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Breaking the culture of ethnic hostility in Kenya a national reconciliation strategy

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Geoffrey Kamau Njuguna
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to develop a clear and practical strategy on how the church in Kenya could engage in national reconciliation, with a view of overcoming negative ethnicity that degenerates to strife and hostilities during elections. I carried out an exploratory survey by use of a guided questionnaire that highlighted the perceived issues of conflicts. My participants were national leaders from the church, the political class, and the corporate. I collected data from sixty-five respondents half of whom were professionals. I conducted interviews with key church leaders and did a brainstorming round table consultation with fourteen leaders representing all the three categories above. I established that the highest percentage of the participants believe that differences amongst the political class posed the greatest threat to national reconciliation. Some of the key factors causing ethnic hostility are land ownership and distribution, inequitable distribution of national resources, and widespread unemployment. The church needs to enjoin the government's effort in addressing the social challenges of the society such as unemployment and develop interdenominational forums in all the forty-seven newly constituted counties that will strengthen ethnic integration and develop sustainable structures of national reconciliation and healing. The church should also hold the government accountable for the provisions in the constitution.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... x

LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... xi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ .............................. xii

CHAPTER 1 PROBLEM ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 1

Introduc tion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 1

Purpose Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 3

Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 3

Research Question#1 ................................ ................................ .................. 3

Research Question #2 ................................ ................................ .................. 4

Research Question #3 ................................ ................................ .................. 4

Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4

Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 4

Positive Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ......................... 4

Negative Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ....................... 5

Tribalism ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 5

National Reconciliation ................................ ................................ ............... 5

National Reco nciliation Strategy Paper ................................ ....................... 5

A Descriptive Study ................................ ................................ ................................ . 5

Context ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 6

Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7

The Caucus ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 8

iv

Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 8

Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ............................ 9

Data Collection ................................ ................................ ............................ 9

Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................. 10

Generalizability ................................ ................................ .......................... 10

Ethical Considerations ................................ ................................ ........................... 10

Ethnic Hostility in Kenya — Background ................................ ............................... 11

Im plementation of the Final Strategy Paper ................................ .......................... 12

Theological Foundation ................................ ................................ ......................... 13

Scriptural References on Unity ................................ ................................ .............. 23

CHAPTER 2 HISTORICAL AND LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ .......... 27

Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 27

Causes of Ethnic Hostility ................................ ................................ ..................... 27

Regions Where Hostility Is Worst ................................ ................................ ......... 29

Tribal Council of

Elders ................................ ................................ ......................... 30

Ethnic Stereotypes ................................ ................................ ................................ . 31

Christian Influen ce in the Most Volatile Areas ................................ ..................... 32

Extent of Emotional Dam age upon the Warring Factions ................................ ..... 33

Historical Aspects of Ethnicity in Ken ya ................................ ............................... 34

Negative E thnicity and Racial Prejudice ................................ ............................... 40

The Role of L ocal Chiefs in Peace Building ................................ ......................... 44

Tribal Enclaves in the Constitution ................................ ................................ ........ 45

The Role of the Church in National Reconciliation ................................ ............... 46

v

When Ethnic Identity Becomes a Social Stigma ................................ ................... 51

Land Distribution as a Ground of Ethnic Hostility ................................ ................ 52

Reb uilding Healthy Relationships ................................ ................................ ......... 55

Th e Peril of Negative Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ............. 57

Restoration of Broken Trust ................................ ................................ ................... 59

How to Embrace Others ................................ ................................ ......................... 63

The Issues of S ocial and Material Inequality ................................ ......................... 66

Cultural and Language Differences and Their Impact on Ethnicity ...................... 66

Comparative Ethnicity ................................ ................................ .......................... 72

Ethnic ity as a Pol itical Phenomenon ................................ ................................ ...... 74

The Dyna mics of Religion and Politics ................................ ................................ . 75

T he Theology of Reconciliation ................................ ................................ ............ 78

Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 82

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ...................... 84

Problem and Purpose ................................ ................................ ............................. 84

Researc h Questions and Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ..... 85

Research Question #1 ................................ ................................ ................ 85

Research Question #2 ................................ ................................ ................ 85

Researc h Question #3 ................................ ................................ ................ 86

Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 86

The Caucus or Consultation Group ................................ ................................ ........ 87

Design of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 88

Instruments ................................ ................................ ................................ . 90

vi

Pilot Test ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 90

Mediating Entities ................................ ................................ ...................... 90

