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An examination of the relationship between academic achievement, peer tutoring, academic self-concept, and personal self-concept

Dissertation
Author: Keba Marguerita Rogers
Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between academic achievement, as measured by high school GPA and cumulative undergraduate GPA, peer tutoring, academic self-concept, and personal self-concept. A total of 50 students (treatment=29, control=21) from a university in Western, NY participated in this study. The results of this study did not yield significant results. In other words, time spent in tutoring, academic self-concept, personal self-concept, and high school GPA did not account for significant variance in cumulative undergraduate GPA. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Table of Contents Page Dedication……………..………………………………………………………………………... iii Acknowledgements….…………………………………………………………………………..iv Abstract…………………..……………………………………………………………………..vii Chapter 1 – Introduction….…………………………………………………………………….1 Background………………………………………………………………………………..1 College Population……………………………………………………………….……......2 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………….……................3 Significance of the Study………………………………………………………….……....3 Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………..................3 Organization of the Study……………………………………………................................5 Chapter 2 – Review of the Literature………………………………………………………......6 Introduction…………………………………………………………………….................6 Peer Tutoring……………………………………………………………………………...6 Academic Self-Concept………………………………………………………..…...........13 Personal Self-Concept/Self-Efficacy.………………………………………………...….15 Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………….…….17 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………...…17 Chapter 3 – Methodology…………………………………………………………………...….18 Introduction………………………………………………………………………..……..18 Participants……………………………………………………………………………….18 Tutoring Programs……………………………………………………………………….19 Procedures……………………………………………………………………………….21

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Measures…………………………………………………………………………………23 Research Questions………………………………………………………………………24 Statistical Procedure……………………………………………………………………...25 Summary………………………………………………………………….……………...25 Chapter 4 – Results……………………………………………………………………………..26 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………...26 Comparability of Control and Treatment Groups……………………………………......26 Research Question One…………………………………………………………………..28 Research Question Two………………………...………………………………………..29 Research Question Three…………………………………………...…………................29 Summary………………………………………………………………………………....30 Chapter 5 – Discussion……..…………………………………………………………………..31 Introduction………………………………………………………………………..…….31 Discussion of the Findings..……………………………………………………...………31 Limitations of the Study……………………………………………………………….....34 Suggestions for Future Research………………………………………………………...34 Implications…………………...…………………………………………………..……...35 Summary and Conclusion….....…………………………………………………..……...36 Appendix A – Survey Questions…………………….………………………………………...37 Appendix B – Recruitment Flyer………………………………………………………………44 References………………………………………………………………………………..……..45

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Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between academic achievement, as measured by high school GPA and cumulative undergraduate GPA, peer tutoring, academic self-concept, and personal self-concept. A total of 50 students (treatment=29, control=21) from a university in Western, NY participated in this study. The results of this study did not yield significant results. In other words, time spent in tutoring, academic self-concept, personal self-concept, and high school GPA did not account for significant variance in cumulative undergraduate GPA. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background Peer tutoring has been around for a very long time. In fact, researchers have noted that tutoring goes as far back as the ancient Greeks (Dvorak, 2004; Topping 1996). Although the practice of tutoring has been around for thousands of years, the type of tutoring provided has changed over the years. In the past, students were tutored most often by professional tutors or teachers, while presently they are more likely tutored by their peers or paraprofessionals (Cohen, Kulik, & Kulik, 1982). Research regarding tutoring programs at the primary and secondary school level is extensive. Although the majority of research studies that have assessed tutoring have evaluated its impact on academic achievement, several comprehensive literature reviews have noted the effectiveness of tutoring as it relates to academic, attitudinal, and affective outcomes (Cohen, et al., 1982; Robinson, Schofield, & Steers-Wentzell, 2005; Stenhoff & Kraft, 2007). In addition, one review discussed literature that reported differences in tutoring outcomes as affected by race and ethnicity (Robinson, et al., 2005), whereas another discussed the impact of tutoring on students with disabilities (Stenhoff & Kraft, 2007). Although there have been many research studies that reported the effectiveness of tutoring at the primary and secondary grade level, this is not the case for tutoring at the postsecondary level (Bobko, 1984; Topping, 1996). Research studies on college tutoring programs have indicated mixed results, with some researchers reporting tutoring programs to be effective, whereas others found no evidence of effectiveness. Likewise, programs at the college level have yielded varied results (Hock, Deschler, & Schumaker, 1999; Maxwell, 1990; Topping

