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Applicability of transformational leadership models in the Ethiopian context

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Hassan Yemer
Abstract:
Ethiopian organizational leaders operate in unpredictable environments. Research regarding transformational leadership and its effective use within Ethiopian culture is lacking. The study's purpose was to determine if transformational leadership could be successfully implemented in Ethiopia. Research questions focused on opinions and attitudes about leadership problems, which leadership styles are most effective in solving leadership problems, and an effective leadership model for Ethiopia. The theoretical framework for this study was drawn from a composite model of transformational leadership. The research methodology was a qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews of 56 Ethiopian leaders. Data were collected via interviews; open coding assigned equal values to the data categories that emerged. Data were analyzed by grouping together common themes in each category and constructing a description of the participants' overall views. The findings implied that quality leadership is required to transform an organization, adapt to social change, and create an environment of positive change. Ethiopian leadership styles are impacted by insecurity and lack of leadership, government policies, and social amenities; changes must be made within Ethiopian culture to incorporate transformational leadership. Organizational and social changes are interdependent and are affected by political structures and conditions, and current Ethiopian leadership is ineffective in gaining followers' respect, trust, and loyalty. Transformational leadership could create more effective followership in Ethiopian organizations. The implications for positive social change will become evident as Ethiopian citizens regain confidence, trust, and a stronger more effective government, through transformational leadership. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. vi LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... xii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY ...........................................................1 Characteristics of Transformational Leadership ..................................................................5 The Research Problem .......................................................................................................10 Background to the Research Problem ................................................................................10 Purpose of the Study ..........................................................................................................17 Theoretical Framework ......................................................................................................18 Implications for Social Change ..........................................................................................23 Research Questions ............................................................................................................23 Significance of the Study ...................................................................................................25 Limitations .........................................................................................................................26 Assumptions .......................................................................................................................27 Definition and Discussion of Terms ..................................................................................27 Summary ............................................................................................................................28

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE: ...........................................................30 Introduction and Overview ................................................................................................30 National or Political African Leadership ...........................................................................36 Organizational Leadership .................................................................................................44 Western Models of Leadership ..........................................................................................62 Behavioral Theories of Leadership ....................................................................................64 Contingent Theories of Leadership ....................................................................................67 Early Transformational Theories of Leadership ................................................................71 Charismatic Theories of Transformational Leadership .....................................................74 Visionary Theories of Transformational Leadership .........................................................76 Non-Charismatic Theories of Transformational Leadership .............................................82 Cultural Constraints in Leadership ....................................................................................86 Implementation of Western Leadership Models in Africa ................................................95 Summary ..........................................................................................................................107

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................108 Study Purpose ..................................................................................................................108 Research Questions ..........................................................................................................108 Research Design...............................................................................................................111 Study Sample ...................................................................................................................113 Instrumentation and Protocol for Data Collection ...........................................................115 Reliability and Validity of Data .......................................................................................118 Data Gathering and Interview Procedures .......................................................................120 Data Analysis Methods and Procedures ..........................................................................121 Coding Procedures .....................................................................................................121

v Data Analysis Procedures ..........................................................................................122 Data Analysis by Software Tools ................................................................................... 123 Data Presentation .............................................................................................................124 Summary ..........................................................................................................................124

CHAPTER 4: STUDY FINDINGS .................................................................................126 Study Sample Formation Procedures ...............................................................................126 Description of Final Study Sample ..................................................................................127 Interview Administration Procedures ..............................................................................128 Results for Section II of the Interview .............................................................................129 Demographics ............................................................................................................129 Data Related to Research Questions ................................................................................132 Research Question 1: What is the Nature of the Study Participants‘ Experiences of Leadership by Others? ...................................................................................132 Analysis of Responses to Section II Questions..........................................................153 Results for Section III of the Interview ............................................................................166 Research Question 2: How and How Well Have Study Participants Enacted Leadership toward Their Subordinates within the Five Domain Functions? 166 Results for Section IV of the Interview ...........................................................................185 Research Question 3: What Opinions do Study Participants Possess About Leadership? ....................................................................................................185 Current Capacity of Ethiopia‘s Educational System to Develop Leadership ..................191 Results for Section V of the Interview .............................................................................203 Research Question 4: What Are the Leadership-Related Attitudes of Beliefs of Participants ....................................................................................203 Analysis of Results for Section V ..............................................................................211 Results for Section VI of the Interview ...........................................................................212

