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Contemporary daughter/son adult social role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, content validation, and exploratory investigation

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Dana Everett Cozad
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Group to update research of Havighurst in the 1950s. The Daughter/Son Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol were created through a series of panel reviews and suggestions by experts drawn from adult education, human development, gerontology, and educational measurement and research. A review of the literature identified the initial performance descriptors; ultimately, four strands were identified for inclusion in the study: Involvement, Perception/Attitude, Activities, and Role Improvement. Questions were developed and reviewed by experts again for their relevance to the performance being measured and their clarity; this created the basis for the Interview Protocol. The resulting instruments were administered to a quota sample of 150 respondents qualified for inclusion by age, gender, socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnicity characteristics. The results were placed in the cells of a 5x3x2 grid reflecting five socioeconomic levels, three age groups, and two genders, with inclusion of minority race/ethnicity participants added throughout the cells. Main effects for each of the primary variables were tested, with only gender showing significance, with daughters performing at a higher level than sons. Other demographic characteristics of respondents and their parents were studied for association with role performance. Distance between the Daughter/Son and the parent with whom she/he is most involved and the Daughter/Son's involvement in parents' decision-making were significant. The closer the proximity, the higher the performance rating; the greater the involvement in the parent's decision-making, the higher the performance rating. Recommendations for further study include a larger population sample study covering a wider geographic range than this study, additional study of demographic characteristics that influence adult Daughter/Son role performance, study of minority differences, and study of the role performance for the younger age level.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES v

LIST OF FIGURES viii

ABSTRACT ix

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Purpose of the Study 5 Research Objectives 5 Research Questions and Hypotheses 6 Significance of the Study 7 Social Roles Research Project 10 Limitations of the Study 11 Definition of Relevant Terms 11 Organization of the Study 14

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 Social Role Theory and Adult Education 17 Adult Development 23 Erikson 25 Stages of Psychosocial Development 27 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust: Hope 27 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: Will 28 Initiative vs. Guilt: Purpose 30 Industry vs. Inferiority: Competence 31 Identity vs. Identity Diffusion: Fidelity 32 The Adult Stages 35 Intimacy vs. Isolation: Love 35 Generativity vs. Stagnation: Care 36 Integrity vs. Despair: Wisdom 38 Levinson 40 Havighurst’s Studies of Social Roles and Developmental Tasks 46 Prairie City Study 47 Kansas City Study of Adult Life 52 Cross-National Studies 60 The University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project 64 Abney 66

ii McCoy 70 Kirkman 73 Davis 76 Hargiss 77 Montgomery 78 Wall 80 Witte 81 Yates-Carter 83 Dye 84 McCloskey 85 Rogers 86 Barthmus 87 Comparison of Social Role Performance Ratings for Completed Roles 88 Daughter/Son Social Role 88 Primary Research Variables 96 Age 97 Gender 103 Socioeconomic Status (SES) 105 Other Factors of Interest 106 Marital Status 106 Geographic Proximity 110 Health of Parent/Child 111 Other Commitments: Work and Children at Home 112 Summary 113

CHAPTER 3 METHODS 116 Research Design and Methods 117 Research Objectives 117 Research Questions and Hypotheses 117 Study Design 119 University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project 120 Identification and Description of Research Strands 122 Procedures for the Validation Process 122 Development of the Performance Rating Scale 124 Development of the Interview Protocol 127 Field Test 129 Interviewer/Scorer Training 131 Implementation of the Study 132 Population Sampling 132 Data Collection 138 Data Analysis 141 Summary 143

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 146 Development and Content Validation of the Performance

iii Rating Scale 147 Pilot Panel 148 Validation Panel 149 Verification Panel 150 Interview Protocol Development and Content Validation 152 Field Test 154 The Study 156 Data Collection 156 Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Reliability 162 Other Findings 164 Observations 168 Summary 176

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 177 Summary 178 Conclusions 180 Implications 181 Implications for Adult Education Practice 181 Instrument Refinement 183 Recommendations for Further Research 184

REFERENCES 189

APPENDIX A NAM-POWERS-BOYD OCCUPATIONAL STATUS SCORES FOR 2000 195

APPENDIX B UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA SOCIAL ROLES RESEARCH GROUP 209

APPENDIX C PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE 211

APPENDIX D PILOT PANEL 216

APPENDIX E CORRESPONDENCE AND INSTRUCTIONS TO PILOT AND VALIDATION PANELS FOR PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE 218