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1996). However, research demonstrating the effectiveness of tutoring programs has generally lacked experimental rigor and has not been statistical in nature (Hock, et al., 1999; Lindren & Meier, 1991; Maxwell, 1990; Topping, 1996). In fact, researchers have noted that the research in this area generally involved self-report (Bobko, 1984; Topping, 1996; Vogel, Fresko, & Wertheim, 2007), which omits contextual details (i.e., hours of tutor training, type of tutoring, etc.), making replicability difficult (Maxwell, 1990; Santee & Garavalia, 2006). College Population The student population in today‟s colleges is becoming more diverse, with an increase in the number of underprepared students (Hock, et al., 1999), more people of color, and adults returning to school (Dvorak, 2004). Due to the gap between the academic and social skills these students possess versus that which is required for a successful college career, many of these students experience a great deal of difficulty (Hock, et al., 1999). Additionally, there has recently been a focus on improving teaching quality while doing more with less resources, which has peaked more interest in peer tutoring in higher education (Topping, 1996). A significant area of concern for colleges is retention, and researchers have noted many factors that may lead to improved college retention. These factors can range from educational residential communities to personal connections to tutoring programs. For example, Inkelas, Daver, Vogt, and Leonard (2007) conducted a study examining the role of living/learning programs (residential communities with a common academic focus) in helping first-generation students transition to college. The authors found that the students involved in the living learning programs reported a more successful academic and social transition to college than their counterparts who lived in traditional residence halls. Additionally, Tinto (1993) discussed the role of personal connections as a factor that may improve retention. In regards to tutoring, Nemko (2008) noted that ensuring

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that a college has a good tutoring program is essential in retention efforts. Some researchers noted that students who need tutoring services typically have low self-esteem and self-efficacy (Isberner & Kirkland, 1995), while others have found that students that have higher academic self-concept have higher levels of educational attainment (Marsh & O‟Mara, 2008) and higher rates of persistence in college (House, 1992). Statement of the Problem There is an increase in concern with regards to meeting the needs of college students who represent diversity and encouraging them to complete college. Peer tutoring is one of the strategies that many colleges consider as a way to encourage connections with other students, increase students‟ confidence, and ultimately motivate students to complete their degree. Significance of the Study Given the lack of research on peer tutoring at the college level, as well as the variables of academic and personal self-concept with this population, this study is significant because it fills a gap in the literature. This study is also significant because it can inform tutoring programs in higher education about important intervening variables. Additionally, findings on the effectiveness of tutoring can help tutoring centers more effectively publicize their programs to attract more students who may benefit from their services (Xu, Hartman, Uribe, & Mencke, 2001). Definition of Terms The following definitions were used throughout this paper: Academic Self-Concept – How individuals perceive themselves in school settings and how they believe they are seen by others in school.

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Assignment Assistance Tutoring – When the focus of tutoring is on helping students complete assignments and prepare for tests and quizzes so that they can meet the requirements of certain classes. Cross-year Small Group Tutoring – Where upperclass undergraduates or graduate students act as tutors to lower class undergraduates, each tutor dealing with a small group of tutees simultaneously. GPA – An acronym used for grade point average. Instructional Tutoring – When the focus of tutoring is on ways to teach students specific skills, strategies, and content knowledge while providing immediate support for course assignments. Personalized System of Instruction - Where student proceed at their own pace with the goal of mastering each step. The peer tutor acts as a tester, checker, and recorder of student work. Personal Self-Concept – An individual‟s sense of personal worth, feelings of adequacy as a person and self-evaluation of the personality apart from the body or relationship to others. Reciprocal Peer Tutoring – Enables each student to play the role of tutor and tutee. Supplemental Instruction – Usually targets high risk courses rather than high risk individuals. Tutors model, advise, and facilitate rather than directly address curriculum content. Tutee – Student who receives tutoring. Tutor – Student who assists others with homework, test preparation, and/or other study skills.