Reliability and Validity ................................ ................................ .............. 91

Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 91

Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 93

Ethical Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ . 93

CHAPTER 4 FINDIN GS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 94

Factors Promoting Ethnic Hostilities ................................ ................................ ..... 94

Ownership and Distributi on of Land ................................ ......................... 94

Redrawing of the Administrative Boundaries ................................ ............ 94

High Level of Poverty ................................ ................................ ................ 95

Inequitable Distribution of National Resources ................................ ......... 95

Administrative Boundaries ................................ ................................ ........ 95

Illiteracy ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 96

Religious Affiliation ................................ ................................ .................. 96

Political Affiliation ................................ ................................ .................... 96

Corruption in Public Office Accelerating Ethnic Conflicts ....................... 98

Widespread Unemployment ................................ ................................ ....... 98

Factors Promo ting Negative Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ... 99

Quota Education al System ................................ ................................ ......... 99

Ethnic Upbringing ................................ ................................ .................... 100

Religious Leader s ................................ ................................ ..................... 10 0

Vernacular FM Radio Station ................................ ................................ .. 100

vii

Political Leaders ................................ ................................ ....................... 101

Mainstream Media ................................ ................................ ................... 101

Neg ative Ethnicity and Nepotism ................................ ................................ ........ 102

Subjection to Negative Ethnicity ................................ ............................. 103

The Role of the Church in Promoting National Reconciliation ............... 104

Factors That Enhance National R econ ciliation ................................ .................... 106

Political Will ................................ ................................ ............................ 106

Divine Inte rvention in Answer to Prayer ................................ ................. 106

Involvement of Religious Groups ................................ ............................ 107

Educational Status ................................ ................................ .................... 107

Economic Stability ................................ ................................ ................... 107

Media ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 107

Council of Elders ................................ ................................ ..................... 107

Donor Dependency ................................ ................................ .................. 108

Additional Findings ................................ ................................ ............................. 108

Politician s Using Ethnic Ident ity for Political Expediency ..................... 108

Vigilante/Militia Grou ps and Other Tribal Warriors ............................... 108

Poor Implementation of Government Policies ................................ ......... 109

Bad Individual Choices ................................ ................................ ............ 109

Lack of Awareness of Rights and Freedom ................................ ............. 109

External Influence ................................ ................................ .................... 109

D ifferences among Political Leaders ................................ ....................... 110

Summar y of Major Findings ................................ ................................ ................ 110

viii

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ............................ 115

Major Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 1 1 5

Differenc es with Political Leaders ................................ ........................... 115

Vernacular Radio Stations ................................ ................................ ....... 116

Lan d Ownership and Distribution ................................ ............................ 118

Bi ased Widespread Unemployment ................................ ......................... 120

Political Affiliation That Balkanizes Kenya into Regional Zones ........... 121

Poor Implementation of Government Polic ies ................................ ......... 121

Inequitable Distri bution of National Resources ................................ ....... 122

Economic Stabilit y Fostering National Harmony ................................ .... 123

Church Engage ment and Divine In tervention ................................ .......... 123

Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 124

Unexpected Observations ................................ ................................ .................... 125

Reco mmendations ................................ ................................ ................................ 125

Implications of the Findings ................................ ................................ ................ 126

Postscript ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 128

APPENDIXES

A. A Brief Profile of the Caucus Group ................................ .............................. 130

B. Meetings Held with the Caucus Group ................................ ........................... 131

C. Resea rch Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ................... 132

D. Brainstorming Round Table Consultative Forum ................................ ........... 140

E. Interviews with a Few Key Church L eaders ................................ ................... 147

F. Compassion International Seminar Lesson by Rev. Njuguna ......................... 161

ix

G. Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 165

WORKS CITED ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 167

WORKS CONSULTED ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 173

x

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 3.1. List of Participants ................................ ................................ ............................ 87

Table 4 .1. Factors That Promote Ethnic Hostility ................................ ............................. 99

Table 4.2. Factors That Promote Negative Ethnicity ................................ ....................... 102

Table 4.3.

