived by the teac hers, and the teachers’ job satisfaction in these selected schools. Background of the Study This non-experimental quantitative descriptive correlational study was to determine whether there was any relationshi p between the leadership practices of secondary school head teachers as perceive d by the teachers they supervised, and the teachers’ job satisfaction in selected s econdary schools in the Kannur Educational District of Kerala, India. According to th e World Bank Report (1993), the investment of

4 developing countries in their e ducation systems was the single most important contributor to their economic growth. India is a developi ng country, and the education system of the country plays a key role in promoting economic and social development. Andaleeb (2003) described this well when he not ed that “education and development are intertwined, and through education, a country develops its productive human resources that serve the engine of social and econo mic transformation” (p. 487). Another World Bank Report (1995) suggested that the more educated a countr y’s workers are, the greater the potential for its rapid economic growth. In India, the state of Kerala plays an im portant role in supplying educated workers to the country and to the world labor market. In Kerala, the social and political leaders recognize the importance of education in im proving the quality of life in the state. Consequently, the government of Kerala is de termined to improve its educational system. Kerala once led India in universalizing school education, and is more poised today to improve the quality of mass school educa tion than ever before (Chandrasekhar, Ramachandran, & Ramakumar, 2001). Since the quality of education affects the productivity of a nation’s labor force, and ultimately, its prosperity, the present st udy was important to examine the relationship between leadership practices of secondary school head teachers and teachers’ job satisfaction in the Educational District of Kerala, India. Th e quality of education depends on satisfied teachers, and the type of sc hool leadership (Abbas & Parvin, 2004), which impacts teacher satisfaction. Moreover, the st udy might help school administrators such as assistant head teachers, head teachers, and District Educationa l Officers (DEOs) to improve the quality of both teaching and learning in the secondary schools through

5 developing necessary leadership skills among head teachers in the Kannur Educational District. Put differently, a lack of proper leadership skil ls of secondary school head teachers was thought to be a major factor a nd worthy of exploration in the effort of improving the levels of secondary school te achers’ job satisfacti on in Kerala, India (Chandrasekhar et al., 2001). There were no studies found in the la st ten years that examined the relationship between leadership pr actices of secondary school head teachers and teachers’ job satisfaction in the Kannur Educational District, Kerala, India. Statement of the Problem The general problem is that there is a gap in the Indian e ducational evaluation literature on educational leadership, despite a huge expenditure on education based on the country’s gross domestic product. In 2001-2002, the expenditure on education was Rupees 84179.46 crores (1 crore = 10 million), 4.02% of the Gross Domestic Product (Government of India, 2003). In 1998, Indi a spent a total of R upees 60857 crores on education, which represents 3.77% of the Gro ss Domestic Product (Government of India, 2000). The neighboring countries of Sri Lanka and Bangladesh spent le ss than what India spent in the year 2001 as a percentage of their Gross Domestic Products. In 2001, Sri Lanka spent less than 2% of its Gross Domestic Product, whereas, Bangladesh’s expenditure on education for th e same year was only 2.1% of its Gross Domestic Product (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2004b). Education is critical in improving the quality of people’s lives, and the state government of Kerala focuses more on educat ion than other states in the country. The specific problem is that there is no resear ch linking secondary school head teachers’ leadership practices to teachers’ job satisfacti on in the state of Kerala, India in the last 10

