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Construct validity and short-term test-retest reliability of the Fear of the Feminine projective test

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Denise A Reding
Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Fear of the Feminine (FOF) projective test in a male population. The main aim of the FOF is to assess men's fear of the feminine, to assist men in recognizing and understanding their fear of the feminine, as well as to evaluate to what degree it affects men's lives (e.g., as a censor and impetus for psychological defenses). The ten images of the FOF were selected based upon six definitions; four of which were taken from the O'Neil et al. (1986) Gender Role Conflict (GRC) paradigm subscales, which purports to be based upon the fear of the feminine. The other two definitions are based upon analytic psychology notions of the Phallic Woman and Engulfing Mother (Blazina, Reding, & Kierski, 2007). Responses and interpretation were based on content analysis, using the FOF scoring system. Additional instruments were used in order to evaluate subjects' overall psychological well being as well as their gender role conflict. The additional assessment tools used were the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI 18). Results indicated that the Fear of the Feminine Projective Test is a valid and reliable projective test measure allowing the skilled clinician to identify and gauge some of the dominant defenses, emotions, and fears that men experience on a conscious and unconscious level related to what is defined as the feminine. Directions for future research and suggestions for appropriate uses of the FOF are provided.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

Page

LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................................vii

I.

INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................1

Purpose of the Present Study .........................................................................3 Significance of the Study ...............................................................................4

Research Question .........................................................................................5 Problems ........................................................................................................6

Definition of Terms ........................................................................................6

II.

REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH .........................................................10

Theories of the Fear of the Feminine .............................................................10 Fear of the Feminine ...............................................................................10

Fear of Feminine and Patriarchy ......................................................12

Fear of the Feminine and Denying Parts of Self: Development

and Repercussions ............................................................................13 Fear of Feminine and Help Seeking Attitudes .................................15

Socio -Cultural Influence on the Fear of the Feminine ...................................16 Socio Cultural Influences and Violence in the Media ............................18 Socio Cultural Influences on Psychological Help- Seeking ....................20 Gender Role Conflict .....................................................................................21 The Psychodynamics of Sexuality, Gender and Gender Role .......................23

Validity and Utility of Projective Testing ......................................................27

TAT ........................................................................................................28 Controversy Over Use of Projective Tests .............................................29 Fear of the Feminine in this Study .................................................................32

III.

METHOD ......................................................................................................35

Participants .....................................................................................................35 Instruments .....................................................................................................36

Fear of the Feminine Projective Test (FOF) ..........................................36

The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) ..........................38 The Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) ...............................................38 Brief Symptom Inventory- 18 (BSI -18) ..................................................39

Procedures ......................................................................................................40

Analysis of Data .............................................................................................41 Hypotheses .....................................................................................................42

vi

CHAPTER

Page

IV.

RESULTS ......................................................................................................44

Participants .....................................................................................................44

Statistical Methods .........................................................................................44 Hypotheses .....................................................................................................45 Hypothesis 1 ...........................................................................................45 Hypothesis 2 ...........................................................................................47 Hypothesis 3 ...........................................................................................48 Hypothesis 4 ...........................................................................................50

Inter - Rater Reliability ....................................................................................52

Race Comparison ...........................................................................................53 Age Comparison ............................................................................................54

V.

GENERAL DISCUSSION ............................................................................56

Summary/Implications of Findings ................................................................56 Observations ..................................................................................................61

Study Limitations ...........................................................................................62

REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................64

APPENDICES

A. Information about the Study/Informed Consent .....................................74

B.

Gender Role Conflict Scale ....................................................................77

C.

Positive

and Negative Affect Schedule ..................................................79

D. Brief Symptom Inventory – 18 ...............................................................81

E.

Fear of th e Feminine Projective Measure ...............................................83

F.

Fear of the Feminine Follow Up Questions ...........................................94

G.

Fear of the Feminine Scoring Sheet .......................................................96

H.