APPENDIX F VALIDATION PANEL MEMBERS 225

APPENDIX G VERIFICATION PANEL MEMBERS 228

APPENDIX H CORRESPONDENCE AND INSTRUCTIONS TO VERIFICATION PANEL MEMBERS FOR PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE 231

iv APPENDIX I VERIFICATION PANEL MEMBERS FOR INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 252

APPENDIX J CORRESPONDENCE AND INSTRUCTIONS TO VERIFICATION PANEL FOR INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 254

APPENDIX K FIELD TEST PANEL 267

APPENDIX L DEMOGRAPHIC FORM 269

APPENDIX M INFORMED CONSENT FORM 273

APPENDIX N INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 276

APPENDIX O TRAINING GUIDE 285

APPENDIX P GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING ACTIVITIES AND ROLE IMPROVEMENT 296

v

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Nadel’s Role Classification System—Simplified 20

Table 2. Child of Aging Parent Performance Scores of Kansas City 58 Adults on the Developmental Tasks of Middle Age by Gender And Social Class

Table 3. Developmental Events for the Daughter/Son Adult Social Role 70

Table 4. Mean and Rank Order of Perceived Importance of Social Roles By Cell 72

Table 5. Mean and Rank Order of Perceived Importance of Social Roles by SES 73

Table 6. Mean Performance Rating Scores of University of South Florida Social Roles Previously Conducted 89

Table 7. Performance Scores of Kansas City Adults on the Developmental Tasks of Middle Age Child (Age 40-70) of Aging Parents 95

Table 8. Existence of Main and Interaction Effects in Completed USF 100 Social Roles Studies

Table 9. Phased Developmental Tasks for Daughter/Son Social Role 101

Table 10. Occupation Levels by Category, Score Range, and Estimated 108 Percentage of Population

Table 11. Educational Levels Defined for Five Levels 109

Table 12. Comparison of Variables by Stratification Levels 110

Table 13. Quota Sample Configuration of Cells 133

Table 14. Occupational Levels by Category, Score Range, and 136 Estimated Percentage of Population

Table 15. Education Levels by Educational Attainment and Estimated Percentage of Population 137

vi

Table 16. Family Income Levels by Income Range and Estimated Percentage of Population 138

Table 17. Field Test Inter-Rater Reliability and Agreement for the Daughter/Son Social Role 157

Table 18. Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Daughter/Son Social Role Respondents by Cell 159

Table 19. Descriptive Statistics for the Final Performance Score for The Daughter/Son Social Role 160

Table 20. Three-Factor ANOVA Summary Table for Final Daughter/Son Social Role Scores 160

Table 21. Means and Standard Deviations of Final Daughter/Son Role by Gender 161

Table 22. Frequency of Rating of Daughter/Son Role Importance in Respondents’ Lives 161

Table 23. Means and Standard Deviations of Final Daughter/Son Scores by Gender, Age Category, and SES Level 163

Table 24. Final Group Sample for Daughter/Son Social Role Inter-Rater Reliability by Performance Score 165

Table 25. Final Group Sample for Daughter/Son Inter-Rater Reliability by Performance Level 166

Table 26. Final Group Sample Intra-Rater Relationship for Performance Scores and Level for the Daughter/Son Social Role 167

Table 27. Frequency Distribution of Distance between Daughter/Son and the Parent with Whom She/He is Most Involved 168

Table 28. Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Daughter/Son Social Role Performance Scores by Distance 169

Table 29. Summary Table by Daughter/Son Social Role Scores and Distance, Extent of Daughter/Son’s Involvement in Parents’ Decision-Making, and the Number of Living Biological (or Adoptive Parents 170

vii

Table 30. Means Scores and Standard Deviations for Daughter/Son Performance Scores by Reported Level of Involvement in Parents’ Decision-Making 171

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Males’ early and middle adult years development, indicating characteristic themes, transitions, and age ranges, according to Levinson. 42

Figure 2. Verification Panel scores rating the clarity and completeness of Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role. 152

