• unlimited access with print and download
    $ 37 00
  • read full document, no print or download, expires after 72 hours
    $ 4 99
More info
Unlimited access including download and printing, plus availability for reading and annotating in your in your Udini library.
  • Access to this article in your Udini library for 72 hours from purchase.
  • The article will not be available for download or print.
  • Upgrade to the full version of this document at a reduced price.
  • Your trial access payment is credited when purchasing the full version.
Buy
Continue searching

Bordering on feminism: Home and transnational sites in recent visual culture and Native women's art

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Elizabeth Claire Kalbfleisch
Abstract:
This dissertation explores the home both as a theme in contemporary art by Native North American women artists and as a means to engage Native women's art and visual culture in a critical, intercultural feminist discourse. The home is a rich and complicated site in feminist theory and women's history; it holds additional meaning in Native cultures, where it has ties to specific cultural traditions, to homeland, and to the history of colonization. Artists working in performance, video, film, photography, and installation explore aspects of the home; of particular interest here are those works which relate to intercultural encounters between Native and non-native women. Transnationalism is introduced as a conceptual framework for analyzing home, gender, and identity in Native women's art and visual culture. Relying heavily on feminist interpretations of transnationalism, borders, migration, diaspora, cosmopolitanism and hybridity, this dissertation addresses the multiple contexts for Native women's identities and homes. It explores how artists present an experience of homeland and collective identity that reflects their position as global citizens whose own experiences and identities may find points of commonality with the experiences and identities of artists from other cultural, ethnic, and national positions. Contemporary artists discussed include Sama Alshaibi, Rebecca Belmore, Hannah Claus, Bonnie Devine, Rosalie Favell, Danis Goulet, Maria Hupfield, Marianne Nicolson, Shelley Niro, Alanis Obomsawin, Hulleah Tsinhnahjinnie, and Anna Tsouhlarakis. In order to consider representation and encounter between Native and non-native women more broadly, a close reading of the photographs Gladys Knight Harris took of Iñupiat women in Kotzebue, Alaska in 1949 is also presented.

Vlll Table of Contents Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Bordering on Feminism: Space, Solidarity, and Transnationalism in Rebecca Belmore's Vigil 14 • Vigil and its context 14 • Homeland and Native Diasporas 27 • Feminist Occupations 37 • Transnational Feminism 46 • Native Women, Decolonizing Feminism 52 • Reflective Solidarity 63 Chapter 2 The Testamental Landscape: Framing Homeland in Alanis 81 Obomsawin's Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance • Land and Landscape in Native Art 81 • Landscape in Canadian Art History 88 • Interventionist Landscapes: Jin-Me Yoon and Maria Hupfield 95 • Women and Land: Maria Hupfield, Shelley Niro, Bonnie Devine 98 • Oka: Context and Crisis 105 • Landscapes of Resistance 110 • Golf and the Paradisal Landscape 115 • Warring Landscapes 117 • Land Becomes Landscape 120 • Indigenous Spatiality 125

IX • Language and Place 130 • Gender and Representation 134 • Recharting and Transforming the Landscape 142 Chapter 3 The Home and the Unhomely: Women, House, and Home in Contemporary Native Art 155 • Re-establishing the Home as a Site of Feminist Scholarship 155 • Colonialism, Domesticity, and Mohawk Identity: Hannah Claus 159 • Investigating the Home, Rethinking Colonial Space: Rebecca Belmore 170 • Domestic Imperialism in Boarding and Residential Schools 179 • Home as Indigenous Space: Marianne Nicolson and DanisGoulet 185 • Belonging and Being-at-Home: Rosalie Favell 199 • Unhomeliness at Home and in the World 208 Chapter 4 "Clara Forslund, My Eskimo Friend": Cosmopolitanism, Home Economics, and Friendship and the Photographs of Gladys Knight Harris 242 • Space and Cosmopolitanism 246 • Home Economics 264 • Friendship 277 Chapter 5 At Home in the Global World: Transnational Contexts, Diaspora Aesthetics and Hybrid Identities 318 • Studies of Diaspora, Hybridity, Nationalism and Globalization 318 • Transnationalism and Diaspora Aesthetics: Hulleah Tsinhnahjinnie 320

