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Building relationships with Hispanic families: Administrators' perceptions of parental involvement

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Adrianne J Long-Stowers
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the importance of parental involvement and how they perceived their role and responsibility in developing relationships with Hispanic parents. This study utilized a qualitative research methodology. The conversation theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Conversation theory describes the interaction between two or more cognitive systems, such as a teacher and a student or a student and a parent. With this interaction, there are distinct perspectives within one individual and how that individual engages in dialog over a given concept and identify differences in how it is understood (Pask, 1975, Conversation, cognition, and learning ). The researcher determined that the qualitative approach was the most appropriate to examine administrators' perceptions of their understanding of Hispanic parental involvement. Furthermore, the qualitative methodology with a case study design approach was used to develop baseline data regarding understanding the administrators' perspectives of their roles and responsibilities in developing relationships with Hispanic parents. The researcher selected eight high school administrators who have a Hispanic student population over 50% to serve as the sample. Overarching themes and sub-themes included a shared belief that parental involvement means active participation in the school and being aware of their child's educational journey. The importance of communication between the school and parents emerged as an important theme. The sub-themes generated the methods that the communication takes place, namely parent meetings, resources for parents and having information translated for parents who struggle with speaking English. The administrators believed that it is their responsibility to build a relationship of trust with parents as well as establish a positive school climate. Findings from this study have implications for administrators of schools with a large percentage of Hispanic parents.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

iv

List of Tables

ix

List of Figures

x

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1

Introduction to the Problem

1

Background of the Study

2

Statement of the Problem

3

Purpose of the Study

4

Rationale

5

Research Questions

7

Significance of the Study

7

Definition of Terms

9

Assumptions

10

Limitations

10

Nature of the Study

11

Organization of the Remainder of the Study

1 2

CHAPTER 2. LITERATUR E REVIEW

1 3

Introduction

1 3

Theoretical Framework

13

Theoretical Model for Family Education and Involvement

14

Historical Perspective of Hispanic Parental Involvement

15

History of Parental Involvement

1 9

vi

Definitions of Parental Involvement

20

Model s of Parental Involvement

21

Ben efits of Parental Involvement

2 9

Barriers to Parental Involvement

31

Parental Involvement and Ethnicity

35

Parental Involvement and Achievement

42

Perceptions

45

Parent Perceptions of Parental Involvement

46

School Ad ministrators and Parental Involvement

49

Summary

50

CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY

5 2

Introduction

5 2

Statement of the Problem

5 3

R esearch Questions

5 4

Methodology

54

Research Design

55

Population and Sampling

Procedures

58

Instrumentation and Sou rces of Data

59

Panel of Experts

60

Panel of Expert Responses

61

Validity

and Reliability

6 2

Data Collection Procedures

6 3

Data Analysis Procedures

6 5

vii

Ethical Considerations

66

Limitations

6 7

Summary

67

CHAPTER 4. DATA COLLECTI O N AND ANALY SIS

69

Introduction

69

Descriptive Data

70

Data Collection Procedures

7 2

Data Analysis

73

Data Coding and Analysis Procedures

73

Results

76

Research Question 1

R esponses

76

Active Participation

76

Research Question 2

R esponses

78

Commun ication

78

Parent Meetings

8 1

Resources

8 2

Translators

8 3

Research Question 3

R esponses

83

Trust

8 5

Positive Climate

8 5

Observations

8 7

Summary

8 8

CHAPTER 5. RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

90

viii

Summary of the Study

90

Summary of Finding s and Conclusions

92

Research Question 1

92

Research Question 2

93

Research Question 3

94

Recommendations

95

Recommendations for Future Research

95

Recommendation for Practice

9 6

Implications

9 6

REFERENCES

9 8

APPENDIX A.

L OCAL

S CHOOL DISTRICT

A P PR OVED

R ESEARCH

R E QUEST

FORM

10 8

APPENDIX B. R ESEARCH SITE REQUEST FOR PERMISSION LETTER

10 9

APPENDIX C .

P RELIMINARY E - MAIL /L ETTER TO ADMINISTRATORS

1 10

APPENDIX D .

A DMINISTRATOR FOCUS GROUP PROTOCOL AND

I NTERVIEW QUESTIONS

11 2

AP PENDIX E .