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS ..................216 Study Summary ................................................................................................................216 Presentation and Discussion of the Study ........................................................................223 Study Conclusions ...........................................................................................................231 Contribution and Social Change Implication ...................................................................232 Recommendations for Future Research ...........................................................................234

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................237

APPENDIX A: INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ...................................................................249

APPENDIX B: SURVEY TABLE ..................................................................................275

APPENDIX C: RESEARCH QUESTION TABLE INTEPRETATION ........................304

CURRICULUM VITAE ..................................................................................................414

vi LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Overlap Between Edoho‘s Roster and Hofstede‘s Model ...................................98

Table C1. Gender of Respondents by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ............................296

Table C2. Ages of Respondents by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ................................297

Table C3. Respondent Nationality by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ............................298

Table C4. Educational Levels of Respondents by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .........299

Table C5. Work Relationship to Ethiopia by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .................300

Table C6. Employers for Whom Respondents Worked by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................301

Table C7. Number of Months Respondents Were Employed in Their Work Position by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ...............................................................302

Table C8. Job Title as Leadership Level by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................304

Table C9. Supervisory Layers above Respondents by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................305

Table C10. Respondents Receiving Promotions by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .......306

Table C11. Frequency of Promotions by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .......................307

Table C12. Respondent Perception of Equity in Employment by Work Relationship To Ethiopia.................................................................................................................308

Table C13. Perceived Reasons for Inequitable Treatment by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................309

Table C14. Perceived Nepotism or Ethnic Favoritism by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................310

Table C15. Perceived Reasons for Nepotism or Ethnic Favoritism by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................311

Table C16. Career Development or Job Training Received by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................312

vii

Table C17. Types of Training Received by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ...................313

Table C18. Perceived Adequacy of Training by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ............315

Table C19. Perceived Effectiveness of Training by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......316

Table C20. Training Courses Taken on Own Initiative by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................317

Table C21. Types of Training Taken on Own Initiative by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................318

Table C22. Adequacy of Courses for Work Preparedness by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................319

Table C23. Effectiveness of Training Taken on Own Initiative by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................320

Table C24. Co-Workers Perceived as Mentors by Work Relationship to Ethiopia.........321

Table C25. How Mentoring Helped by Work Relationship to Ethiopia..........................322

Table C26. Method of Obtaining a Mentor by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..............323

Table C27. Supervisors as Role Models by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ...................324

Table C28. Trust in Supervisor by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .................................325

Table C29. Decision-Making Opportunities on Job by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................326

Table C30. Supervisor Openness to Employee Opinions by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................327

Table C31. Type of Input Provided to Supervisor by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ....328

Table C32. Type of Opinion Sought by Supervisor by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................330

Table C33. Challenge of Supervisor Policy by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..............331

Table C34. Type of Supervisor Policy Challenged by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..332

viii

Table C35. Outcomes of Challenges to Supervisor Policies by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................333

Table C36. Changes Initiated by Supervisors by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ...........334

Table C37. Type of Change Initiated by Supervisor by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................335

Table C38. Personal Effect of Changes on Employee by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................336

Table C39. Effectiveness of Supervisor Changes by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .....337

Table C40. Assessment of Supervisor Design of Change by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................338

Table C41. Assessment of Supervisor Implementation of Change by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................339

Table C42. Perceived Leadership Strengths of Supervisors by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................340

Table C43. Perceived Leadership Weaknesses of Supervisors by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................342

Table C44. Criteria Used to Make Decisions About Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................344

Table C45. Pressure to Cooperate With Supervisor Nepotism by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................346

Table C46. Type of Supervisor Nepotism by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ................347

Table C47. Employee Response to Supervisor Nepotism by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................348

Table C48. Employee Family Pressure toward Nepotism by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................349

Table C49. Nature of Employee Family Nepotism by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................350

Table C50. Employee Response to Pressure toward Employee Family Nepotism by

ix Work Relationship to Ethiopia...................................................................................351

Table C51. Perceived Equitable Treatment of Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................352

Table C52. Encouragement of Career Advancement via Company-Provided Education by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ............................................................353