Fear o f the Feminine Scoring System ....................................................99

I. IRB Approval .........................................................................................102

vii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

Page

1. Test - Retest Correlation .................................................................................46

2. Paired t - test Results to Compare Test - Retest Reliability ...............................47

3. Correlation between FOF and GRCS ............................................................48

4. Regression Model to Predict BSI-18 Scores from FOF and GRCS ..............50

5. Mean and Standard Deviation of the PANAS Pre- and Post Test .................51

6. Inter - Rater Reliability ....................................................................................53

7. Results of t - test Comparing Caucasians and African Americans ..................54

8. Correlation between FOF Scales and Age .....................................................55

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Interest in men and masculinity has a long history, documented since H omer’s time . The Greek philosopher Homer view ed men as consistent and their behaviors as predictable. Women’s behaviors we re dee med consistent only as long as they were under the control of their fathers or husbands. Women’s nature was viewed as more wild and erratic (Janus, 200 0). However, these are gender stereotypes that governed the ancient world. Since that time, strides have been made to approach gender issues in a more scholarly fashion, beginning with the 20 th century budding science of psychology. While lined with its ow n stereotypes, Freud’s patriarchal view of society is a well -developed theory reflecting issues of gender. Therefore, Freud’s words on men and masculinity should be seen as a place to begin any scholarly discussion within the field of psychology (Bornstein & Masling, 2002). Scholars in the 1970s challenged traditional explanations about gender differences (Kimmel, 1987) and within the past 30 years there has been increasing research interest in men, masculinity, and the male experience. It is believed that the women’s movement of the 1970s propelled men to also reexamine their gender roles. The resulting men’s movement has taken many forms, one of which is men’s studies: a more objective scholarly approach to the psychology of men and masculinity (Adams & Sa vran, 2002). The first stages of the research on men and masculinity focused

2

on pressures to live up to standards of stereotypical masculinity and how these pressures constrained men’s lives and experiences (Goldberg, 1976). Research has been able to des cribe and re define traditional masculinity and how it relates to men’s psychological functioning as well as to gender related attitudes and behaviors (O’Neil & Egan , 1992). For instance, the Gender Role Conflict (GRC) paradigm (O’Neil , Helms, Gable, David, & Wrightsman , 1986) suggests that gender role conflict is a psychological state in which restrictive gender roles have negative consequences or impact on the person or others. The ultimate outcome of this conflict is the restriction of the person’s ability to actualize their human potential or the restriction of someone else’s potential (O’Neil, 1981). Part of the gender role conflict is the devaluation of feminine values, representing an attempt by men to solidify and express their masculinity as part of early and adult development and identity (Levinson, 1978). Emerging from this subordination of feminine values are six patterns of gender role conflict and strain. O’Neil (1981) summarize d these patterns as follows: restrictive emotionality; socialized co ntrol, power and competition; homophobia; restrictive sexual and affectionate behavior; obsession with achievement and success; as well as health care problems. Definitions and assumptions about gender role conflict have assisted in understanding how sex and gender roles interact as well as how they affect psychological and physical health (Unger, 1979). Based on the aforementioned correlation between gender role conflict and the psychological health of men, clinicians , especially in the last 20 years, see m to have

3

become more cognizant and aware of potential treatment modalities adapted to men’s issues and gender role conflicts. These may include specific types of therapy targeted at

men (Levant, 1983) and an increasing awareness of how traditional aspects of therapy may go against socialized expiations of male gender role. All these former assumptions may have an impact on men potentially seeking therapy and their resulting psychological well - being. One may argue that alternative treatment modalities, more aligned with stereotypical masculine behaviors, do not trigger the FOF in men, therefore making therapy more acceptable to some men.

Purpose of the Present Study The purpose of this study was to assess the construct validity as well as the

test - retest reliability of the newly developed Fear of the Feminine projective test ( FOF ; (Blazina, Reding, Kiersky, 2007) . Th is research did identify t he Fear of the Feminine test as a valid and reliable projective test measure allowing the skilled clinician to identify and gauge some of the dominant defenses , emotions, and fears that men experience, on a conscious and unconscious level, related to what is currently defined as the feminine. This included characteristics such as avoidance of emotions, fee lings and vulnerabilities, as well as resistance to seek help through emotional expressiveness. Additional defenses that were identified related to avoidance of interpersonal communication emphasizing emotions, feelings and intuitions as well as avoidance of emotional expression due to a fear of exposing inner uncertainties that could portray the man as unstable, immature and unmanly. All the previously mentioned characteristics are stereotypically considered as immature, weak, dependent and therefore femin ine (O’Neil, 1981).