Figure 3. Verification Panel scores rating the clarity and completeness of Interview Protocol for the Daughter/Son adult social role. 155

ix

Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

Dana E. Cozad

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Group to update research of Havighurst in the 1950s. The Daughter/Son Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol were created through a series of panel reviews and suggestions by experts drawn from adult education, human development, gerontology, and educational measurement and research. A review of the literature identified the initial performance descriptors; ultimately, four strands were identified for inclusion in the study: Involvement, Perception/Attitude, Activities, and Role Improvement. Questions were developed and reviewed by experts again for their relevance to the performance being measured and their clarity; this created the basis for the Interview Protocol. The resulting instruments were administered to a quota sample of 150 respondents qualified for inclusion by age, gender, socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnicity characteristics. The results were placed in the cells of a 5x3x2 grid reflecting five

x socioeconomic levels, three age groups, and two genders, with inclusion of minority race/ethnicity participants added throughout the cells. Main effects for each of the primary variables were tested, with only gender showing significance, with daughters performing at a higher level than sons. Other demographic characteristics of respondents and their parents were studied for association with role performance. Distance between the Daughter/Son and the parent with whom she/he is most involved and the Daughter/Son’s involvement in parents’ decision-making were significant. The closer the proximity, the higher the performance rating; the greater the involvement in the parent’s decision-making, the higher the performance rating. Recommendations for further study include a larger population sample study covering a wider geographic range than this study, additional study of demographic characteristics that influence adult Daughter/Son role performance, study of minority differences, and study of the role performance for the younger age level.

1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the first half of the 1950s, Robert J. Havighurst and a team of researchers from the University of Chicago undertook a study of adult life, called the Kansas City Study of Adult Life (Havighurst, 1955; Havighurst, 1957; Havighurst & Orr, 1956). In this study, Havighurst and his associates interviewed persons between the ages of 40 years and 70 years to learn about the social roles they occupied and the developmental events associated with fulfillment of those social roles. Ten social roles were identified as a result of Havighurst’s study of adult social roles, and this concept of social role and the particular roles identified by Havighurst have been significant markers in adult education with important implications for the discipline (Knowles, 1980; Long, 1983; Witte, 1997/1998). In the 50 years since Havighurst’s study, many changes have taken place in the culture of the United States. Obvious differences include the changed role of women in the workplace and in community life, the changes in family life and structure due to increased rates of divorce and remarriages, the mobility of the population, and the lengthening of the life span. In order to study the impact of societal changes in the intervening years, a series of studies to update Havighurst’s social roles was begun at the University of South Florida with the publication of a study by Abney (1992/1993) in which he identified 13 contemporary adult social roles.

2 Havighurst identified child of an elderly parent as one of the 10 social roles; Abney’s research (1992/1993) described the role as daughter or son, without adding the qualifying reference to the age of the parent because Abney’s study looked at a broader age range than did Havighurst’s. This study focused on the Daughter/Son adult social role in order to develop and content validate an Interview Protocol and Performance Rating Scale for use in additional studies of this social role. Statement of the Problem Since the 1950s when the work of the University of Chicago’s research team headed by Robert Havighurst conducted several research studies on adult social roles, many changes have taken place in American society, changes that call into question the relevance of Havighurst’s findings to contemporary life. Changes in mobility and geographic dispersion have had dramatic impact on families, as have shifts in the workforce to include a large number of women. Changes in expectations related to gender-related behaviors and roles have resulted in a wider range of socially-approved behaviors for both men and women. Advances in medicine and health care have increased quality of life and life expectancy, creating the ability to carry on an active lifestyle well into old age; moreover, these changes result in many persons in their early elderly years still having surviving parents. The family life cycle has also been impacted by increasing divorce/remarriage rates and the blending of families in ways not common in families of the 1950s. The population of most contemporary communities is far more ethnically diverse than were those Havighurst studied as well, and exposure to different cultural norms through daily life and through the media has changed perceptions about

3 what constitutes cultural norms and the accompanying cultural expectations. In short, families are very different than they were in the 1950s, and the social roles associated with being a family member are different, too. This study addressed the Daughter/Son social role for persons 18 years of age and older. This social role was identified in Abney’s research (1992/1993) as a major social role and was in the highest ranked group for inclusion in the social roles research project. As Bucx, van Wel, Krijn, and Hagendoorn (2008, Theories and hypotheses, ¶ 2) observed, “the relationship between children and their parents remains salient throughout the life course, but . . . this relationship is affected by the life course status of individual family members.” This social role was identified in Abney’s research (1992/1993) as a major social role and was in the highest ranked group for inclusion in the social roles research project. Havighurst’s original studies only included the adult social role of child of aging parent, thus considering the role only in respect to the age-related needs of an elderly parent. The role was not considered at all for other life stages. Similarly, Havighurst did not include this role in his studies of social roles of older persons, perhaps because people who were still engaged in the Daughter/Son role were rare; however, it is not now rare at all to find people in their retirement extremely engaged in the Daughter/Son social role. Havighurst’s study needed both expanding and updating with regard to the Daughter/Son role. The Daughter/Son social role needed to be described and studied in terms of the totality of the adult life span in contemporary American society