6 years (Chandrasekhar et al., 2001; Sen, 2002; Tilak, 2002). Teacher job satisfaction is a predictor of teacher reten tion and commitment as well as a contributor to school effectiveness and student performance (J anssen, 2003; Karatzias, Power & Swanson, 2001; Rhodes, Neville & Allan, 2004; Shann, 1998). A principal’s leadership sets the tone for a school culture that enhances t eacher job satisfaction (Anderman, Belszer, & Smith, 1991). The intent of this non-experimental, quant itative, correlationa l research study was to examine the relationship between the le adership practices among secondary school head teachers and teacher satisfaction usi ng a group of 200 randomly chosen teachers in the Educational District of Ka nnur, Kerala, India. The study wa s first in the District of Kannur, Kerala, India. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this non-experimental, qua ntitative, descript ive correlational research study was to determine whethe r there was any relationship between the leadership practices of secondary school head teachers (predictive vari able), as perceived by the 200 teachers they supervised, and teachers’ job satisfaction (criterion variable) in 20 selected schools in the Kannur Educationa l District, Kerala, India. Two survey instruments were used along with a questionn aire to collect the demographics of the participants. The two instruments used were: (a) the Leadership Practices Inventory- Observer (LPI-Observer) and (b) the Mi nnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Kouzes and Posner (1995) developed the LPI-Obs erver. It consists of five key leadership practices: (a) challenging the pr ocess, (b) inspiring a shared vision, (c) enabling others to act, (d) modeling the way, and (e ) encouraging the heart. Ther e were 30 statements in the

7 questionnaire ― six statements for measuring each of the five leadership practices. Each statement was cast on a five-point Likert-type scale, where a higher value represented greater use of a leadership behavior (Kou zes & Posner, 1995). The MSQ was widely used to measure job satisfaction, and the instrume nt contained 100 questions, which measures 21 factors of job satisfaction (Weiss, Davis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). The term predictor variable was used in this study in stead of independent variable because the presumed causal variable was not experime ntally manipulated. The term criterion variable was used instead of dependent va riable for the same reason (Mertens, 1998). The secondary school head teachers who we re invited to participate in the study were at least 18 years of age and less than 55 years of age (teachers in Kerala have to retire when they reach the age of 55). The purpose for examining this relationship was to identify those leadership practices that appe ared to bring the highe st job satisfaction to teachers, so the identified pract ices could be considered for pre-service and in-service training of head teachers in the state of Kerala, India. The quantitative research method was a ppropriate because qualitative research focuses on phenomena that occur in natura l settings and it invol ves studying phenomena in all of their complexity (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The qualitative methods were appropriate for discovering meaning a nd understanding of a phenomenon under study (Creswell, 2003). The correlational design was appropriate because a correlational design allowed an analysis of how variables, singl y, or in combination, affected a pattern of behaviors.

8 Significance of the Study The results of this research might provide educational authori ties in the state of Kerala with new knowledge that might enhance teachers’ job satisfaction by incorporating new leadership training pr ograms for secondary school head teachers. Empirical research that links head teachers ’ leadership behavior s with teachers’ job satisfaction is limited (Davis & Wilson, 2000). The concept of leader ship practices and job satisfaction have been st udied extensively in other fi elds; however, there are not many studies that dealt with the relationship between the two variables, leadership practices of secondary school head teacher s and teachers’ job satisfaction. Moreover, studies that were reported in the literature looked primarily at educational institutions in the United States and other developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany. A few studies examined the rela tionship between the leadership practices of head teachers and teachers’ job satisf action in developing c ountries like China, Thailand, Taiwan, and Mexico (Hsue, 1997; Secumski-Kiligian & Robinson 1993; Warr, 1991; Wetherell, 2002; Wilcox & Ding, 1992); how ever, no such studies had been done in Kerala, India. Therefore, the present study was expected to contri bute to the literature by determining the relationship between leader ship practices of secondary school head teachers and teachers’ job satisfaction in general, while extending research in this area to secondary schools in the district of Kannur, Kerala, India. Additionally, the study reported sub-analys es of the data by the demographic characteristics of the teachers (age, gende r, educational qualification, and years of experience) to explore whethe r the relationship that existe d, if any, between leadership practices and teacher job satisfaction diffe red by any of these identified demographic