4

The research also gathered

evidence to demonstrate that the FOF test has the potential to allow for the understanding of dynami cs related to past

experiences and to assess thinking patterns related to the gender identity conflict. Another objective of this research was to assess the subject’s observational ability and how he takes in certain images related to gender conflict

as well as to assess feelings and attitudes related to gender

and

assess dreams and fantasies.

Significance of th e Study

Research in the areas of gender role s , gender role conflict , and fear of the feminine shows how each impact men. When gender is examined as a variable, s tatistics show that being a male is linked to rising suicide levels, increasing numbers of coronary diseases, high levels of depression, anxiety and drug - related disorders , as well as increasing relationship conflicts and even divorce (Wade, 1998). It is argued that gender role conflict is leading to emotional distress, thereby contributing to the aforementioned problems. Focusing on a means to allow the client as well as the clinician to access deep rooted fears of the fe minine, the underlying construct of gender role conflict, appears to be beneficial. It assists

in evaluating

the degree to which men are affected by their fear of the feminine as well as the degree to which their gender role conflict affects their everyday lives

psychologically as well as physiologically.

Being a valid and reliable measure of the fear of the fem inine, the FOF test could be beneficial in areas such as mate selection (pre -marriage counseling), occupational choice (career counseling) , assessment of societal and/or familial conflict

(family counseling), individual counseling, anger management, as wel l as appropriate choice of

5

therapy interventions. The FOF could also be used as an assessment tool for psychodynamic, object- relation s motives leading to sexual abuse. Apt interpretation of the FOF could assist in making important life decisions such as committing to or ending a relationship. The FOF could potentially assist in explaining anxieties as related to inner and outer conflicts associated

with the fear of the feminine. Outcomes of the FOF could also encourage male clients to embrace rather than reject their “so - called” feminine

traits, often defined as weaknesses, thereby cultivating potential that has been untapped and stimulating personal growth. Other beneficial applications of the FOF could be assistance in assessing parent- son relationships, separation anxieties as related to these relationships, as well as assistance in developing treatment plans geared towards balancing o ut opposites (such as in various Axis II disorders). The FOF could allow the clinician to aid the client in developing an observing ego , the part of us that watches what we do and say in some objective manner, with the ability to identify and differentiate between inner and societal influences as related to the fear of the feminine.

Research Question

Part of the exploratory nature of the current study was

to evaluate the reliability and validity

of the Fear of the Feminine pro jective test. The results should answer the following questions: “ Is the FOF measure in agreement with the theoretical concept of the fear of the feminin e? ” as well as “Does the FOF facilitate the surfacing and processing of men’s fear of the feminine, thereby assisting client and clinician to assess and treat these fears ?”

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Problems Problem 1. Is the FOF a valid measure as demonstrated by its construct validity, established by assessing the correlation between FOF scores

and GRCS scores?

Problem 2. Will the FOF have test - re test reliability , established

by assessing subjects scores from one administration to the next over a five - week time interval?

Problem 3. Will the FOF be related to subjects’ psychological distress, specifically gender role conflict?

Problem 4. Can the FOF be a viable instrument for assist ing therapists to better understand and treat psychodynamic issues related to gender identity conflict, including fear of the feminine?

Definition of Terms

Fear -

Feeling of anxiety and agitation caused by the presence or nearness of emotional pain. Feeling of uneasiness and/or apprehension related to often unconscious, negative experience ( Fear of women ( gyno phobia) -

An abnormal, irrational and persistent fear of women. Sufferers experience undue anxiety even though they realize they face no threat (Stedman, 2008). Gerrig

& Zimbardo, 2002).

Feminine - Displaying or having qualities regarded as characteristic of women and girls, such as gentleness, weakness, d elicacy, modesty, emotionality ( Webster’s New World College Dictionary , 2000).

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Masculine -

Displaying or having qualities regarded as characteristic of men and boys, such as strength, vigor, boldness, assertiveness, vi rility, leadership, rationalism ( Webster’s , 2000).

Fear of the Feminine - Intense mechanism that helps men to avoid feelings which are not defined by society as masculine. This fear can be comprised in several aspects , such as a

man’s internal aspects that are regarded as feminine qualities ( e.g., vulnerability, intimacy, uncer tainty); fear of women’s actual capacities

such as career, success, or intellectual ability; hid den masculine aspects of women regarded as stereotypical masculine qualities, such as anger, rage and violence (Blazina, 1997). Socio-Cultural Norms -

Norms relating to both the human society we live in and with, as well as the arts and manners the group we belong to focuses on ( Webster’s , 2000). Gender Role - Overt expression of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that indicate to others the degree of one’s

maleness or femaleness. Gender role is the public expression of one’s gender identity ( Webster’s , 2000).