X • Flags and Textile Actions: Native America in a Global Visual Economy 338 • The Global Indigenous, Making Connections: Sama Alshaibi 352 • Hybrid Identity and Social Experience: Anna Tsouhlarakis 360 Bibliography 390

List of Figures XI Figure 1.1. Map of Downtown Eastside, Vancouver. As reproduced in Leslie Robertson and Dara Culhane, In Plain Sight: Reflections on Life in Downtown Eastside Vancouver (Vancouver: Talon Books, 2005), 15. 71 Figure 1.2. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 26. 72 Figure 1.3. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 27. 72 Figure 1.4. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 26. 73 Figure 1.5. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 26. 74 Figure 1.6. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 26. 74 Figure 1.7. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 27. 75

Xll Figure 1.8. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 26. 75 Figure 1.9. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 27. 76 Figure 1.10. Rebecca Belmore, Vigil, 2002. Performance held on June 23, 2002, in Vancouver. Video by Paul Wong. As reproduced in James Luna and Charlotte Townsend-Gault, Rebecca Belmore: The Named and the Unnamed, exh. cat. (Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, 2003), 26. 76 Figure 1.11. Newspaper photograph of then-Governor-General of Canada, Adrienne Clarkson, on a tour of Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. Photograph by John Lehmann / The Globe and Mail. Jane Armstrong, "Governor-General, Husband Take a Tour of Downtown Eastside. Vancouver's Skid Row Greets Clarkson with Jeers, Taunts," The Globe and Mail [Toronto] September 22, 2004, A3. 77 Figure 1.12. The house where Sarah de Vries lived in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. As reproduced in Maggie de Vries, Missing Sarah: A Vancouver Woman Remembers Her Vanished Sister (Toronto: Penguin, 2003). 78 Figure 1.13. Rebecca Belmore, Exhibit #67IB, 1988. Performance held on January 12, 1988, Thunder Bay Art Gallery, Thunder Bay, Ontario. Photograph by Bill Lindsay. As reproduced in Allan J. Ryan, The Trickster Shift: Humour and Irony in Contemporary Native Art (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1999), 147. 79

Xlll Figure 1.14. Rebecca Belmore, Ayum-ee-aawach Oomama-mowan: Speaking to their Mother, 1991-1992. Performance/protest at the Fort William First Nation, 1992. Photograph by Michael Benyon. As reproduced in John O'Brian and Peter White, eds., Beyond Wilderness: The Group of Seven, Canadian Identity, and Contemporary Art (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2007), 342. 79 Figure 1.15. Rebecca Belmore, Mawa-che-hitoowin: A Gathering of People for Any Purpose, 1992. Mixed media installation at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. As reproduced in Janet Catherine Berlo and Ruth B. Phillips, Native North American Art (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 237. 80 Figure 2.1. Arthur Lismer, Canadian Jungle, 1947. Oil on canvas, 44.8 cm x 53.7 cm. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg 1966.16.107. 144 Figure 2.2. Thomas Davies, View of the Great Falls on the Ottawa River, Lower Canada, 1791. Watercolor over graphite on wove paper, 34.6 cm x 51.4 cm. National Gallery of Canada no. 6287. 144 Figure 2.3. Jin-Me Yoon, A Group of Sixty Seven, 1996. Series of 138 cibachrome photographs, each 40 cm x 40 cm. Vancouver Art Gallery. VAG 97.2 a-gggggg. Photograph by Trevor Mills. As reproduced in Robert J. Belton, Sight of Resistance: Approaches to Canadian Visual Culture (Calgary: University of Calgary Press), 325. 145 Figure 2.4. Maria Hupfield, The East Wind Brings a New Day, 2006. Installation, 9' x 25.' Latex paint, video projection, table, canoe, and paint sample booklet "Group of Seven collection." Photograph courtesy of Maria Hupfield. 146 Figure 2.5. Maria Hupfield, The East Wind Brings a New Day (detail with figure and table), 2006. Installation, 9' x 25.' Latex paint, video projection, table, canoe, and paint sample booklet "Group of Seven collection." Photograph courtesy of Maria Hupfield. 146