O BSERVATION PROTOCOL

1 1 5

APPENDIX F .

C APELLA UNIVERSITY

I NFORMED LETTER OF CONSENT

11 6

ix

List of Tables

Table 1. Changing Definitions of Parental Involvement

2 1

Table 2. Selec ting High School Demographics

59

Table 3. Match of Research Quest ions to Sources of Information

and Data

6 6

Analysis/Reporting

Table 4 .

Profile of Administrators

71

Table 5 .

Participants ‟

Responses R egarding Parental Involvement

7 7

Table 6 .

Participants ‟

Summarized Responses R egarding Communication

80

With Parents

Table 7 .

Participants ‟

Responses R egarding Parent Meetings, Resources,

and

80

Translators

Table 8 .

Participants Responses R egarding Fostering

Positive Relationships with

8 4

Hispanic Parents

x

List of Figures

Figu re 1. Continuous i mprovement c ycle s chool/ f amily p artnerships

30

Figure 2. Overlapping s pheres of i nfluenc e

50

1

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Problem

Valued by administrators and teachers, parental involvement is important and contrib utes to the development, growth, and academic a chievement of all students (Pen a, 2000). While parental involvement

is an ambiguous term, research has shown that a relationship exists between parental involvement and improved academic performance ( Simon, 20 01; Weaver, 2005). In addition, higher test scores, higher homework completion rates, and academic perseverance ha ve

been linked

to parental involvement

(Carreón, Barton, & Drake, 2005). According to Córdova (2005), there is a considerable amount of

eviden ce that parental involvement can lead to improved student achievement, higher school attendance rates, increased graduation rates, and reduced dropout rates. The researcher further asserted that the improvements occur without regards to the socio - economic , racial, religious, or cultural background of the household (Córdova , 2005 ).

Heredia (2009) stated that parental involvement among Hispanic families is a necessary component to increase academic achievement among Hispanic students .

Studies demonstrate d

that parental involvement throughout high school is important for student academic success ( Epstein, 2008). The Thomas Rivera Policy Institute noted that as school principals seek to improve the overall academic achi evement, little attention is paid

to how

Hispanic parents‟ involvement improves a child‟s academic future (Zarate,

2007).

2

Background of the Study

H ispanic students are the fastest

growing population in public schools in the United States

(NCES, 2009). According to the National Center for Educ ation Statistics (NCES), racial and ethnic enrollment in public schools increased from 22 percent to 44 percent from 1972 to 2007

(NCES, 2009).

The NCES racial and ethnic enrollment statistical data from 1972 to 2007 indicated that Hispanic students repres ent 21 %

of public school enrollment surpassing that of African American enrollment for the first time in 2002 , thus becoming the largest ethnic group in public schools (NCES, 2009) . Although the student population continues to grow, the assessment results from 1975 to 2008 do not show a significant difference in assessment scores in comparison to African Americans and White students (Rampey, Dion, & Donahue, 2009) .

In order to address family and parental involvement of the fastest growing minority group in the nation, the United States government established in 2001 the White House initiative Executive Order 13230, which is Educational Excellence for Hispanic students (U.S. Department of Education, 2003). As a result of this initiative, former President G.W.

Bush designated the Department of Education as the office that would provide staffing support and assistance to the commission in fulfilling its charge to examine the underlying causes of the education achievement gap existing among Hispanic American stud ents and their peers

(U.S. Department of Education , 2003). Executive order 13230 was established to ensure the advancement of human potential, strengthen the nation‟s capacity to provide high - quality education, and increase opportunities for Hispanic Ameri cans to participate in and benefit from Federal education programs (Bush, 2001). Similarly, section 2 of Executive order 13230 emphasized

the

3

following reason why further research was

needed for educational excellence of Hispanic Americans: the progress of

Hispanic Americans

in closing the academic achievement gap and attaining the goals established by the President's "No Child Left Behind" educational blueprint; the development, monitoring, and coordination of Federal efforts to promote high - quality educat ion for Hispanic Americans; ways to increase parental, s tate and local, private sector, and community involvement in improving education; and ways to maximize the effectiveness of Federal education initiative s within the Hispanic community

(U. S. Departmen t of Education, 2007).