Gender Role Conflict - Gender - role conflict exists wh en gender roles have negative consequences for people ( O’ Neil, Good and Holmes, 1995). Restrictive Emotionality

-

Having difficulty expressing one’s feelings or denying others their right to emotional expressiveness (O’Neil

et al. , 1995).

Homophobia - Having fear of homosexuals or fear of being a homosexual, including beliefs, myths and stereotypes about gay people (O’Neil

et al. , 1995).

8

Obsession with Achievement and Success - Having a disturbing and persistent preoccupation with work, accomplishment a nd eminence as a means of substantiating and demonstrating value (conflict between work and family) ( O’Neil

et a , 1995).

Control, Power & Competition -

Control : To regulate, restrain, or to have others or situations under one’s command. Power : To obtain au thority, influence or ascendancy over others. Competition : Striving against others to win or gain something ( O’Neil

et al. , 1995).

The Phallic Woman -

Fantasmatic image of a woman (or mother) endowed with a phallus or a phallic attribute. It also refers to the fantasy of the woman (or the mother) retaining the phallus internally after coitus (Freud, 1933). A female subject who penetrates the man’s world and competes with him in areas that are socially, philosophically and psychologically defined as being masculine , such as intellectual abilities, leadership qualities, rationalism, physical strength, boldness and vigor. Does stereotypical male better than most men, therefore causing feeling s of uneasiness, agitation and anxiety mainly due to presence or nea rness of embarrassment and threat to role identity as male. This fear mainly shows in areas where men compete with women for resources (Blazina, 2003).

The Devouring Mother -

A maternal archetype experienced as unloving, ensnaring, coercing woman from who m separation and individuation is difficult and who is projected o nto women whom the man meets as an adult (bipolar to the Good Mother) (Wilmer, 1987). A smothering woman who pushes the man into a regressed state (Blazina, 2003).

9

Fear of the Feminine Gender Role Conflict Socio - Cultural Influences Psychological Symptoms Emotional Distress FOF Projective Test Physical Symptoms

Figure 1. Conceptual map.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH

Theories of the Fear of the Feminine Gender role theories and issues are reviewed in order to better understand the dynamics that shape the psychology of men and masculinity. The following topics are discussed: the fear of the feminine, socio- cultural influences that shape gender, preceding g ender role socialization and conflict, as well as psychodynamic

perspectives on the inner world of men. Examining these variables ultimately provides more information to researchers and clinicians about what may ease men’s gender role conflict and their fear of the feminine. This in turn may lead to the development of new means to access and study this information, such as projective tests. Some history of how projective tests have been successfully implemented is discussed. Afterward, the Fear of the Femin ine (FOF) projective test is addressed. The ultimate aim of the study was

to assess the construct validity and retest - retest reliability of the FOF.

Fear of the Feminine

Men’s fear of femininity has been noted in psychology’s theoretical literature for many years ( Blazina, 1997 ; Freud, 1933 ; Horney, 1 937; Jung, 1953; Menniger, 1970) and has been identified as a core aspect of the psychology of men (Blazina, 1997, 2003; O’Neil, 1981). O’Neil (1981) reduces the masculine mystique to one m ajor, discriminatory axiom, stating that stereotypical masculinity holds that men are superior to

11

women and therefore have the right to devalue and restrict women’s values, roles and lifestyles. O’Neil defines the devaluation of feminine in two ways: (a) to consider feminine values, attitudes and behaviors as inferior, inappropriate, and immature and (b) to believe that anybody, whether women, children or men, who displays feminine characteristics are lesser, unsuitable and underdeveloped. Even though the devaluation of feminine characteristics may allow the men to solidify and express their masculinity (Levinson et al. , 1976), this same depreciation is also at the root of the fear of femininity. Research shows that the fear of the feminine is linked to a number of factors including a man’s early socialization, his age, race , as well as social class (Sheehy, 1995). Either one of these could be a potential impetus as related to the intensity of the fear of the feminine. The negative emotions associated with feminine values, attitudes and behaviors are primarily learned in childhood (O’Neil, 1981), when gender identity is shaped by parents, peers and societal values. Michael Gurian (1994) discusses in his book how boys and men “grow into manhood by default.” He believes that men not only feel inferior to women but also to other m ales