Factors Causing Ethnic Hostilities That Require Strategic Action ................. 111

Table 4.4. Proposed Areas of Focus on Negative Ethnicity ................................ ............ 112

Table 5.1. Proposed Strategy for National Reconciliation ................................ .............. 127

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 3.1 Phase 1 — Research Flow Chart ................................ ................................ ........ 89

Figure 4.1 . Factors Causing Ethni c Hostilities ................................ ................................ 111

F igure 4.2. Weight of Fa ctors Causing

Ethnic Hostilities ................................ ............... 112

Figure 4.3. Proposed Areas of Focus on Strategy for National Reconciliation ............... 113

Figure 4.4. Weight of Proposed Areas of Focus on Strategy

for National Reconciliation ................................ ................................ ............ 114

xii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to acknowledge God, for the grace to read and write and all the pro visions H e made available to me in the process of the development of this dissertation. I wish to acknowledge my wife , Elizabeth , for her emotional support , encouragement ,

and editing assistance in the course of this research study. Without her encouragement, this work would have been overwhelming. I wish to acknowledge our children , Jane Haines , and her family , George Kamau, Miriam Miller and her family, and Charity Kamau for their prayers and affirmation.

I wish to acknowled ge my caucus team for being diligent to attend all the consultative meetings, helping me in data collection for both the pretest and posttest, and helping in analyzing the raw data for both the pretest and posttest. I particularly want to appreciate Dan An duvate, Amos Chebon , and our son , George, all members of the caucus who worked exceptionally above the call of duty to enable me to deliver the project successfully. The names of the caucus team are in Appendix A. It would have been very difficult for me t o succeed without the support of the caucus team. Our discussions when drafting the proposal for national reconciliation was a great learning experience.

I wish to acknowledge the Deliverance Church Langata’s local church council for approving all the expe nses to process all the documents needed to carry out the research. They also approved the expenses incurred in refreshing the caucus team and all the stationary used throughout the whole time of the research. I wish to acknowledge my former S ecretary, Mrs . Mercy Wambura Muikia, for helping me to prepare all the needed documents for the research study. She a lso made phone contacts with th e caucus team members to schedule for meetings.

xiii

I wish to acknowledge with great appreciation all the national church lea de rs, professionals, and politicians who took the time to respond to the questionnaires of this research study. Without their input, this research would not have been possible and therefore I owe them much gratitude.

I wish to pay special tribute to my me ntor , Dr . Terry Muck , who graciously instructed me throughout the process of developing this dissertation. I acknowledge with special regards the written advice I received from Dr . Anthony J . Headley after my proposal hearing. I also acknowledge Dr . Steve Ybarrola , one of the Njuguna dissertation team readers for his critical input on the document. I will forever be indebted to Judy Seitz who patiently edited this entire diss ertation. Much regards go to the entire Beeson Center staff, for a ll their support over the whole period of the research study. I particularly thank Dr . Verna Lowe for making sure I understood my problem statement before beginning the process.

Finally, yet importantly, I wish to acknowledge the input of my faithful son in ministry , Rev .

Stephen Miano, who is both my personal assistant and our c hurch administrator, for making all the logistical arrangements for the caucus meetings held in our c hurch. This journey has been worth taking, and I believe that the recommendation informed by this research will go a long way in enhancing national healing and reconciliation in Kenya.

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CHAPTER 1

PROBLEM

Introduction

Kenya is a young democracy, having obtained independence from the British in 1963, which is relatively recent compared to some western countries like the United States of America and Canada. Despite Kenya ’ s ethnic challenges, Kenyans have coexisted peacefully since attaining independence, with ethnic tensions rising only during and around election time. Regrettably, Kenyan politicians ha ve antagonized Kenyans along ethnic lines since the introduction of multi - party politics in 1992. The ethnic conflicts that generate hostility are most unfortunate and deserve condemnation by all peace loving Kenyans. After the disputed 2007 presidential e lections, ethnic hostility left close to one thousand five hundred people dead, and over half a million Kenyans displaced, their houses and businesses burned and looted, all in the name of politically instigated ethnic conflicts.

A statement dated 4 August 2010 and captured in the Daily Nation

released the shocking brutal facts of the assessed outcome of the post election violence as follows -

The Post 2007 Election Violence (PEV) led to destruction of property, loss of lives, 663,921 people displaced and ab out 78,254 houses destroyed country wide. An addition 640 households fled into Uganda.