Statement of the Problem

Conversely, when the researcher delved into parental involvement studies ,

the researcher identified many studies that investigated parental involvement ;

howeve r, those studies did not focus on Hispanic parent al involvement. Therefore, it was not known to what extent high school administrators understood

the importance of parental involvement and how they perceive d

their role and responsibility in developing relationships with Hispanic parents. According to Her edia (2009), one of the reasons Hispanic students perform poorly academically and have a low graduation rate is due to a lack of parental involvement. Shah (2009) stated that it is a complicated puzzle for school principals trying to understand why Hispani c parents participate less. According to Delgado - Gaitan (2004), Hispanic families want to be involved in children‟ schooling but often tend to view the academic development of the student as a function of the school. Additionally, Hispanic parents often be lieve that the role of the home and school should not interfere with each other (Delgado - Gaitan, 2004).

4

A strong commitment and consistent collaboration between school and home is necessary to building the lines of communication in an ethnically, racially , and linguistically diverse

community (Delgado - Gaitan, 2004 ). Parents of Hispanic students must feel invited and welcomed at schools. Additionally, these parents must have access to pertinent information regarding students‟ academic performance as well as

have a thorough understanding of how a school functions (Cantrell, 2003). It is the responsibility of the educational community to develop a clear understanding of the needs of Hispanic parents in order to adequately identify the factors and barriers rela ted to the parental involvement of this population of stakeholders (Suárez - Orozco & Suárez - Orozco, 2002).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to

examine the perceptions of high school administrator s regarding the importance of parental invol vement and how they perceive d

their role and responsibility in developing relationships with Hispanic parents . Parental involvement has been positively linked to indicators of student achievement, teacher ratings of student competence, student grades, stud ent attendance, student behavior, and achievement test scores (Hoover - Dempsey, et

al., 2005). Also, parent involvement has been associated with other indicators of school success, including, but not limited to a lower rate of grade retention, decreased dro pout rates, increased high school graduation rates, and increased enrollment in advanced placement (AP) courses (Barnard, 2004). In addition to the previous indicators, parental involvement has been linked to psychological proces ses and attributes that sup port to student achievement (Sheldon, 2002). Those attributes support achievement across groups of students, including students at - risk for poorer educational or de velopmental outcomes (Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 2004) .

5

Considering the aforementioned, this stu dy utilize d

a qualitative research strategy . Additionally, the researcher utilize d

a purposive sampling of eight

high school administrators ;

who are employed at a local school that enrolls a fairly large

Hispanic population.

A

case

study design was util ize d to examine the perceptions of school administrators on Hispanic parental involvement.

Additionally, i nterviews composed of open - ended questions were used to discover emerging

themes

among school

administrator‟s responses.

Rationale

The researcher uti liz e d

a case study approach ; utilizing observations and in - depth interviews which offer ed

the greatest potential for eliciting meaning and ultimately gaining insights to the experiences

and perceptions of the administrators

a bout their understanding of the

importance of Hispanic parental involvement and their role and responsibility in developing the relationships.

Per the research findings of Spradley (1980), “an observation represents a frequently used form of data collection with the researcher able to a ssume different roles in the process and continues to be a well -

accepted form of qualitative data collection” Spradley

( 1980 )

further asserted

a researcher must adopt a particular role as an observer and no one role is suited for all situations. Moreover,

Creswell (2005) suggest ed

these roles differ depending on the observers comfort at the site, relationship with participants, and how best the examiner can collect data to understand a central phenomenon. Similarly, Yin (2009),

suggested the

case study res earch method ology

is used in many situations to understand complex social phenomena. A case study allows the researcher to maintain meaningful

6

characteristics of real - life events such as individual life cycles, small group behavior, school performance, and

organizational managerial process (Yin, 2009, p. 4). A

case study design was appropriate for providing a more in - depth understanding of single or multiple cases (Creswell

& Plano Clark , 2007).

In addition , a

case study approach was

used “to gather compreh ensive, systemic, and in - depth information about each case” (Patton, 2002, p. 447).