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Organization of the Study Chapter 1 discussed the history of peer tutoring, research related to primary and secondary level peer tutoring programs, and the paucity of research in postsecondary tutoring programs. This chapter also discussed the importance of academic and personal self-concept as they relate to college retention and the significance of the study. Lastly, this chapter clearly stated the problem that was investigated and defined terms that were used throughout this study. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review of literature regarding the effectiveness of peer tutoring at the primary, secondary, and postsecondary level. Research regarding academic and personal self-concept is also presented. Lastly, the purpose of this study is discussed. Chapter 3 describes the participants, procedures, measure, and statistical treatment utilized in this study. This chapter also outlines the research questions for this study as well as the hypothesis of the study. Chapter 4 provides the results of this study by answering the research questions, providing descriptive statistics, and the results of the analyses were reported. Chapter 5 discusses the implications of the results of the study in relation to the literature. The limitations of the current study, conclusions and implications, and suggestions for future research are also presented.

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Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction This study investigated the relationship between peer tutoring and overall GPA, as well as academic and personal self-concept. Chapter 1 presented the background for this study as well as an overview of some of the literature in this area. This chapter provides an in-depth literature review of peer tutoring, academic and personal self-concept. Peer Tutoring Tutoring at the college level is not a new practice. It has been used as a means of supplementing lectures as far back as 1630, when Harvard first opened its doors (Dvorak, 2001). According to Maxwell (1990), most colleges offer individual tutoring and many offer group tutoring. However, research regarding peer tutoring at the primary and secondary level is more voluminous than that of postsecondary tutoring programs. The investigation of the impact of tutoring on students who receive tutoring at the primary and secondary level has been conducted in three large scale literature reviews that span approximately thirty years of literature (Cohen, et al., 1982; Robinson, et al., 2005; Stenhoff & Kraft, 2007). In 1982, Cohen, et al. conducted a meta-analysis of findings from 65 independent evaluations of school tutoring programs. Of the 65 studies, 52 reported results on academic achievement of students who received tutoring; 9 studies reported on self-concept; and 8 studies reported on tutees attitude toward the subject matter. With regards to academic achievement, the authors concluded that although the effect size varied, the majority of studies reported an increase in academic performance. The authors also reported that tutees attitude toward the subject matter was more positive after receiving tutoring. In regards to self-concept, 7 of the 9

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studies reported a favorable self-concept for those students receiving tutoring. However, the effect size was extremely small (.09) and thus not clinically significant. Additionally, of the 65 studies, 38 reported results on academic achievement for students who served as tutors; 16 discussed the self-concept of tutors; and 5 investigated tutors attitude toward the subject matter. With regards to academic achievement, 33 of the 38 studies reported that students who served as tutors performed better than control students. In 4 of the 5 studies that examined tutor attitudes, results were more positive for the tutors. With regards to self-concept, 12 of the 16 studies reported higher self-concept for students who served as tutors. However, the effect size was very small (.18). The authors noted that although the literature contains anecdotal reports of significant changes in self-concept, quantitative studies do not support these reports. Building on the research of Cohen et al., 1982, Robinson, et al. (2005) conducted a literature review on peer and cross-age tutoring that emphasized programs in mathematics. These authors also paid special attention to ethnicity, reporting outcomes for African American and other students of color, as well as White students. This article reviewed a total of 28 articles published after 1988. The authors found evidence that supported Cohen et al.‟s conclusions with regards to tutee and tutor academic achievement and school related attitudes and behaviors. With regards to self-concept, the authors found more positive results with a number of studies reporting a significant increase in self-concept. However, racial and ethnic identity was often not reported in studies regarding academic self-concept, so it is not clear whether or not these results apply to students of color. In 2007, Stenhoff and Kraft conducted a slightly different type of literature review, investigating the impact of tutoring on students with mild disabilities in primary and secondary settings. The authors examined 20 articles ranging from 1980 to 2005. The authors found