XIV Figure 2.6. Still from Shelley Niro, It Starts With a Whisper, 1993. As reproduced in Beverly R. Singer, Wiping the War Paint Off the Lens: Native American Film and Video (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 12. 147 Figure 2.7. Bonnie Devine, Reclamation Project, 1995. University Avenue, Toronto. Sod. 18" x 20'. The Centre for Contemporary Canadian Art, Canadian Art Database. www.ccca.ca 148 Figure 2.8. Fourteen year-old Waneek Horn-Miller is stabbed by a soldier's bayonet. Still photograph as reproduced in Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 149 Figure 2.9. Mohawk negotiator Minnie Garrow at a press conference. From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 149 Figure 2.10. Lorraine Monture, a Mohawk woman, struggling with soldiers at the barricades. From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 150 Figure 2.11. Loran Thompson teaching a group of children the Mohawk language. From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 150 Figure 2.12. Mohawk Warrior Ronald Cross, aka "Lasagna." From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 151 Figure 2.13. Masked Warrior Brad Larocque, aka "Freddy Krueger." From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 151 Figure 2.14. Alanis Obomsawin talking to Masked Mohawk Warrior Larry Thompson, aka "Wizard." From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 152

XV Figure 2.15. Masked Zapatistas in Tlatelolco, Mexico, September 20, 1997. Photograph by Jaime Boites / Reforma. 152 Figure 2.16. Kahentiiosta, the first person interviewed in the film, talks about arriving at Kanesatake. From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 153 Figure 2.17. Ellen Gabriel, negotiator and spokesperson for the Mohawk people at Kanesatake speaks to the media. From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 153 Figure 2.18. Kahentiiosta comforting her child. From, Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, DVD (Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993). 154 Figure 3.1. Hannah Claus, unsettlements, 2004. Installation. Screen print on kozo paper, bass wood, seed beads, quilt, electronic components, microcontroller, sensors, fiber optic filament, LEDs. Variable dimensions. Collection of the artist. Photograph by Patrick Altman, Musee national des beaux-arts du Quebec. As reproduced in Lee-Ann Martin, Aufil de mes jours, exh. cat. (Quebec: Musee des Beaux-Arts du Quebec, 2005), 30. 221 Figure 3.2. Hannah Claus, unsettlements (detail), 2004. Installation. Screen print on kozo paper, bass wood, seed beads, quilt, electronic components, microcontroller, sensors, fiber optic filament, LEDs. Variable dimensions. Collection of the artist. Photograph by Patrick Altman, Musee national des beaux-arts du Quebec. As reproduced in Lee-Ann Martin, Aufil de mes jours, exh. cat. (Quebec: Musee des Beaux-Arts du Quebec, 2005), 32. 222 Figure 3.3. Shelley Niro, The Iroquois is a Highly Developed Matriarchal Society, 1992. From Mohawks in Beehives series. Hand-tinted photograph. As reproduced in Allan J. Ryan, The Trickster Shift: Humour and Irony in Contemporary Native Art (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1999), 67. 223