A total of 350,000 IDPs [internally displaced persons] sought refuge in 118 camps whereas about 313,921 IDPs were integrated within communities across the country. (Offi ce of the President 1)

This glaring truth will always be an indictment to all the leaders who sponsored and financed this wanton destruction of both lives and properties in the name of a political contest.

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Whereas most Kenyans appreciate the fact that the government should maintain law and order, I am convinced that the church has a God given responsibility to teach values that enhance unity in diversity and strengthen national reconciliation, by breaking down the walls of ethnic hostilities and racial pre judice.

The church has an obligation before God to become the salt of the nation, to preserve it from corruption, and to season it with the grace of God. The church has a duty to nurture goodwill amongst all citizens and to teach the fear of God. The churc h also has a duty to advocate for peaceful coexistence across the political divide and to remind all Kenyans that Kenya is one country blessed with many ethnic groups.

The church has an obligation to promote the philosophy of Jesus Christ who commanded peo ple to love one another and to advance his teachings, as did John, whose epistle ’ s theme is love, saying, “ Whoever hates his brother is a murderer ” (1 John 3:15, NKJV). God ’ s will is for his people to

“ pursue peace with all men, and holiness without which no one shall see the Lord ” (Heb. 12:14).

This research focused on developing a strategy to strengthen national reconciliation. The study recommends the formulation of structures that can be transferable for use in other countries facing similar problems. I have tailored the recommendations to fit different cultures.

I released the “ National Reconciliation Strategy Proposal” to chur ch leaders countrywide, who use d it to teach their congregants what role to play in rebuilding a culture of love, peace, and un ity and how to restore Kenya ’ s lost glory. The final document will also be useful to government officials charged with the responsibility of peace building, particularly amongst the warring communities.

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I request ed the denominational leaders to instruct al l those under their jurisdiction to promote a culture of peaceful coexiste nce, appreciating the fact that

“ we are better together than we are apart. ” God has promised to command a blessing upon those who will dwell i n unity according to Psalm 133:1, 3b: “ Be hold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity. For there the Lord commands the blessings, even life forevermore. ”

It God’s desire to for the peoples of Kenya to dwell together in unity , but this unity will become real when w e learn to embrace each other across our different ethnic backgrounds.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop a strategy paper proposal on how Deliverance Church Langata, a cosmopolitan church situated in Nairobi, the capita l city of Kenya, would serve as a sample of what the national church could do, to establish a mechanism to restore and sustain national reconciliation, and break down the wall of negative ethnicity. I carried out the study with the help of a caucus group o f twelve leaders from my congregation who serve d as a think tank towards the development of the paper. E ach member of the team had to have demonstrated objectivity in the manner they address ed political issues as an essential requirement. T he strategy pape r proposal was

the final product after conducting the final research.

Research Questions

The research guide to this study had to answer the following questions.

Research Question #1

What are the factors that contribute to ethnic conflicts and hostilities e videnced by violence in Kenya ’ s electoral processes?

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Research Question #2

What are the factors that influence and promote negative ethnicity in Kenya?

Research Question #3

What is the role of the church in national reconciliation, and what structu re s are e ssential for sustaining an integrated country ?

Definition of Terms

The following defined words will be used throughout the dissertation and wherever they are used, their intended meaning is what is provided in this section.

Ethnicity

The word ethnicity des cribes the different people groups. An ethnic group in the Kenyan context refers to a people group who share a common culture and vernacular language. I believe that negative and posi tive ethnicities coincide but one should discard the former and embrace t he latter. Most of Kenya ’ s forty - two tribes, especially the minority groups, embrace a belief system to the effect that certain communities or certain ethnic groups, particularly the dominant tribes, benefit more from the government. They claim that their poverty and suffering has resulted from unequal distribution of government resources, favoring the bigger ethnic groups to the detriment of the smaller ones and therefore enhancing ethnic schism.

Positive Ethnicity

Positive ethnicity appreciates Kenya ’ s et hnic diversities and seeks to exploit the ir

distinct strengths to complement each other . Kenya’s cultural difference will always add value to national heritage. Positive et hnicity always celebrates Kenya’s diversities and seeks to strengthen national cohes ion and integration.

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Negative Ethnicity

Negative ethnicity retains attitudes that promote antagonism between the different tribes , by pitting one tribe against the other. Negative ethnicity could also refer to the tendency by any of the forty - two assertin g itself to lord or control others.

Tribalism

N egative ethnicity and tribalism are synonymous .