Furthermore, this case

study of the perceptions of school administrators on the impact o f Hispanic parental involvement

contribute s

to the body of knowledge because it po ssibly offer s

intervention strategies to school administrators. In addition, this study was worthwhile as

Epstein (2008) asserted that family involvement through high school is important for student success. Research by Gonzales (2002) produced strong resu lts indicating that parental involvement in early childhood education benefits a students‟ learning and overall school success in all grade levels. The researcher also asserted that parental involvement enhances student educational success all the way to

t he high school level (Gonzales, 2002 ). Educational statistics demonstrated that Hispanic parents can improve behaviors and involvement in the education of children for the sake of the students‟ academic success (Delgado - Gaitan, 2004). Reported in studies, such as one conducted by the National School Public Relations Association, is that a relationship exists between parental involvement and academic achievement, a student‟s sense of well being, attendance, attitude, homework completion, overall school readi ness, and educational aspiratio ns (Sheldon, 2002). Peña (2000 ) found that parental involvement was positively related to high school student academic achievement, time spent on homework, favorable attitudes toward school, likelihood of staying in school, a nd

7

educational aspirations beyond the high school level. As mentioned in earlier paragraphs this study was worthwhile and will benefit school administrators in K - 12 settings, as there is a gap in the literature concerning the perceptions of school administ rators on the ir understanding of the importance of Hispanic parental involvem ent .

Furthermore, this study create s

a better understanding for administrators of how to provide culturally sensitive information and support for Hispanic parents and students w hich leads to

improved student academic achievement

( Inger, 2002 ).

Research Questions

The literature suggested

that parental involvement is a benefit to students and ensures

greater academic success.

Despite the growing national interest in parental invol vement, there i s little research that discussed, analyzed , or evaluate d

the perception of school leaders regarding the imp ortance

of Hispanic parental involvement

(Valverde & Scribner, 2001; Zarate, 2007 ) .

This dissertation study was

guided by the followin g research question s :

R1

What ar e

school administrators‟ beliefs and perceptions of Hispanic

parental involvement

in high schools in a suburban school district ?

R2 What strategies do administrators use to promote Hispanic parental involvement?

R3 W hat are administrators ‟

roles and responsibilities for establishing Hispanic parental involvement relationships within the school culture?

Significance of the Study

Reported in studies such as the one conducted by the National School Public Relations Ass ociation is that relationships exist between parental involvement and such

8

student variables as academic achievement, sense of well being, attendance, attitude, homework readiness, grades, and educational aspirations (Chavkin & Gonzalez, 2005). These benef its have been documented to be present not only at the elementary school level, but at the other levels of schooling as well. Researchers (Catsambis, 2001) have provided strong evidence that parental involvement in child and adolescent education generally benefits student learning and school success in all grades. According to Delgado - Gaitan (2004), parental involvement enhances student educational success all th e way to the high school level. Ca llahan, Hildreth ,

and Rademacher

(2008)

found that parental in volvement was positively related to high school student academic achievement, time spent on homework, favorable attitudes toward school, likelihood of staying in school, and educational aspirations beyond the high school level.

Since 2005, Hispanic youth h ave been more likely to drop out of school at a rate of 15 percent, which is a higher dropout rate than non - Hispanic youth in the same age category (Fry,

2003). Therefore, this study was significant because this body of work will contribute

to the literatu re that will assist in developing successful intervention strategies for increasing performance and achievement among Hispanic students. Hopefully,

the results of this study

provide s

valuable and detailed information to educational policymakers, administr ators, and practitioners as they attempt to develop programs and interventions for parental involvement of Hispanic parents. A dditionally, this study included

a review of past empirical studies concerning the parental involve ment of Hispanic parents and of fer ed

suggestions for future educational practices.

This body of work is also significant to high school principals in order to heighten the awareness of effective parental involvement among Hispanic parents as it relates to a

9

more succinct implementation of instructional strategies and programs that can close the achievement gap among Hispanic students (U.S. Department of Education, 2003 ).

Definition of Terms

There are number terms that were important to this study. As such the following terms are operati onally defined:

Academic achievemen t. Refers to a child‟s performance in academic areas e.g., reading or language a rts, math,

science, and history

(71 Fed. Reg. at 46662).

Administrator .

Principals, vice - principals, or anybody with school management respo nsibility (Rivero, 2006).