9 classification. There had been no such studi es undertaken in the Kannur Educational District of Kerala, India. If the study would uncover diffe rences in the relationship between the secondary school head teachers’ leadership practices and teachers’ job satisfaction across these various demographic classifications (age, gender, educational qualifications, and years of experience), then, the state’s educational administrators could fine tune in-service and pre-service leader ship development progr ams for the secondary school head teachers to enha nce teachers’ job satisfac tion. Moreover, the study was expected to set an example fo r other educational districts in the state to look into the relationship between leadership practices of head teachers and teachers’ job satisfaction. In addition, the findings could help other states in India to emulate such leadership training programs for secondary school head teachers, making secondary school teaching and learning processes more effective nationwide. To summarize, this study would add to th e literature in the ge neral broad area of leadership practices and job satisfaction, and strengthen a literature trail on these variables in the Indian educational system . Additionally, this study attempted to see whether the identified relationship did hol d for various demographic groupings. These data surfaced very specific areas of leadersh ip that could be addr essed in head teacher training programs throughout India. In all, this study has a strong potential for supporting improvement in the education system in Kerala , as well as the entire country of India by stressing the significance of h ead teacher leadership in a ll aspects of secondary school education. Ultimately, the findings might be he lpful to the school administrators in redesigning the pre-service a nd in-service training programs by incorporating leadership training for both teachers and head teachers.

10 Significance of the Study to Leadership This study was designed to contribute to the growing literature in school leadership in general and more specifically it was designed to begin th e literature on this topic in the District of Kannur, Kerala, India. The st udy sought to identify specific leadership practices that were strongly li nked to teacher satisfaction and, thus, could contribute to improving pre-service and in-ser vice training programs for head teachers in Kerala, India. Additionally, th e study was designed to iden tify the relationship between leadership practices and job satisfaction based on demographic differences such as gender, age, educational qualifications, and y ears of experience to extend the leadership literature. The findings of the study suggested that a leader modeling a clearly developed sense of role (modeling the way) consistent with the goals and expectations of an organization is the most closely related leader ship trait related to job satisfaction. This finding, thus, highlights how impor tant it is for leaders to ‘w alk the talk’ to maintain a satisfied team of followers. It was hoped that with improved leadersh ip practices, teachers would be more satisfied, which, in turn, would lead to highe r student achievement. Today, schools, like any other modern organizations, need lead ers with a mission, purpose, political smarts, and management capability. Fawcett, Brau, and Fawcett (2005) emphasized this when they told us that school lead ership should be able to insp ire and motivate teachers as well as students. Goodland (1984) believed that good schools depended in part on reasonably stable and professionally satisfied teaching staff. Owens (2001) went further when he stated that a principal’s leadership in th e school was the single most important factor

11 which was responsible for its success or fa ilure. Moreover, Owens stated that an examination of various aspects of teacher satisfaction and its correlation with head teachers’ leadership practices could help to improve the overall teaching and learning processes in secondary schools. Nature of the Study The primary purpose of this non-expe rimental quantitative descriptive correlational research design was to dete rmine whether there was any relationship between the leadership practices of secondary school head teachers, as perceived by the teachers they supervised, and the teachers’ j ob satisfaction in selected secondary schools in the Kannur Educational Dist rict, Kerala, India. The two instruments which were used to measure the traits were: (a) LPI-Observe r and (b) the MSQ. A brief questionnaire was used to collect the demographics of the respondents. A few quantitative research methods we re reviewed, and at least one other method appeared to be applicable for this study: a quasi-experimental design without a control group. Although a quasi-experimental design, without a cont rol group, could be used to find out the relationship between head teachers’ leadership practices and teachers’ job satisfaction, the timeliness involved in the process would have prolonged the completion of this study. Similarly, qualitative methods could have been used for this study; however, qualitative method would not al low collecting the data without fieldwork (Creswell, 1994). According to Bickman a nd Rod (1998), “a descriptive approach is appropriate when the researcher is attemp ting to answer ‘what is’ or ‘what was’ questions, normative questions, or correlative questions” (p. 15).