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tutoring to be an effective practice using different types of tutoring (i.e., role-reversal, heterogeneous, homogeneous, and cross-age), in several settings (general education classrooms, resource rooms, and self-contained classrooms), and addressing basic academic and social skills (i.e., reading, vocabulary, spelling, mathematics, feedback to peers, and anger management). Explorations of the impact of tutoring on students who receive tutoring at the postsecondary level are not only less voluminous, but also less statistically sound. Hendriksen, Yang, Love, and Hall (2005) reported that few academic support programs (i.e., learning centers) are involved in rigorous assessment and evaluation efforts. Although there have been several attempts to review the literature, some authors provided more comprehensive reviews than others, and those are the articles that will be discussed in this review. There have been five large scale literature reviews in this area (Hock, et al., 1999; Maxwell, 1990; Santee & Garavalia, 2006; Topping, 1996; and Vogel, Fresko, & Wertheim, 2007). According to Maxwell (1990), most papers published about tutoring programs are narratives, generally administering a questionnaire to students regarding tutoring services. The author noted that literature on college tutoring suggests that programs are quite diverse, varying in purpose and structure. Additionally, few research articles on tutoring specified the amount of training or experience of the tutors studied, hampering any attempts to replicate studies. The results of the literature review suggest that students like tutoring and feel that it helps improve their grades and that tutored students remained in college longer. The authors suggested that more research be done in this area, especially as it relates to academically weaker students. Topping (1996) performed a literature review where the typology of peer tutoring was examined, along with the theoretical advantages of peer tutoring and a review of existent literature on the topic. The author noted that a typology of tutoring could include ten dimensions

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– curriculum content, contact constellation, year of study, ability, role continuity, place, time, tutee characteristics, tutor characteristics, and objectives. Sixty-two studies and 7 previous literature reviews were discussed. These studies ranged from 1975 to 1996. As was noted in Maxwell‟s review, Topping also reported that many of the previous reviews were completed when most of the literature was narrative in nature. Topping (1996) divided his literature review in terms of the types of tutoring that are offered (cross-year small group [18], the personalized system of instruction [4], supplemental instruction [9], same-year dyadic fixed-role tutoring [7], same-year dyadic reciprocal peer tutoring [5], dyadic cross-year fixed-role tutoring [4], same-year group tutoring [4], peer assisted writing [9], and peer assisted distance learning [2]. The author concluded that three methods of peer tutoring in higher education have been demonstrated to be effective and should be used more in practice - cross-year small group tutoring, the personalized system of instruction, and supplemental instruction. The author concluded with a note on future research, advising that the quality in design and execution of studies be improved. In the literature by Hock, et al. (1999), the authors reviewed seven studies ranging from 1987 to 1996. However, different from both the Maxwell (1990) and Topping (1996) reviews, the authors only included empirical studies that included quantitative or qualitative measures. The research studies were categorized as instructional tutoring (4) or assignment assistance tutoring (3). With regard to instructional tutoring, authors concluded that the efficacy of tutoring as it relates to independent learning has not been fully demonstrated. Efficacy of assignment assistance tutoring has not been demonstrated, especially as it relates to underprepared, female, learning disabled, and minority college students. The authors conclude by noting that a significant number of questions about the efficacy of tutoring at the college level still remain.