Funds of k nowledge .

T he historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills essential for household or individual

functioning and well - being (Amanti, G onzalez , Moll, & Neff,

2001).

Hispanic .

Families w ho trace ancestry to a Spanish - speaking county, but not favoring one national origin or another (Suárez - Orozco & Suárez - Orozco, 2002).

Impact .

The effect that something or someone has (Sammons, 199 9).

Legal g uardian . A

person legally responsible for safety

and well - being of someone (Vogel, 2009).

No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Federal legislation that sa y s that all students will be proficient in mathem atics and language arts by 2014

(U. S. Department of Education, 2007).

Parent .

One who begets or one who gi ves birth to or nurtures and raise a child, or the

child‟s guardian. This includes but is not limited to mother and father. It may be a step - parent, foster parent, grandparent or close relative

(Long , 2007).

10

Parental involvement .

When parents interact wit h teachers and other school personnel as a way of supporting students‟ academic achievement (Sheldon, 2002).

Perceptions .

The process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. Our sensory experience of the world around us a nd involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions responses to these stimuli ( Franklin, 2010).

School a dministrator . The first or among the first in importance or rank in an educational setting, especially a grade school or high school ( Epstein , 20 08 ).

Assumptions

The following assumptions were present in this study:

1. All of the school administrators were state certified school administrators who

were

qualified to perform the duties and responsibilities related to the job of a

school administrator.

2.

The school administrators respond ed to the open - ended questions utilized in

t he

case study with truthfulness and honesty.

3.

All of the research - based indicators relating to parental involvement issues are

the sa me research - based indicators for Hispanic parental involvement.

Limitations

The following were

limitations of the study:

1.

The researcher had

no control over the preparati on of the school administrators

with respect to parental involvement.

11

2.

The participants

were not representative of all communities and generalizations cannot necessarily expand to describe

the experiences of all administrators .

3.

All of the participants were from the state of Georgia and the information from this study may not

b e applicable

to areas outside the state .

4.

This study could be limited by a potential lack of honesty

during the interview questions.

5.

Credibility of this study was

limited by a

small sample, which, again,

limit ed

generalizability to other contexts.

Nature of the Stud y

The researcher

investigate d

the perceptions of high school administrators on

their understanding of

the importance of

Hispanic parental involvement by utilizing a

case

study as the qualitative research design. The

case s tudy was employed due to the focu s of the model. The primary focus of th e

research design was to explore a phenomenon utilizing data through

interviews (Creswell, 2005). This model

was chosen for t his research to assist in the interpretation of the emerging themes of the perceptions

of s chool administrators on

the imp ortance of Hispanic

parental involvement .

Furthermore, the researcher employ ed

purposive sampling of eight

high school administrators who

have fairly large

Hispanic populations . The researcher observe d

and i nterview ed

the se eight

high school administrators a nd

collect ed

data

on the perceptions of school administrators on the imp ortance

of Hispanic parental involvement .

12

Organization of the Remainder

of the Study

Following the

introduction of C hapter

1 which included

the introduction of the problem, the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the rationale, research questions, significance of the study, definition of terms, assumptions, limitations, nature of the study, and organiza tion of the study , the remainder of the

study is

divided up as follows: Chapter 2 is a

detailed literature review which presented

an analysis of a historical perspective of Hispanic parental involvement , as well as the perception of this concept ,

and its i mpact on Hispanic student achievement .

Additionally, Chapter 2 include d

parental involvement strategies and interventions . Furthermore, Chapter 3

discuss ed

the methodology and research design of the study. In addition, t he selection of subjects, i nstrumen tation , and data collection procedure were also detailed in this chapter. The chapter

conclude d

with the necessary procedures for conducting the research and analyzing the emerging themes. Moreover, C hapter 4

present s

the findings of the

data analysis emp loyed to answer the

research question s . Lastly, C hapter 5

conclude s

the research study and include s

a discussion of the conclusions, implications

for professional practice , and implications for future research. Additionally, recommendations for implementa tion are detailed

as well . The estimated timeline for this project w as three months from the approval date of the dissertation proposal.