12 The teachers’ perception of leadership pr actices of head teachers was measured using the LPI-Observer, which was develope d by Kouzes and Posner (1995). The LPI- Observer is a 30 − item questionnaire intended to m easure the frequency with which a leader engages in five behavioral practices. The five types of leadership behaviors were: (a) challenging the process, (b) inspiring a shared-vision, (c) enabling others to act, (d) modeling the way, and (e) encouraging the heart. Teacher job satisfaction was measured fr om teachers’ response using the MSQ. The MSQ had successfully been used by many researchers to determine the job satisfaction in various settings (Bodur, 2002; Houser, 1993; Robertson, 2003). The MSQ measures satisfaction with several specific as pects of work and work environment. This questionnaire (the MSQ) made it feasible to obtain a more individualized picture of worker satisfaction than it was possible us ing gross or more general measures of satisfaction with the job as a whole (Weiss et al., 1977). There were two versions of the MSQ, a 21 scale long form, and a 3 scale short form (Weiss et al., 1977). The long form of th e MSQ was used in this study because the long form, according to the authors, would provide much more information about the various aspects of job satisfac tion. It has been successfully used with many occupational groups and work settings including those in e ducation (Weiss et al.). The long form of the MSQ was a 100 − item, self-report instrument, which measured job satisfaction across 20 dimensions, which were: ability utiliza tion, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies and practices , compensation, coworkers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition, respons ibility, security, social service, social status, supervision-human relations, supe rvision-technical, variety, and working

13 conditions. There were five questions on each dimension. All questions were answered on a five point Likert-type scale (from ve ry dissatisfied to very satisfied). The quantitative research method would provide positivism knowledge claims. Positivism knowledge claims to challenge, “the traditiona l notion of the absolute truth of knowledge (Phillips & Burbules, 2000) and recognizing we cannot be positive about our claims of knowledge when studying the behavior and ac tions of humans” (Creswell, 2003, p. 7). Positivism adheres to the notion of realit y and its epistemology holds the idea of objectivity and the possibility of fi nding universal truth (Yolles, 2004). This study focused on secondary school teachers of the Kannur Educational District, in Kerala, India. It was carried out in the following manner. First, 20 secondary schools out of a total of 105 schools (government and aided) in the school district were randomly selected. Second, 10 teachers from each of the selected schools were randomly selected with a random replacement wherever necessary. Third, the instruments were administered to these 200 teachers, repres enting 14% of an approximate 2850 teachers in the Kannur Educational Dist rict, Kerala, India. Research Questions This section discusses the five questions involved in the study. The following five questions guided to fulfill the purpose of the study: 1.

Is there a significant relationship between any of the five leadership factors (challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way, and encouraging the heart) of the LPI and the 21 job satisfaction factors (abilit y utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies and practices , compensation, coworkers, creativity,

14 independence, security, social service, social status, moral values, recognition, responsibility, supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety working conditions, and overall satisfac tion) of the MSQ as perceived by secondary school teachers in the Kannur Education District, Kerala, India? 2.

Is there a difference in any of the 21 f actors of the MSQ which measure the job satisfaction of secondary school teache rs in the Kannur Education District, Kerala, India, by gender? 3.

Is there a difference in any of the 21 f actors of the MSQ which measure the job satisfaction of secondary school teache rs in the Kannur Education District, Kerala, India, by age? 4.

Full document contains 213 pages
Abstract: The study's purpose was to examine the correlation between head teachers' leadership practices and teachers' job satisfaction in the Kannur Educational District, Kerala, India and to find whether their satisfaction differed based on their demographics. The study randomly sampled 200 teachers from 10 government and 10 aided secondary schools. The major finding is that all five Leadership factors (LPI) and all 21 job satisfaction factors (MSQ) were related. Other findings were (a) gender, age, educational qualifications, and years of experience of teachers were associated with satisfaction, (b) young teachers looked up to the head teacher for leadership more than their older colleagues, and (c) teachers wanted independence, recognition, creativity, moral values, variety, flexibility, and better working conditions in their job.