4 Rigorous content validation of a performance rating scale and of an interview protocol was needed if the Daughter/Son social role was studied in light of contemporary American social norms and expectations. Since Havighurst’s research was conducted, research techniques and procedures have been developed which enable more precise development and testing of a performance rating scale and interview protocol as well as more complex data analysis. Until the University of South Florida Social Roles research project began, there had been no attempts to address, on a comprehensive scale, the updating of Havighurst’s work. Without such research, the foundations he laid for understanding adult learning needs based upon adult social roles and developmental tasks become obsolete for the adult educator in the 21st century. The Daughter/Son role was especially in need of content validated a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol since Havighurst’s work on this role was particularly narrow. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and an Interview Protocol that could be used to define the contemporary Daughter/Son adult social role. Since Havighurst’s research was conducted in the 1950s, changes have taken place in American society that call for updating his concepts of the Daughter/Son social role. Havighurst’s study is an important theoretical underpinning of adult education programming; therefore, updating Havighurst’s research was an undertaking significant for the field of adult education.

5 Changes that have taken place in American society in the nearly 50 years since Havighurst’s groundbreaking work call for re-examination of the Daughter/Son social role. In addition, advances in research and measurement theory and techniques make possible more refined data analysis and interpretation than were available to Havighurst at the time of his studies; and this study applied more sophisticated analytical techniques to data collected regarding the Daughter/Son role. This study, which developed and content validated a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol for use in studying the contemporary Daughter/Son social role, provided for the gathering of information on a more heterogeneous population than Havighurst’s samples. It also allowed for data collection on persons across the adult life stages, thus expanding Havighurst’s research that considered the role only in regard to the needs of aging parents. Research Objectives The research objectives of this study were: 1. To content validate a Performance Rating Scale for the Daughter/Son adult social role to enable researchers to assess the role performance of individual adults across the life span. 2. To content validate an Interview Protocol for the adult social role of Daughter/Son in order that reliable distinctions can be made about the role performance of individuals. 3. To implement the use of the Performance Rating Scale and the Interview Protocol in a study of a quota sample of participants primarily from the

6 Tampa Bay, Florida, area but including some respondents from South Carolina and elsewhere. 4. To generate data from the exploratory study about the Daughter/Son role performance that could suggest further research possibilities and, in particular, could suggest research related to developmental tasks across the life span that are unrelated to care for an aging parent. Research Questions and Hypotheses The following research questions were developed by the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Project and related to objective #4 above. The research questions addressed in this study were: 1. Are there age-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 2. Are there gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 3. Are there socio-economic status differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 4. Are there interaction effects between the age, gender, and socio-economic status variables related to role performance of the Daughter/Son adult social role? 5. Are there activities related to performance of the Daughter/Son social role suggested by the respondents that are not related to the aging and increasing dependency of parents?

7 6. Are there other significant variables that influence Daughter/Son social role performance? To verify further the validity of the instruments, based upon the literature and prior research, the following hypotheses were presented: 1. There are gender-related differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role, with daughters performing at higher levels. 2. There are socio-economic status differences in adults’ performance of the Daughter/Son social role. Significance of the Study A key assumption about adult education is that adult learning is highly linked to specific situations growing out of adult life experience. Aslanian and Brickell (1980) studied why adults engage in learning activities and what they choose to study. They stated: The bulk of the data supported our hypothesis that most adults learn in order to move out of some status they must or wish to leave and into some new status they must or wish to enter. That is, their reason for learning was to perform well in the new status. (p. 52)

With regard to the reason for learning, they found that 83% of adults engage in learning as a utilitarian means to an end. Although the most often cited reason for learning among this group was for career-related purposes, the second ranking category was family- related concerns (16%). For adult educators, understanding adult learning needs is the beginning point for program planning. “Adult educators must be primarily attuned to the existential concerns

8 of the individuals and institutions they serve and be able to develop learning experiences that will be articulated with these concerns” (Knowles, 1980, p. 54). Knowles’s model for adult education planning has its foundation in Havighurst’s idea that the teachable moment comes in response to the developmental tasks at different life stages and that these developmental tasks are related to the fulfillment of social roles. “Each of these tasks produces a ‘readiness to learn’ which at its peak presents a ‘teachable moment’. . . . These [developmental tasks] of the adult years are the products primarily of the evolution of social roles” (Knowles, 1980, p. 51). Knowles further explicates the relationship of adult learning and social roles in his fourth assumption of the andragogical model of adult education. Adults become ready to learn those things they need to know and be able to do in order to cope with their real-life situations. An especially rich source of “readiness to learn” is the developmental tasks associated with moving from one developmental stage to the next. (1990, p. 60)