Several aspects that define triba lism are

vernacular language, identity in cultural beliefs and traditional pr actices, and

distinction in food preferences.

Nati onal Reconciliation

Development a status in which Kenya ’ s f orty - two tribes will covenant with each other as brethren, making commitment between each other, never to promote negative attitu des on tribal lines. The resolution by which the different tribes w ithin Kenya will make to unders tand each other and live harmoniously in spite of their diversity, appreciating the fact that they all belong to one natio n, thereby vowing never to fight each other, nor try to outdo each other in any way.

National Reconcil iation Strategy Paper

This National Reconciliation Strategy Proposal will be the final document produced, which will have a clear action plan on how the Kenyan church will establish and enhance structures for sustaina ble peaceful coexistence among the fort y - two tribes.

A Descriptive Study

This study was a descriptive study to devise a proposal on National Reconciliation Strategy to be a tool in the hands of church leaders throughout Kenya, to promote and sustain peaceful coexistence among the forty - two eth nic groups that

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constitute the nation, and to equip their congregants to become agents of national healing from past ethnic conflicts.

Context

During every election since Kenya became a multiparty democracy in 1992, ethnic clashes, over political positi ons have been the norm rather than the exception. People have fought along ethnic lines over who should take the political seats at all levels of representation. Unfortunately, Kenya, though a small nation ,

it is divide d into eight provincial regions and ,

according to the register at the Attorney Generals ’ office, it has

more than three hundred registered political parties. Some of the political pa rties have a minority representation and are yet to gain a significan t impact in the political arena.

The major political parties have dominated certain regions , and therefore ,

whoever takes the nomination of that party ticket usually wins the parlia mentary seat regardless of his or her leadership abilities. In some cases, the party leaders have manipulated the res ults of the party nomination exercise to reward either a relative or a loyalist with a nomination. This culture of tribal loyalties has promoted regional parties, which dominate certain parts of the country. Moreover, in some isolated situations, certain p olitical parties cannot open offices in certain regions. For the last seventeen years, Kenya has held four general elections, none of which has been free from some degree of ethnic conflicts; the 2002 elections were the only elections with minimum conflict s.

The disputed presidential election results of 2007 prompted the worst dissensions in which an unprecedented wave of violence and destruction of property continued for about two months. This violence shook the very core foundations of Kenya as a nation.

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By the time peace was realized, the police department confirmed c lose 1,200 people de ad, and over 600,000 people displaced from their homes, most of which were looted and burned.

The tragedy experienced by the people of Kenya after the 2007 disputed polls

form the basis of this study. Kenya ns cannot afford to go to another general election before putting certain reform structures in place, guaranteeing that Kenyans will not rise against each other again along ethnic lines. The church must arise and crusade for peace and reconciliation in order to redeem the nation from any further pre - or post - election violence.

Methodology

This project was an exploratory qualitative design, which formed the basis of the recommended strategy paper. I structured questionnaire s to help me sol icit critical data from church, professionals , and political leaders. I subjected the preliminary data collected from the respondents to critical analysis with the help of a caucus group, and formed the basis upon which to carry out the fin al research, the findings of which I used to develop the National Reconciliation Strategy Proposal . The following is the proposed action plan on how to activate the recommendations provided in the finalized strategy proposal :

1.

Register the paper with the Co mmission of Higher Education,

2.

Present a copy to the Minister for Jus tice and Constitutional Affairs, and

3.

Present a copy to five major ecumenical religious organizations:

a.

The National Council of Churches in Kenya,

b.

The Kenya Episcopal Conference ,

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c.

Th e Evangel ical Alliance of Kenya ,

d.

The Baptist convention of Kenya , and

e.

The Organization of African Instituted Churches of Kenya .

The Caucus

I worked with a caucus of twelve people drawn from the Deliverance church Langata leadership team. The basis of their appointm ent was ethnic diversity, academic credentials, and good character disposition. One of the critical criterions of appointment was an attitude of nationalism besides their prof ession of faith. I chose them according to representation of seven of Kenya ’ s eig ht provinces. I took them through a half day,

inductive training in a seminar setup, to discuss the objectives of the research , and how to assess the data obtained through the questionnaires. They all requested my purpose statement and research questions t o enable them to process what I expected of them. T he individuals in the caucus

had to be Christians of good standing, members of the

Deliverance church Langata, local church leadership, and gradu ates of accredited universities . They served as my consultan t team.