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Santee and Garavalia (2006) completed a literature review investigating the effectiveness of peer tutoring for health care professional students. The authors reviewed 20 articles and concluded that, although most studies found a positive impact of peer tutoring on academic performance, these results were not generalizable due to methodological flaws and a lack of program and participant descriptions. Authors called for future research to utilize valid and reliable assessment methods and provide contextual details regarding the tutoring program and participants. In addition to the previously mentioned literature reviews, Vogel, et al. (2007) conducted a literature review that examined the effectiveness of peer tutoring for students with learning disabilities. The authors only found 4 studies that specifically examined tutoring conducted by peers attending the same institution. In general, results have indicated that both tutors and tutees benefit from the activity. Both tutees and tutors perceived tutoring as very beneficial to the tutees, and the level of satisfaction with the program for both groups was high. However the findings were based on self-reports of the participants, as no direct observations of the tutoring process were made, and no direct measures of the impact of tutoring were obtained. Given that the literature reviews on efficacy of peer tutoring at the college level regarding regular education students stopped after 1996, this author searched the literature and found seven additional studies regarding tutoring. In 1996, Houston and Lazenbatt conducted a study that investigated a peer tutoring scheme introduced for mathematics. It primarily provided support for students to work independently. According to the researchers, 78% of students involved reported that they “could work easily without pressure” and “that the sessions were not a complete waste of time.” However, 65% of the students did not appear to enjoy the independent learning sessions and reported that they preferred to be responsible only for their own learning. The

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authors concluded that the students readily accepted the need to work in groups and to support one another, however, they were not mature enough to take responsibility for their own learning. Landrum and Chastain (1998) used the Learning and Study Strategy Inventory to assess the effects of being tutored. Using a pre-post test design, authors found that students who were tutored performed better on tests than those who were not tutored. The authors noted that allowing students to demonstrate their competency with the subject matter on multiple occasions (i.e., multiple tests) may help in demonstrating tutoring effectiveness. Two studies examined the impact of reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) on college students‟ academic achievement, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. In a study by Griffin and Griffin (1998), the authors ran 3 experiments. The results of experiment 1 suggested that there was a statistically significant increase in academic achievement and decrease in anxiety, but no statistically significant evidence that RPT impacted students‟ academic self-efficacy. However, on average students showed higher levels of self-efficacy when exposed to RPT. Results of experiment 2 found that there were no statistically significant effects on academic achievement or anxiety, however, statistically significant differences in academic self-efficacy were found. There were no statistically significant RPT effects for any of the dependent measures in experiment 3. None of the experiments in this study provided robust support for the RPT tutoring technique. The researchers suggested that future studies should further examine the impact on self-efficacy and text anxiety. In a study by Rittschof and Griffin (2001), the authors re-examined the RPT technique. The authors conducted 2 experiments and used a pre-test post-test control group design. None of the author‟s main predictions about test performance, test anxiety, and self- efficacy were supported by the two experiments. However, post-experimental qualitative reports

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supported a number of beneficial effects of the RPT technique for both graduates and undergraduates. Some researchers (Dvorak, 2001; Mynard & Almarzouqi, 2006) examined the effectiveness of tutoring via qualitative studies. Dvorak (2001) reported that tutees believed that tutoring improved their grades, that they were in a non-threatening environment, had an opportunity to participate in a multicultural setting, and were given a chance to speak up. Mynard & Almarzouqi (2006) examined the effect of tutoring on both tutors and tutees. With regards to tutors, the authors found that tutors learned from teaching; believed like they were helping others; and had a sense that they were becoming more responsible. Tutees, on the other hand, seemed largely unaware of why they were attending or how exactly they were benefiting from tutoring. The main benefit for tutees was an increase in confidence and feeling more secure about using the English language. Other researchers used both quantitative and qualitative analysis. In a study by Hendriksen, Yang, Love, and Hall (2005) quantitative results suggested that the academic performance of tutored students was better than that of non-tutored students, while qualitative data indicated that most students believed that, as a result of tutoring: their grades improved, they were able to use what they learned during tutoring, and tutoring helped them work independently. Copeland and Kinzy (2005) also used both qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer tutoring program for graduate students. The program was evaluated by surveying and interviewing both tutors and students concerning process variables (e.g., awareness, frequency) and impact variables (i.e., perceived benefits, motivators), as well as by assessing changes in exam scores for the four course concepts of the first-year graduate