XVI Figure 3.4. Jolene Rickard, Cew Ete Haw I Tih: The Bird That Carries Language Back to Another, 1992. Photomontage. Collection of the artist. As reproduced in Lucy Lippard, ed. Partial Recall: Photographs of Native North Americans (New York: New Press, 1992), 106. 224 Figure 3.5. Hannah Claus, unsettlements (detail), 2004. Installation. Screen print on kozo paper, bass wood, seed beads, quilt, electronic components, microcontroller, sensors, fiber optic filament, LEDs. Variable dimensions. Collection of the artist. Photograph by Patrick Altman, Musee national des beaux-arts du Quebec. As reproduced in (partial view), Lee-Ann Martin, Aufil de mes jours, exh. cat. (Quebec: Musee des Beaux-Arts du Quebec, 2005), 30. 225 Figure 3.6. Rebecca Belmore, Wild, 2001. Performance (view with the artist in bed) and installation, hair, fabric, and beaver pelts. Photograph by the Art Gallery of Ontario Photographic Resources. As reproduced in (partial view), Jessica Bradley and Gillian Mackay, eds. House Guests: The Grange 1817 to Today, exh. cat. (Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 2001), 84. 226 Figure 3.7. James Luna, The Artifact Piece, 1987. Mixed media installation and performance, Museum of Man, San Diego, California. Photograph by Robin Holland. As reproduced in W. Jackson Rushing III, Native American Art in the Twentieth Century (New York: Routledge, 1999), Plate J. 227 Figure 3.8. Erica Lord, Artifact Piece, Revisited, 2008. Performance and installation at the George Gustav Heye Center, National Museum of the American Indian, New York, April 2008. Photograph by Guarina Lopez Photography. National Museum of the American Indian, online. http://www.nmai.si.edu/artifactrevisited/ 227 Figure 3.9. Frances Benjamin Johnston, Ironing Class at the Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, PA, 1901. Lot 12369; LC-USZ62-26794. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. 228 Figure 3.10. Frances Benjamin Johnston, Clothes Mending Class at the Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, PA, 1901. Lot 12369; LC-USZ62-26792. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. 229

Ill Acknowledgements First and foremost, my deepest thanks go to my supervisor, Professor Janet Catherine Berlo. Her wisdom, expertise, and generosity have profoundly influenced my work and my development as a scholar and teacher. Because of her example, I set high goals and standards for myself; through her guidance and support, she has helped me strive towards them. I am privileged to call her my mentor and friend. The Program in Visual and Cultural Studies provided me with a stimulating environment in which to conduct this work, even while I did so remotely - 1 cannot imagine having undertaken this project elsewhere. I am grateful for the enthusiasm and critical insight of the members of my dissertation committee, professors Janet Berlo, Joan Saab and Greta Niu. In the early days of my work in the program especially, I drew great inspiration from my professors Douglas Crimp, Bill Nichols, and Catherine Soussloff. I want to single out Karen Beckman for those first conversations about transnational feminism, conversations that helped me to conceive of this project. I also wish to acknowledge the influence and support of my professors from my prior studies: at Concordia, professors Olivier Asselin, Janice Helland, and especially Joan Acland, under whom I began my training in First Nations art history and who first suggested I go on to do a PhD. I am so appreciative of the help and insight I received from the artists whose work captivates me so much. I especially wish to thank Hannah Claus, Danis Goulet, Maria Hupfield, and Anna Tsouhlarakis for generously sharing their work and

IV perspectives. I thank Rebecca Belmore, whose extraordinary art continues to challenge me as a scholar and feminist, and Alanis Obomsawin whose filmmaking made an enormous impact on me when I first encountered it fifteen years ago and continues to do so today. I acknowledge the assistance of the staff at the libraries at the University of Rochester, University of Toronto, Concordia University and McGill University, as well as staff at the National Library and Archives of Canada, the Art Gallery of Ontario, Artexte (Montreal), and the Pari Nadimi Gallery. I wish also to thank my colleagues at the Ottawa Art Gallery. I am grateful for support from the University of Rochester, le Fonds pour la formation de chercheurs et I'aide a la recherche (FCAR), the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Susan B. Anthony Institute for Gender and Women's Studies at the Unversity of Rochester, the Luce Foundation, and the Southwest Museum of the American Indian / Autry National Center of the American West. At the Southwest Museum, I want particularly to thank Marva Felchin and Kim Walters at the Braun Research Library, as well as Marilyn Kim. I would also like to acknowledge Matthew Kurtz of the Open University: his research and interest in Gladys Knight Harris parallels my own and I benefited from our exchange of ideas. Over the years I have gained from formal and informal conversations at conferences, symposia, and elsewhere, and I am indebted to all of those individuals who thoughtfully read, listened to, questioned and engaged my work.