and that therefore the fear of the feminine plays a huge role in their behaviors, cognitions and emotions when they compete with other men or women. In The Secrets That Men Keep, Druck and Simmons(1985) explains how a large part of what men expect from women , and of themselves as men, dates back to their childhood experiences with their mother. Sam Osheron (1986) adds that early on, men

experience women as the ones who fill

them up, comfort them and take care of them . This potential ly

lead s to the man growing up without having an opportunity to learn how to tend to his own emotional needs and confines his opportunity to develop his

12

own feminine side. Osheron is concerned that, depending on the role of the mother in the boy’s life, the separation from the mother may take the feminine out of the young man. Sam Keen (1991) writes in his book Fire in the Belly

that “the essence of the threat a man feels from a woman lays in its vagueness.” Keen describes the woman as the soft darkness in the core of the man’s psyche, as a part of him, not a stranger. Keen

feels that men are linked to the female in their deepest being, but that “she remains hidden in a haze just beyond the horizon of men’s reason” (p. 65) and never comes out of the shadows to meet the man face to face. Bell Hooks (2004) wonders whether the feminine part of men is an actual male need , and whether they cannot be complete without this part. She mentions some of the potential consequences for men if they agree to accept their feminine part, such as moving from oppressor to victim, from strong to weak, from controlling to being controlled, from taken seriously to being ignored, and from powerful to powerless. S he suggests that th e fear of these socialized consequences holds men back from embracing their feminine side. She agrees with Sam Osheron (1986) by stating that men might turn away from part of themselves (the feminine part) by turning away from their mothers.

Fear of F emi nine and Patriarchy Hooks (2004) discusses the concepts of patriarchy, wondering whether men are victims of their own boundaries, set by patriarchy. Hooks also wonders how men are supposed to change if there are no blueprints to guide this transform ation . She believes it to be untrue that men are not willing to cha nge and embrace their femininity but rather sees them lost in the process of doing such . Nevertheless she does believe that masses of

13

men have not even begun to look at the way that patriarchy keeps them from knowing themselves, from being in touch with their feelings, and even from experiencing true feelings of love . She feels that patriarchal culture teaches boys and girls early on that dad’s love is more valuable than mom’s love. She states that mother’s love is plentiful but that they always have to fight for dad’s love (later translated to love or acceptance from other males) so that they neglect their love for the feminine (outside and inside themselves). Hooks claims that in order to be able to truly express feelings of love, men must be willing to change and identify as well as accept their feminine characteristics. The author also debates whether women may impede men from changing. She observes that after the feminist movement, men made spa ce for w omen ; but the author wonders whether women ever made space for men by letting them onto the secrets of womanhood. Along the same lines, Barbara Demming (1982) wonders whether women are partly responsible for men not embracing their feminine part. She debates whether women might be afraid to deal with male emotion, observing that for a woman it seems a lot harder to watch a man cry than a woman. All of these issues could potential ly

pressure men to fear what is labeled the feminine.

Fear of the Femi nine and Denying Parts of Self: Development and Repercussions Developmental psychologists wonder at what age men may begin

denying the feminine part of them selves. O’Neil and Egan (1992) argue that men experience gender role transitions over the life span

and therefore redefine their thoughts and feelings about masculinity and femininity

at different stages of their lives . There is an importance for mental health professionals to understand the developmental perspective on men’s gender

14

role transitions. Ga il S heehy

(1995) believes that men accept their feminine qualities as part of an inward journey starting in middle adulthood. She also discusses how unresolved issues in a man’s relationship with his mother will influence his potential fear of the feminine. When men do not incorporate the feminine aspect of themselves there can be negative consequences. Given that women are the physical symbol for stereotypical feminine behavior (Blazina, 1997) it often follows that men will relate to them psychologically as to those parts they deny about themselves. In some cases the fear of what is feminine turns violent and men attack those who symb olically represent the feminine as a means to psychologically defend against their own discomfort. This may occur with b oth males (e.g., gay bashing) or with females (a form of oppression). R esearch s uggests that violence against women by men is common; however, knowledge concerning why male violence occurs so freque ntly against women, seems very limited. Harway and