Having data on adult social roles and developmental tasks is, therefore, a key ingredient in adult education program planning; the need for data on contemporary adult social roles is important to planning relevant adult education in the new millennium. “Although the timeframe and some of the tasks suggested by Havighurst are somewhat dated, the idea of specific life tasks giving rise to a teachable moment is not” (Merriam, Cafferella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 308). This study provides tools for future researchers to gather information about the Daughter/Son social role that can aid administrators of adult education programs with developing programs and curricula related to developmental activities associated with the

9 Daughter/Son adult social role. This study’s tools enable adult educators to update and redefine the adult social role of Daughter/Son. With the content validation of a Performance Rating Scale and an Interview Protocol for conducting further research into this social role, valid and reliable data can be collected that will inform the adult educator about the life demands adults face with regard to their Daughter/Son social role. Information gathered in this study about demographic variables (age, gender, SES), the interaction effect between demographic variables on role performance, and the influence of certain environmental/situational variables (i.e., geographic proximity and the number of living biological or adoptive parents) have provided data that can be analyzed in more depth on variables that potentially impact Daughter/Son role performance. This study was also significant because of what it suggested regarding areas of inquiry that might increase the body of knowledge about the Daughter/Son role in the adult years as it relates to developmental tasks apart from those related to caring for aging parents. The paucity of literature related to the Daughter/Son adult social role in any context except as it relates to the increasing dependency of aging parents indicated that there were important aspects of this role that had not been identified and researched. Abney’s research found, for example, that the Daughter/Son role was the most highly ranked adult social role by the young respondents (age 18-34 years) in his community survey ranking adult social roles by order of importance to them; this finding suggested that further study of this role may provide much more information than was currently available about what makes this role so important to that younger age group. Further evidence of this need would also be implied from the developmental tasks identified by

10 the expert panels, who identified six developmental tasks associated with the Daughter/Son role. Four of the six developmental tasks focused on the role in relation to needs of aging parents, while only two developmental tasks spoke to other aspects of the relationship. This study suggested additional activities associated with the Daughter/Son role that may be explored further. Social Roles Research Project The importance of adult social roles to program planning for adult educators has been cited by Havighurst (1955); Knowles (1980, 1990); Darkenwald and Merriam (1982); Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007); and Aslanian and Brickell (1980). In order to update, revise, and content validate Havighurst’s work in the 1950s, a team of researchers from the University of South Florida began a process of identifying contemporary adult social roles, developing Performance Rating Scales to rate performance levels, constructing Interview Protocols to gather data on the identified adult social roles, and utilizing those instruments to conduct a quota sample study in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. Abney (1992/1993) and McCoy (1993/1994) identified 13 contemporary adult social roles: association/club member, citizen, Daughter/Son, friend, grandparent, home/services manager, kin/relative, learner, leisure time consumer, parent, religious affiliate, spouse/partner, and worker. Previous research has been concluded on the association/club member (Montgomery, 1997/1998); citizen (Barthmus, 2004/2005); friend (Dye, 1998); grandparent (Rogers, 2004/2005), home/services manager (Wall, 1997/1998); kin/relative (Yates-Carter, 1997/1998); learner (Witte, 1997/1998); leisure

11 time consumer (Hargiss, 1997/1998); parent, spouse/partner, worker (Kirkman, 1994/1995; Davis, 2002); and religious affiliate (McCloskey, 2000). This study contributes to the research on the Daughter/Son social role for the entire project on social roles. Limitations of the Study This study had certain inherent limitations. First, it was based upon self-report rather than observation of actual behavior. The self-report method may lend itself response effect (i.e., to inaccurate reporting of actual behaviors, either due to miscalculation, to forgetfulness, to enhancing responses to reflect behavior perceived by the respondent to be more socially acceptable or other form of biasing of data) (Borg & Gall, 1989). A limitation of the data from the quota sample was that it was drawn primarily from one community, the Tampa Bay area of Florida. Though the Tampa Bay area offered a diverse, heterogeneous population, data more geographically representative of the United States might be required to draw conclusions about the Daughter/Son social role across the country. Definition of Relevant Terms For the purposes of this study, the following definitions of terms were used: Adult--”A person who performs socially productive roles and who has assumed primary responsibility for his/her own life” (Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982, p. 8). Adult Education--”Adult education is a process whereby persons whose major social roles are characteristic of adult status undertake systematic and sustained learning