V Heartfelt thanks go to my colleagues and dear friends at the University of Rochester: I learn so much from them and cherish the friendship, insight, and generous critiques they have offered. This is especially so of Aubrey Anable, Liz Czach, Lyell Davies, and Norman Vorano. I also appreciate time spent with Cynthia Foo and the other members of the postcolonial studies reading group we gathered in Toronto. My friends in Toronto and Montreal, and those further afield, have provided a steady source of love and encouragement. None of this would be possible without Nikiforos, who has given me unequivocal support since the start and who I can in no way adequately thank. I am deeply touched by my family's pride in my work and thank my sister Catherine, my stepmother Cecelia, and my father John for their patience. Lastly, I want to acknowledge the memory of my mother, Susan Carson, for whom this work in so many ways is about.

XV11 Figure 3.11. Richard Throssel, Interior of the best kitchen on the Crow Reservation, 1910. Collection of the National Archives, Still Pictures Branch, "Photographs of Diseased Indians." As reproduced in Peggy Albright, Crow Indian Photographer: The Work of Richard Throssel (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997), 39. 230 Figure 3.12. Marianne Nicolson, House of Origin, 1998. Mixed media installation. Photograph by Harry Foster. As reproduced in Gerald McMaster, ed. Reservation X: The Power of Place in Aboriginal Contemporary Art, exh. cat. (Fredericton, NB: Goose Lane Editions; Hull, QC: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1998), 102. 231 Figure 3.13. Marianne Nicolson, House of Origin, 1998. Mixed media installation. Photograph by Harry Foster. As reproduced in Gerald McMaster, ed. Reservation X: The Power of Place in Aboriginal Contemporary Art, exh. cat. (Fredericton, NB: Goose Lane Editions; Hull, QC: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1998), 105. 232 Figure 3.14. Marianne Nicolson, Box 'wanat 'si: The Container for Souls, 2006. Installation with glass, cedar, light fixtures. 54.4 cm x 51 cm x 103 cm. Collection of the Vancouver Art Gallery. VAG 2007.4. la-c. Photograph by Scott Massey. As reproduced in Marianne Nicolson: The Return of Abundance, exh. cat., 5-15. (Victoria: Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, 2008), 4. 233 Figure 3.15. Ashley retreats to the tipi she has made in her bedroom. Still from Danis Goulet, Divided by Zero, DVD (Toronto, 2006). 234 Figure 3.16. Rosalie Favell, Belonging #5, 2003. Giclee print. From a series of 61. Paper, 28 cm x 41cm; Images, 24.7 x 32.6 cm each. Collection of Gerald and Florence Favell, Matlock, Manitoba. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker, Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 101. 235

XV111 Figure 3.17. Rosalie Favell, Longing and Not Belonging #36, 1999. Giclee print. From a series of 41, edition 1/5. 28 cm x 38.1 cm. Collection of Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), Canada. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker, Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 72. 236 Figure 3.18. Rosalie Favell, Longing and Not Belonging #37, 1999. Giclee print. From a series of 41, edition 1/5. 28 cm x 38.1 cm. Collection of Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), Canada. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker. Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 73. 236 Figure 3.19. Rosalie Favell, Longing and Not Belonging #13, 1999. Giclee print. From a series of 41, edition 1/5. 28 cm x 38.1 cm. Collection of Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), Canada. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker. Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 49. 237 Figure 3.20. Rosalie Favell, Longing and Not Belonging #4, 1999. Giclee print. From a series of 41, edition l/5.28cmx38.1 cm. Collection of Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), Canada. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker. Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 40. 237 Figure 3.21. Rosalie Favell, / dreamed of being a Warrior (Plain(s) Warrior Artist), 1999. Giclee print. Paper, 118.3 cm x 86.8 cm; Image, 82.7 cm x 76.2 cm. Collection of the artist. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker. Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 77. 238 Figure 3.22. Rosalie Favell, Opening New Frontiers (Plain(s) Warrior Artist), 2003. Giclee print. Paper, 118.3 cmx 86.8cm; Image, 82.7 cm x 76.2 cm. Collection of the artist. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker. Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 95. 239