Table C53 (A). Company Constraints on Career Development for Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia..............................................................................354

Table C53 (B). Type of Company Constraints on Career Development for Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ........................................................355

Table C54. Encouragement of Subordinate Career Development on Own Initiative by Work Relationship to Ethiopia..............................................................................356

Table C55. Mentoring of Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .....................357

Table C56. Ways Subordinates Were Mentored by Work Relationship to Ethiopia.......358

Table C57. How Employee Became a Mentor to Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................360

Table C58. Personal Estimation of Self as a Role Model for Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................361

Table C59. Perceived Trust of Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ............362

Table C60. Intentional Elevation of Subordinate Moral and Ethical Standards by Work Relationship to Ethiopia...................................................................................363

Table C61. Effectiveness of Attempts to Elevate Employee Standards by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................364

Table C62. Encouragement of Subordinate Capacity for Leadership by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................365

Table C63. Subordinate Opportunities to Make Decisions by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................367

Table C64. Solicitation of Subordinate Opinions by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .....368

Table C65. Type of Opinions Solicited From Subordinates by Work Relationship

x to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................369

Table C66. Type of Subordinate Opinions Requested by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................371

Table C67. Direct Challenges from Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................372

Table C68. Effectiveness of Subordinate Challenges by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................373

Table C69. Major Changes Initiated by Supervisors by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................374

Table C70. Effectiveness of Supervisor Changes by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .....375

Table C71. Self-Assessment of Role as Advisor or Supervisor by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................376

Table C72. Self-Assessment of Major Leadership Strengths by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................378

Table C73. Self-Assessment of Major Leadership Weaknesses by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................380

Table C74. Type of Leadership Style Preferred by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .......382

Table C75. Contingency of Leadership Style by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ...........383

Table C76. Self-Opinions of Leadership Style by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .........384

Table C77. Perceived Value of Leadership Roles in Moral Development of Subordinates by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ........................................................385

Table C78. Leaders as Visionaries by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ............................386

Table C79. Perceived Origin of Ability to Lead by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .......387

Table C80. Role of Ethiopian Universities in Shaping Ethiopian Leadership by Work Relationship to Ethiopia...................................................................................389

Table C81. Role of Other Civic Organizations in Shaping Ethiopian Leadership by Work Relationship to Ethiopia...................................................................................390

xi Table C82. Western Leadership as a Model for Ethiopia by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ......................................................................................................................391 Table C83. Adoption of Western Models of Leadership without Adaptation by Work Relationship to Ethiopia...................................................................................392

Table C84. Adoption of Western Models of Leadership with Adaptation by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................393

Table C85. Suggestions for Adaptation of Western Models of Leadership for Ethiopia by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ...............................................................394

Table C86. Contingency of Ethiopian Nation and Organization Success on Resources by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ............................................................395

Table C87. Balance of Priorities between Profession and Family by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................397

Table C88. Balance of Priorities between Job Retention and Career Advancement by Work Relationship to Ethiopia...................................................................................398

Table C89. Ability of Leaders to Control an Organization‘s Performance by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................399

Table C90. Employee Ability to Control Influences on Work Performance by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................400

Table C91. Employee Ability to Control Influences on Career Advancement by Work Relationship to Ethiopia .............................................................................................401

Table C92. Further Comments on Successful Leadership by Work Relationship to Ethiopia ..................................................................................................................402

xii LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Respondent Gender ..........................................................................................121

Figure 2. Respondent Age Categories .............................................................................122

Figure 3. Respondent Education Level ............................................................................123

Figure 4. Respondent Nationality ....................................................................................124

Figure 5. Internal Training and Development Opportunities ...........................................127

Figure 6. Opportunities for Development by Age Group ................................................128

Figure 7. Opportunities for Development by Education Level........................................129

Figure 8. Outside Training by Gender .............................................................................130

Figure 9. Outside Training by Education Level...............................................................131

Figure 10. Mentoring by Gender .....................................................................................132

Figure 11. Mentoring by Age Group ...............................................................................134

Figure 12. Boss as a Role Model by Gender ...................................................................135

Figure 13. Boss as a Role Model by Age Group .............................................................136

Figure 14. Trust in Supervisor by Gender .......................................................................137

Figure 15. Participation in Decision Making by Gender .................................................139