Participants

The participant s were in three classifications: the national church leaders, politicians, and business professionals. The political leaders were from a broad spectrum in order to represent the feelings of Kenya ’ s different ethnic group s; they were men and women of modest character, whose response to the questionnaire would add value to the study. They were former and current members of parliament. The church leaders were high - ranking church officials drawn from different denominations w ho were ecumenical in nature to avoid any religious bias. Their ability to read and write in English was

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required in order to help them engage with the questionnaire. The business professionals were former and current government officials some in private b usiness.

I conducted one - to - one interviews with key church leaders on their view on the findings of the main issues deduced from the research. I then held a round table discussion with fourteen key leaders drawn from the three categories of respondents: po liticians, profe ssion als, and church leaders. In t he round table discussion, we focused on the findings of the research (see Appendix D).

Instrumentation

Bearing in mind that the project was going to be an exploratory p re - intervention, the caucus group, un der my guidance, developed exploratory qualitative questionnaires. I structured the questionnaires to help me get necessary data, in order to make my research both credible and transferable. The political, corporate, and church leaders participated in kind ly responding to the questionnaires.

Data Collection

I sent pretest questionnaires to fifteen key church leaders, ten politicians, and five

professionals . The purpose of the questionnaires was to enable me to further refine and develop it as an instrument to use in the final research study. I restricted the exercise to men and women I had

known personally and had demonstrated responsible leadership in public. I requested them to complete and submit the questionnaire as an attachment within thirty days upon receiving it, and a good number of them complied. Some responded late , therefore , their data could not be included in the report.

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Data Analysis

I collected all the necessary data within a period of about three months upon dispatch; I held six different mee tings between 14 March and 7 November 2009. In the initial two meetings, the caucus under my leadership began developing t he questionnaire, which took us two meetings to finalize. We held a few meetings to analyze the collected data a fter which we made the correlation briefs of each of the issues raised in the data.

Generalizability

The National Reconciliation Strategy P roposal was designed with some degree of generalizability that guarantee d its possible usage in other countries faced with similar ethnic c hallenges, undergirded by universal guiding principles of unity and respecting their social peculiarities.

We copyrighted the final document to avoid any manipulation or alterations that would compromise its authenticity.

Ethical Considerations

The caucus , under my leadership and guidance, devised ethical considerations to safeguard the confidentiality of the research sources. Each member of the team committed to treat as confidential any information received as we processed the national reconciliation str ategy paper. Each of them made a firm commitment never to divulge the source of the data collected in terms of names of persons involved. In the data analysis meetings , we identified the questionnaire source as from a politician, church leader, or persons from the cor porate or business sector of society, without any mention of names. Instead, the questionnaires were numbered. The team conducted the research in this manner to qualify the dissertation process for the ethical and human rights laws that are acc eptable in the academic field.

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Ethnic Hostility in Kenya — Background

My dissertation focused on the problem of ethnic hostility in Kenya, the negative ethnicity, and the role of the church in the enhancing national reconciliation . Due to the problems Kenya experienced after the disputed presidential results of December 2007, I have a great passi on for this issue. As a church leader, I feel duty bound to educate Kenyans on th e value of unity in diversity. I honest ly believe that the church should promote nat ionhood and national coherence devoid of tribalism.

Full document contains 189 pages
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a clear and practical strategy on how the church in Kenya could engage in national reconciliation, with a view of overcoming negative ethnicity that degenerates to strife and hostilities during elections. I carried out an exploratory survey by use of a guided questionnaire that highlighted the perceived issues of conflicts. My participants were national leaders from the church, the political class, and the corporate. I collected data from sixty-five respondents half of whom were professionals. I conducted interviews with key church leaders and did a brainstorming round table consultation with fourteen leaders representing all the three categories above. I established that the highest percentage of the participants believe that differences amongst the political class posed the greatest threat to national reconciliation. Some of the key factors causing ethnic hostility are land ownership and distribution, inequitable distribution of national resources, and widespread unemployment. The church needs to enjoin the government's effort in addressing the social challenges of the society such as unemployment and develop interdenominational forums in all the forty-seven newly constituted counties that will strengthen ethnic integration and develop sustainable structures of national reconciliation and healing. The church should also hold the government accountable for the provisions in the constitution.