O’Neil (1999) state that amongst others, one reason for this violence may very well be men’s restrictive and sexist gender role socialization and specific patte rns of gender role conflict. The authors wonder whether this gender role socialization and conflict ma y be responsible for men’s abusive behaviors towards women. This macro- societal approach forces us to answer the question of how larger society and its values (or lack of) may contribute to men’s violence towards women. Demming (1982) wonders whether it mig ht be the pain of “being incomplete” that makes men so angry. She states that anger is the best hiding place for anybody to conceal pain or anguish of spirit. She e xplains men’s “hate” of women as being based on a fear of women and wonders how

15

one could po ssibly love what one is afraid of. Some potential reasons why men would be afraid of and therefore not embrace the feminine part may be men’s fear of being shamed and attacked by other men. This leaves men in a double bind when it comes to seeking potential help for any emotional issues they may have. Fear of Feminine and Help Seeking Attitudes

Sharing emotions and seeking help are characteristics typically defined as feminine. Terrence Real (1997) is concerned about men’s suffering from depression and their inability to share this condition with family, friends, and themselves in order to avoid the stigma of depression’s “unmanliness.” In an attempt to explain and alleviate this suffering, Anne Constantinople (2005) is wondering whether masculinity- femininity is a single bipolar dimension or whether there may ex is t two separable dimensions of masculinity and femininity. She states that masculinity/femininity, just like intelligence, is assumed to be in some way inherent in the individual and to be at least partially determined by biological factors. This would mean that a component of the fear of the feminine could be inherited and men could thereby be predisposed to avoid or embrace their feminine characteristics. Seymour- Smith

& Wetherell (2006) fo cus their research on the differential aspects of heterosexual relationships on men and women’s health and well being, based on evidence that heterosexual men receive enhanced benefits from their relationship with women. This could be due to the balancing of a lack of internal feminine characteristics by an acceptance of an external feminine personality.

All in all, the research on Fear of Feminine has its importance related to men’s intra - and interpersonal re lationship with the feminine , men’s approach to career and

16

family life, men’s health issues as related to stress as well as emotional well - being, and men’s violent tendencies toward women.

Research also argues that m en's fear about their femininity is strongly influenced by culture and soci etal norms . Socio -Cultural Influence on the Fear of the Feminine The importance of socio -cultural perspectives on the FOF cannot be underestimated. In Western cultures, patriarchal

societies supported by theological myths of creation have underpinned the n otion of

the superior male

for centuries (Marmor, 1968). Blazina (2003) states that even though the study of gender roles got officially recognized at the beginning of the nineteenth century, it would be reasonable to conclude that guidelines for men’s gen der appropriate behaviors had been of concern for quite some time. Blazina (2003) focuses his book, The Cultural Myth of Masculinity , on tangible forms of cultural expression in regards to gender roles. He describes the conservative perspective of gender roles as men being “the protectors and the providers ” as well as being “dominant in business, politics and other aspects of public sphere” (p. 75). O’ Neil (1981) argues that there is a pressing need in society to better understand the interaction of gender role socialization and sexism on childhood behaviors and human experiences over the adult life span. He defines

Full document contains 112 pages
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Fear of the Feminine (FOF) projective test in a male population. The main aim of the FOF is to assess men's fear of the feminine, to assist men in recognizing and understanding their fear of the feminine, as well as to evaluate to what degree it affects men's lives (e.g., as a censor and impetus for psychological defenses). The ten images of the FOF were selected based upon six definitions; four of which were taken from the O'Neil et al. (1986) Gender Role Conflict (GRC) paradigm subscales, which purports to be based upon the fear of the feminine. The other two definitions are based upon analytic psychology notions of the Phallic Woman and Engulfing Mother (Blazina, Reding, & Kierski, 2007). Responses and interpretation were based on content analysis, using the FOF scoring system. Additional instruments were used in order to evaluate subjects' overall psychological well being as well as their gender role conflict. The additional assessment tools used were the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI 18). Results indicated that the Fear of the Feminine Projective Test is a valid and reliable projective test measure allowing the skilled clinician to identify and gauge some of the dominant defenses, emotions, and fears that men experience on a conscious and unconscious level related to what is defined as the feminine. Directions for future research and suggestions for appropriate uses of the FOF are provided.