XIX Figure 3.23. Rosalie Favell, I searched many worlds, (Plain(s) Warrior Artist), 1999. Giclee print. Paper, 118.3 cm x 86.8cm; Image, 82.7 cm x 76.2 cm. Collection of the artist. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker. Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 86. 240 Figure 3.24. Rosalie Favell, Real Indian (Plain(s) Warrior Artist), 2003. Giclee print. Paper, 118.3 cm x 86.8cm; Image, 82.7 cm x 76.2 cm. Collection of the artist. As reproduced in Barry Ace and Christiane Becker. Rosalie Favell: I Searched Many Worlds, exh. cat. (Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2003), 87. 241 Figure 4.1. Map of Alaska. Kotzebue circled in upper left. As reproduced in George Sundborg, Opportunity in Alaska (New York: MacMillan Company, 1946). 292 Figure 4.2. Edward S. Curtis, "On Kotzebue Sound," 1928. Photogravure: brown ink; Plate: 23 cm x 17 cm plate; Image: 18.9 cm x 14 cm. The North American Indian (1907-1930) v.20, The Alaskan Eskimo. TheNunivak The Eskimo of Hooper Bay. The Eskimo of King Island. The Eskimo of Little Diomede Island. The Eskimo of Cape Prince of Wales. The Kotzebue Eskimo. The Noatak. The Kobuk. The Selawik ([Seattle]: E. S. Curtis ; [Cambridge, MA. : The University Press], 1930), Frontispiece. As reproduced by the Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtis's "The North American Indian," 2003. http://digital.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/ 293 Figure 4.3. Page from a photo-essay titled "Beyond the Arctic Circle," Life, March 24, 1947, 72. 294 Figure 4.4. Magazine article titled "Mrs. North Pole," Collier's, September 20, 1952. 295 Figure 4.5a. Christmas card made by Gladys Knight Harris, featuring a photograph of the photographer. Outer view. Gladys Knight Harris collection. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles. 296

XX Figure 4.5b. Christmas card made by Gladys Knight Harris, featuring a photograph of the photographer. Inside view. Gladys Knight Harris collection. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles. 296 Figure 4.6. Gladys Knight Harris. Mrs. Rexford on the beach with baby Gerald and a Singer sewing machine, Kotzebue, 1949. Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P52916,N26715. 297 Figure 4.7. Gladys Knight Harris. Clara Forslund with a friend's baby in her hood, posed at the airport, Kotzebue, 1949. Color slide. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo # 7235. 298 Figure 4.8. Gladys Knight Harris. Esther Vestal on the ice with a shotgun, wearing a blue parka, Kotzebue, 1949. Color slide. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo # 7265. 299 Figure 4.9. Gladys Knight Harris. Marjorie Beaver beading outdoors, Kotzebue, 1949. Color slide. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo # 7167. 3 00 Figure 4.10. Gladys Knight Harris. Mrs. Flood skinning a muskrat indoors, Kotzebue, 1949. Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo # P52954 N26753. 301 Figure 4.11. Gladys Knight Harris. Group on beach with child, whale gutting, Kotzebue, 1949. Color slide. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #7316. 302