13

CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

Historically, Hispanic students have consistently demonstrated low leve ls of academic achievement, low graduation rates, and high dropout rates (Simon, 2001). According to Crozier (2001), education research over the years affirmed the ways in which parental involvement is a vital factor in producing positive student outcomes . For years, there have been numerous researchers that have investigated the impact of parental involvement on academic achievement (Christenson & Sheridan, 2001). Even though researchers differ on the specific issues related to parental involvement, the e nd result of the majority of researchers is the conclusion that parental involvement significantly impacts the academic achievement of all students (Catsambis, 2001).

The first section of this chapter detail ed

the theoretical framework , historical perspec tive of Hispanic parental involvement. In addition, the definition, benefits, and barriers to parental involvement , and history of parental involvement

were explored.

T he review of literature lead s

to a discussion on the models of parental involvement and ethnicity , as well as the benefits and barriers of parental involvement and student achievement. The literature review conclude d

with parent perceptions , school administrators and parental involvement .

Theoretical Framework

Pare nts becoming actively invol ved on a regular basis in the education of their children will increase the communication between educators and parents (Chrispeels & Rivero, 2001). This involvement can have a positive effect on the cognitive framework of

14

a child. This belief, which is he ld by many educators, is supported by the c onversation t heory (Pask, 1975).

The c onversation t heory, developed by Pask (1975), originated from a cybernetics framework and attempts to explain learning in both living organisms and machines. Conversation t h eory describes interaction between two or more cognitive systems, such as a teacher and a student or a student and a parent. With this interaction, there are distinct perspectives within one individual and how that individual engages in a dialog over a giv en concept and identify differences in how it is understood (Pask , 1975 ).

The fundamental idea of c onversation t heory was that learning occurs through conversations about a subject matter that

serve s

to make knowledge explicit. Conversations can be conduct ed at a number of different levels: natural language (general discussion), object languages (for discussing the subject matter), and meta - languages (for talking about learning/language). In order to facilitate learning, Pask (1975) argued that subject matt er should be represented in the form of entailment structures that

show what is to be learned. The researcher further argued that depending upon the extent of relationships displayed entailment structures exist in a variety of different levels. The critica l method of learning according to conversation theory is teach back

in which one person teaches another person what was learned. This process of teach - back is clearly demonstrated through parental involvement (Pask , 1975 ).

Theoretical Model for Family Edu cation and Involvement

According to the research ,

one way that family, school and community relationships have been theorized is from a natural viewpoint that views

children

15

existing in nested circle of influence ( Cochran, 1988 ) with the circles closest to the child (family, school, and neighborhood) having the most straight forward effect, and circle such as government agencies (e.g., laws and regulations) and cultural values and norms of the dominant society as more distal yet potential powerful forces affecting children‟s lives. These circles can influence the educational, social, physical and emotional health of the child both positively and negatively. Brofenbrenner

and

Morris (1998) argue d

that communication and positive relationship among these circ les is critical to the child‟s well -

Full document contains 131 pages
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the importance of parental involvement and how they perceived their role and responsibility in developing relationships with Hispanic parents. This study utilized a qualitative research methodology. The conversation theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Conversation theory describes the interaction between two or more cognitive systems, such as a teacher and a student or a student and a parent. With this interaction, there are distinct perspectives within one individual and how that individual engages in dialog over a given concept and identify differences in how it is understood (Pask, 1975, Conversation, cognition, and learning ). The researcher determined that the qualitative approach was the most appropriate to examine administrators' perceptions of their understanding of Hispanic parental involvement. Furthermore, the qualitative methodology with a case study design approach was used to develop baseline data regarding understanding the administrators' perspectives of their roles and responsibilities in developing relationships with Hispanic parents. The researcher selected eight high school administrators who have a Hispanic student population over 50% to serve as the sample. Overarching themes and sub-themes included a shared belief that parental involvement means active participation in the school and being aware of their child's educational journey. The importance of communication between the school and parents emerged as an important theme. The sub-themes generated the methods that the communication takes place, namely parent meetings, resources for parents and having information translated for parents who struggle with speaking English. The administrators believed that it is their responsibility to build a relationship of trust with parents as well as establish a positive school climate. Findings from this study have implications for administrators of schools with a large percentage of Hispanic parents.