Figure 16. Participation in Decision Making by Age Group ...........................................141

Figure 17. Challenged Boss by Gender ...........................................................................143

Figure 18. Challenged Boss by Age Group .....................................................................144

Figure 19. Challenged Boss by Education Level .............................................................145

Figure 20. Change Initiatives – Affected or Not Affected, and Positive or Negative .....146

Figure 21. Pressure From Superiors – Preferential Treatment ........................................160

xiii Figure 22. Comply With Pressure from Superiors...........................................................161

Figure 23. Adequate Funding for Development ..............................................................162

Figure 24. Served as a Mentor .........................................................................................163

Figure 25. Consider Self a Role Model ...........................................................................164

Figure 26. Role Model to Subordinates by Age Group ...................................................165

Figure 27. Subordinate Trust by Gender ..........................................................................166

Figure 28. Subordinate Trust by Age Group ...................................................................167

Figure 29. Try to Elevate Moral Standards by Gender ....................................................168

Figure 30. Types of Input by Gender ...............................................................................169

Figure 31. Types of Input by Age Group .........................................................................170

Figure 32. Challenged by Subordinate – Gender .............................................................171

Figure 33. Participative Versus Directive by Gender ......................................................178

Figure 34. Participative Versus Directive by Age Group ................................................179

Figure 35. Contingent Versus Consistent by Gender .......................................................180

Figure 36. Contingent Versus Consistent by Age Group ................................................181

Figure 37. Leaders Change Morals and Ethics by Gender ..............................................182

Figure 38. Leaders Change Morals and Ethics by Age Group ........................................183

Figure 39. Leadership Innate Versus Learned by Age Group .........................................184

Figure 40. Commitment to Family Versus Job by Gender ..............................................197

Figure 41. Commitment to Family Versus Job by Age Group ........................................198

Figure 42. Leaders Control Organizational Performance – by Gender ...........................199

Figure 43. Leaders Control Organizational Performance – by Age Group .....................200

xiv Figure 44. Control Over Own Work Performance by Gender .........................................201

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Ineffective leadership has been cited as a salient cause of Sub-Saharan Africa‘s (SSA‘s) failure to sustain political, economic, and social development during the post- colonial period. Since the early 1960s, a broad array of factors has exerted a negative influence upon the performance of independent African nations in their respective efforts to attain long-term modernization objectives, and many of these macro-level variables are essentially externalities that lie beyond the capacity of African leaders to control or even to foresee. When the aggregate impact of periodic droughts, epidemic disease outbreaks, onerous foreign debt repayment schedules, adverse terms of trade and the like are taken into account, most objective observers would concur with Goldsmith‘s (2001) assertion that, ―Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly led‖ (p. 77). The general consensus among both indigenous and Western scholars is that while improved leadership may not remedy all of the region‘s ongoing problems, only marginal progress can be registered until a more effective leadership model has been embraced and put into practice by African governments and large-scale organizations. Consistent with an abiding lack of interest in contemporary Africa, the region‘s leadership deficit has received scant attention in the West. Most research studies dedicated to this neglected topic have been authored by political scientists or by economists concerned with shortcomings in the formulation and implementation of national policies. The composite profile of the typical Sub-Saharan African leader that can be construed from these works is that of a brutal dictator holding on to power through a combination political repression and personal patronage for the purpose of self-

2

aggrandizement and self-enrichment (Aka, 1997; Brautigan, 1996; Goldsmith, 2001; Gray & McPherson, 2001; Joseph, 1997; Londegran, Bienen, & van de Walle, 1995; Wiseman, 1993). While they are occasionally referred to as ―strongmen,‖ these political leaders actually head weak authoritarian regimes that are inordinately vulnerable to being overthrown by extra-legal means, most notably through coups of state engineered by rivals who are inherently predisposed toward using power for the same self-centered ends as their immediate predecessors. Rather than motivating them to initiate political or economic reforms that might benefit their citizens, the instability that envelops African governmental leaders has only exacerbated the plight of the latter, for the logic of the ―game‖ in which these corrupt dictators are engaged requires maintaining the status quo for as long as possible rather than altering its ―rules‖ by risking a problematical dispersal of power. This pattern of African ―kleptocrats‖ using their official elite status to accumulate rents, bribes, and other forms of ill-gotten gain at the expense of their peoples has been more than amply documented. While scholars have duly noted a handful of exceptions to this disconcerting profile (the ―visionary‖ Nelson Mandela being the most frequently mentioned departure from the standard portrait), summary assessments of Africa‘s political leadership have attributed a large measure of the continent‘s woes to the activities of ―gangsters‖ masquerading as heads-of-state. Other than calls for withholding financial support from these regimes (with counter-productive consequences for material improvements in the lives of Africa‘s citizen-victims), the response of the developed world to these