XXI Figure 4.12. Gladys Knight Harris. Women on beach gutting oogruk, Kotzebue, 1949.Color slide. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #8913. 303 Figure 4.13. Gladys Knight Harris. Women drinking coffee on the beach, with children; gut in foreground, Kotzebue, 1949. Color slide. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #7285. 304 Figure 4.14. Gladys Knight Harris. Clara Forslund pouring tea for Mrs. McClellen, Kotzebue, 1949. Captioned by Harris, "Kotzebue. Clara Mrs. McClellen?" Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P53151 N26948. 305 Figure 4.15. Gladys Knight Harris. Clara Forslund in a fur parka with bag of implements, Kotzebue, 1949. Color slide. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #7229. 306 Figure 4.16. Gladys Knight Harris. Mother Rhoda Rexford bends forward as Clara Forslund puts baby Virginia Rexford into the pouch of her mother's parka, Kotzebue, 1949. Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P53355 N27146. 307 Figure 4.17. Gladys Knight Harris. Clara Forslund, wearing a fur trimmed parka, sews at her Singer machine, Kotzebue, 1949. Captioned by Harris, "Kotzebue. Clara makes my parka Aug. 8, Singer." Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P53019,N26818. 308

XXII Figure 4.18. Gladys Knight Harris. Clara Forslund blowing a chewing gum bubble, sewing decorative trim on her Singer machine, Kotzebue, 1949. Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P53037, N26836. 309 Figure 4.19. Gladys Knight Harris. Self-portrait of Gladys Harris in a fur parka, standing in front of a pile of skins, Kotzebue, 1949. Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P52929, N26729. Figure 4.20. Unattributed photograph of William Blackmore dressed in Native American regalia, c.1875. From the collection of the Taylor North American Indian Archives, Hastings, England. As reproduced in Jane Alison, Native Nations: Journeys in American Photography (London: Barbican Art Gallery, 1998), 208. 311 Figure 4.21. Gladys Knight Harris. Self-portrait at Clara Forslund's Singer sewing machine, Kotzebue, 1949. Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P53022, N26821. 312 Figure 4.22. Gladys Knight Harris. Double-exposed self-portrait of Gladys Harris with Clara Forslund, wearing matching parkas, Kotzebue, 1949. Captioned by Harris, "Kotzebue. Clara Gladys Double complex." Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P53021 N26821. 313 Figure 4.23. Gladys Knight Harris. Self-portrait of Gladys Harris with Clara Forslund beside her, wearing matching parkas, Kotzebue, 1949. Black and white negative. Courtesy of the Southwest Museum of the American Indian, Autry National Center of the American West, Los Angeles; Gladys Knight Harris Collection, Photo #P53483, N27274. 314

Full document contains 461 pages
Abstract: This dissertation explores the home both as a theme in contemporary art by Native North American women artists and as a means to engage Native women's art and visual culture in a critical, intercultural feminist discourse. The home is a rich and complicated site in feminist theory and women's history; it holds additional meaning in Native cultures, where it has ties to specific cultural traditions, to homeland, and to the history of colonization. Artists working in performance, video, film, photography, and installation explore aspects of the home; of particular interest here are those works which relate to intercultural encounters between Native and non-native women. Transnationalism is introduced as a conceptual framework for analyzing home, gender, and identity in Native women's art and visual culture. Relying heavily on feminist interpretations of transnationalism, borders, migration, diaspora, cosmopolitanism and hybridity, this dissertation addresses the multiple contexts for Native women's identities and homes. It explores how artists present an experience of homeland and collective identity that reflects their position as global citizens whose own experiences and identities may find points of commonality with the experiences and identities of artists from other cultural, ethnic, and national positions. Contemporary artists discussed include Sama Alshaibi, Rebecca Belmore, Hannah Claus, Bonnie Devine, Rosalie Favell, Danis Goulet, Maria Hupfield, Marianne Nicolson, Shelley Niro, Alanis Obomsawin, Hulleah Tsinhnahjinnie, and Anna Tsouhlarakis. In order to consider representation and encounter between Native and non-native women more broadly, a close reading of the photographs Gladys Knight Harris took of Iñupiat women in Kotzebue, Alaska in 1949 is also presented.