12 activities for the purpose of bringing about change in knowledge, attitudes, values, or skills” (Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982, p. 9). Age Group--Group into which respondents will be assigned based upon chronological age at the time of the interview. The three groups to be used in this study were: Young--18 to 34 years; Middle--35 to 64 years; and Older--65 years or more. Daughter/Son--A child by birth, adoption, marriage of a parent (i.e., step-child), or by marriage (i.e., son-in-law or daughter-in-law). Developmental Event—According to Abney (1992/1993), a developmental event is,

A specific occurrence (e.g., marriage) or a series of activities (e.g., raising a child) in adult life that are related to performance of a particular social role. Generally each occurrence can be viewed as a life task related to social activities rather than biological or mental maturation processes. A developmental event may be transitional in nature indicating a shift between phases of social role (i.e., acquisition of a new family member through birth or adoption). (pp. 9-10)

Developmental Task—Havighurst’s term for the: basic tasks of living, which must be achieved if we are to live successfully and to go on with a good promise of success to the later stages of life. The developmental tasks are set for us by three forces: (1) the expectations of values of our society; (2) the maturing and then the aging of our bodies; and (3) our own personal values or aspirations. (Havighurst & Orr, 1960, p. 7)

Interview Protocol--An interview format of a series of questions that provides for the gathering of information to be used in rating the social role performance. Parent--A father or mother, including relationships by virtue of birth, adoption, marriage to a child’s parent (i.e., step-parent relationships), or marriage to the parent’s child (i.e., in-law relationships).

13 Performance Level--The category describing the degree of conformity to usual societal expectations for the behaviors, attitudes, skills, and degree of involvement reported by the study’s respondents to an Interview Protocol regarding the adult social role of Daughter/Son. Performance level was scored in five categories, each with two levels, and which were assigned points as follows: Low (0 to 1 point); Below Average (2 to 3 points); Average (4 to 5 points); Above Average (6 to 7 points); High (8 to 9 points). Performance Rating Scale--Common American standards for the performance of the Daughter/Son social role defined by the explicit criteria developed and verified by a panel of content and research experts. Performance Rating Score--The quantitative ranking of a respondent’s self- reported current performance level of the Daughter/Son social role compared to common American standards for performance of the role. Social Role--A social science construct which is a constellation of behaviors, attitudes, functions, and relational positions formed by normative expectations of a society for an individual’s performance of certain duties. “A social role is a coherent set of activities that is recognized and judged by others as something apart from the individual who happens to fill it” (Havighurst & Albrecht, 1953, p. 43). Socioeconomic Status (SES) Level--”The composite of social and economic attributes that combine to indicate a relative position within contemporary American society” (James & Abney, 1993, p. 4). For this study, the measure of SES used was the socioeconomic status measure developed by James and Abney (1993). It represented a

Full document contains 313 pages
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by the University of South Florida Social Roles Research Group to update research of Havighurst in the 1950s. The Daughter/Son Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol were created through a series of panel reviews and suggestions by experts drawn from adult education, human development, gerontology, and educational measurement and research. A review of the literature identified the initial performance descriptors; ultimately, four strands were identified for inclusion in the study: Involvement, Perception/Attitude, Activities, and Role Improvement. Questions were developed and reviewed by experts again for their relevance to the performance being measured and their clarity; this created the basis for the Interview Protocol. The resulting instruments were administered to a quota sample of 150 respondents qualified for inclusion by age, gender, socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnicity characteristics. The results were placed in the cells of a 5x3x2 grid reflecting five socioeconomic levels, three age groups, and two genders, with inclusion of minority race/ethnicity participants added throughout the cells. Main effects for each of the primary variables were tested, with only gender showing significance, with daughters performing at a higher level than sons. Other demographic characteristics of respondents and their parents were studied for association with role performance. Distance between the Daughter/Son and the parent with whom she/he is most involved and the Daughter/Son's involvement in parents' decision-making were significant. The closer the proximity, the higher the performance rating; the greater the involvement in the parent's decision-making, the higher the performance rating. Recommendations for further study include a larger population sample study covering a wider geographic range than this study, additional study of demographic characteristics that influence adult Daughter/Son role performance, study of minority differences, and study of the role performance for the younger age level.