3

unconscionable circumstances has amounted to pessimistic resignation punctuated by expressions of moral indignation. In contrast to the wide, if somewhat simplistic, appraisal of the gross deficiencies common to SSA‘s political leadership, investigations of the region‘s organizational leadership by scholars from developed nations have been so few in number that even the best-informed individuals outside of Africa lack empirically supported knowledge about its weaknesses and strengths, and its performance and potential. Published evaluations of African leaders and managers in public and private sector organizations have yielded assessments that resemble or that are at least congruent with the pejorative profile of SSA‘s political leadership. From the mid-1980s onward, researchers who have examined the attitudes and behaviors of African organizational leaders have reported that they are, on the whole, authoritarian, inflexible, and resistant to change (Carlsson, 1998; Kiggundu, 1991a; Leonard, 1987; Montgomery, 1986, 1987; Ndongko, 1999a, 1999b). Leaders of bureaucratic agencies, privately owned corporations, state-owned enterprises, and other large-scale organizations within contemporary Africa are depicted by African and Western researchers as dictatorial, partisan, preoccupied with the internal distribution of organizational resources, myopic in their temporal outlook, and highly averse to risk. While they may not command the same latitude to systematically loot the organizations (or subunits) over which they wield formal authority that Africa‘s political leaders enjoy over their nations, observational studies of SSA organizational leaders generally depict them as ―lower-case‖ versions of the latter. At the very least, the attributes ascribed to Africa‘s organizational leaders are taken to be highly ineffective, with their deficiencies

4

serving as a ubiquitous and intractable impediments to the attainment of such rational goals as serving the public, enhancing competitiveness, increasing profitability, and encouraging the development of competent successors who can be expected to build on such gains. Refusing to accept the continuance of ineffective leadership at either the national or the organizational levels, at least some African scholars have joined with their enlightened Western counterparts in asserting that there is an urgent, inescapable need to effectuate a revolution in African leadership that will discard the regnant paradigm and establish a radically different type of leadership model (Carlsson, 1998; Kiggundu, 1991b; Leonard, 1987; Montgomery, 1986, 1987; Ndongko, 1999a, 1999b). They have turned to the developed West at large and to the United States in particular in their quest for a more effective leadership ―blueprint‖ that can be applied to Africa at both the national and the organizational levels. What they have come away with is a strong and express preference for ―transformational‖ leadership as it was originally designated by Burns (1978) in contradistinction to what he called ―transactional‖ leadership. Typically overlooking substantial ramification within the ―new leadership paradigm‖ since its core nomenclature was coined by Burns a quarter century ago, many scholars have asserted that Africa must adopt a transformational leadership model with its defining precepts of visionary leaders empowering their subordinates through participative decision making governed by shared values that are instilled in the latter through the positive example of the former (Bavon, 1999; Gray & McPherson, 2001; Gymiah-Boadi & van de Walle, 1996, Williamson & Haggard, 1994).

5

According to Avolio and Bass (2002), ―Transformational leaders motivate others to do more than they originally intended and often even more than they thought possible. Such leaders set more challenging expectations and typically achieve higher performances‖ (p. 1). These conceptualizations of leadership according to various styles and traits are fairly recent in origin. Storey (2004) reported that prior to the 1980s, ―leadership‖ and ―management‖ were largely considered in the same mix: ―They were regarded as either interchangeable or as extensively overlapping activities. When 'leadership' was studied or taught it was usually regarded as a small sub-set of management and the focus was on 'influencing' of small groups‖ (p. 8). Over the past 30 years or so, though, an increasing number of studies have examined various leadership styles to identify what works and why, and these issues are discussed further below as they relate to transformational leadership. Characteristics of Transformational Leadership Because every individual and organization is unique, it can be misleading to describe every type of leader as possessing specific characteristics, but studies have shown that many transformational leaders possess some commonalities that are important for the purposes of this analysis. According to Sosik (1998), ―Leadership scholars have identified transformational leaders as highly effective in enhancing group creativity. Transformational leaders use intellectual stimulation, promote consideration of different viewpoints, and inspire collective action to promote group creativity‖ (p. 112). Much of the work on transformation leadership was conducted by Bass in 1978, who based his work on Burns wherein the author defined transformational leadership as occurring when

6

one or more persons ―engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality‖; in other words, both leader and followers—as well as the social system in which they function—are transformed‖ (as cited in Rosenbach & Taylor, 2000, p. 52). Bass (1990) noted that transformational leadership is actually an extension of transactional leadership: ―Transactional leadership emphasizes the transaction or exchange that takes place among leaders, colleagues, and followers‖ (p. 4). With respect to the traditional transactional, or managerial, perspectives of leadership, Bass identified three subcategories that were comparable to those identified by earlier researchers: 1. Laissez-faire. This component refers to a tendency for the leader to abdicate responsibility toward his or her followers, who are left to their own devices. Laissez-faire leadership really indicates an absence of leadership. 2. Contingent reward. Frequently termed reward-and-punishment or simply carrot-and-stick leadership, this approach means that the leader rewards followers for attaining performance levels the leader had specified. Performance-contingent strategies are by no means completely ineffective; in general, they are associated with both the performance and satisfaction of followers. 3. Management by exception (MBE). This type of transactional leadership involves managers taking action only when there is evidence of something not going according to plan. There are two types of MBE: active and passive. The former describes a leader who looks for deviations from established procedure

7

and takes action when irregularities are identified. The passive form describes a tendency to intervene only when specific problems arise because established procedures are not being followed. (Rosenbach & Taylor, 2000, p. 52) According to Rosenbach and Taylor, ―These are different from the forms of transactional leadership just described, because there is no tit-for-tat, no reward (or punishment) from the leader in exchange for followers' efforts‖ (p. 53). As Erez, Kleinbeck and Thierry (2001) caution, though, ―There is some question as to the mechanisms by which transformational leadership produces beneficial organizational outcomes, if it does‖ (p. 20). In order to determine whether such leadership styles can in fact help organizations better achieve their goals, Miner (2002) noted that in a traditional transactional leader: 1. Recognizes what it is people want to get from their work and tries to see that they get what they want if their performance justifies it; 2. Exchanges rewards and promises of reward for their workers‘ effort; 3. Is responsive to their immediate self-interests if they can be met by their getting the work done. (p. 741) By contrast, transformational leaders tend to motivate people to do more than they had previously expected to do by: 1. By raising their level of awareness, their level of consciousness about the importance and value of designated outcomes, and ways of reaching them; 2. By getting their workers to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team, organization, or larger polity; and,

Full document contains 439 pages
Abstract: Ethiopian organizational leaders operate in unpredictable environments. Research regarding transformational leadership and its effective use within Ethiopian culture is lacking. The study's purpose was to determine if transformational leadership could be successfully implemented in Ethiopia. Research questions focused on opinions and attitudes about leadership problems, which leadership styles are most effective in solving leadership problems, and an effective leadership model for Ethiopia. The theoretical framework for this study was drawn from a composite model of transformational leadership. The research methodology was a qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews of 56 Ethiopian leaders. Data were collected via interviews; open coding assigned equal values to the data categories that emerged. Data were analyzed by grouping together common themes in each category and constructing a description of the participants' overall views. The findings implied that quality leadership is required to transform an organization, adapt to social change, and create an environment of positive change. Ethiopian leadership styles are impacted by insecurity and lack of leadership, government policies, and social amenities; changes must be made within Ethiopian culture to incorporate transformational leadership. Organizational and social changes are interdependent and are affected by political structures and conditions, and current Ethiopian leadership is ineffective in gaining followers' respect, trust, and loyalty. Transformational leadership could create more effective followership in Ethiopian organizations. The implications for positive social change will become evident as Ethiopian citizens regain confidence, trust, and a stronger more effective government, through transformational leadership. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]