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curriculum. The peer-tutoring program was considered effective both in terms of improved exam scores as well as serving as a support system for graduate systems. The aforementioned studies regarding the effectiveness of tutoring demonstrated clear support for its effectiveness at the primary and secondary level, however, tutoring at the post- secondary level has mixed results. Additionally, many researchers have noted the need for future research to address the following areas: more comprehensive descriptions of tutoring programs and participants, more experimental rigor; and more research on affective domains of self- efficacy and anxiety, specifically. This study aims to contribute to the literature by providing a detailed description of participants and tutoring programs, carry out a rigorous experiment, and assess the impact of tutoring on the affective domains of academic and personal self-concept. Academic Self Concept Academic self-concept, according to House (1992), “…refers to a student‟s perceptions of his or her academic abilities, and those perceptions are influenced by school experiences and the student‟s interpretations of those experiences in the context of the school environment” (p.5). Given this, many researchers have noted the importance of measuring academic self-concept, specifically, as opposed to global self-esteem, when examining the relationship of self-concept to academic achievement (Demo & Parker, 1987; Friedlander, Reid, Shupak, & Cribbie, 2007; Manning, Bear, & Minke, 2006; Marsh & O‟Mara, 2008). There has been a consistent lack of evidence for a relationship between academic achievement and global measures of self-esteem for high school age students and beyond in the literature. In a 1987 study, Demo and Parker examined academic achievement and self-esteem between black and white undergraduate students. The researchers used the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale – Total Positive Score as a measure of self-esteem, while cumulative grade point average was the measure of academic

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achievement. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference in self-esteem between Black and White students and there was no association between academic achievement and self- esteem. They suggested that future research focus more specifically on academic self-concept. In more recent research Marsh and Craven (2006), conducted a large scale review of the literature concluding that academic outcomes were related to academic self-concept but unrelated (or in some cases, negatively related) to global self-esteem and other nonacademic components of self- concept. Manning, et al. (2006) focused their efforts on a review of research related to both self- esteem and self-concept. The goal of their research was to differentiate these two constructs while also discussing misconceptions about them. These authors noted that while self-esteem is an overall evaluation that a person makes about him or herself, self-concept is multidimensional in nature, with specific domains correlating with self-perceptions of competence in those domains. The authors concluded that self-esteem does not influence academic achievement. There has been recent research that provides evidence for this relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement. In 2007, Friedlander, et al examined the effects of stress, social support, and self-esteem on adjustment to college. Researchers used the Self-Perception Profile for College Students as a measure of 13 domains of self-concept (including academic self-concept), and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire as a measure of student adjustment. Authors noted that little attention has been paid to how different types of self-concept differentially predict various facets of adjustment. They found that improved academic adjustment was predicted from decreased stress and increased academic self-concept. Although this research is not specifically related to academic achievement, it provides support for looking at the specific domain of self-concept for a related area of achievement or success.

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Awad (2007) conducted a study that assessed the roles of racial identity, academic self- concept, and self-esteem in the prediction of both GPA and verbal standardized test scores. This researcher used the Academic Self-Concept Scale to measure this same construct and cumulative GPA. Results indicated that, among the variables examined, the best predictor of GPA was academic self-concept. In 2008, Marsh and O‟Mara re-examined data used by two previous research teams (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003; Marsh & Craven, 2006) to provide clarification of their results since both sets of researchers cited the same database to support different conclusions (global self-esteem vs. academic self-concept). Marsh and O‟Mara found support for Marsh and Craven‟s (2006) conclusion that academic self-concept and academic achievement are related. The authors concluded that “…unlike global self-esteem, which has no clear behavioral implications for academic achievement or future educational attainment, improved academic self-concept has obvious direct and indirect implications” (p548). It is clear from the research that academic self-concept is closely related to academic achievement and thus it is beneficial to examine this construct in the current study. Personal Self-Concept/Self-Efficacy Personal self-concept, as defined by Fitts and Warren (1996), is “the individual‟s sense of personal worth, feeling of adequacy as a person, and self-evaluation apart from the body or relationship to others” (p.23). The use of the term „personal self-concept‟ is fairly recent and therefore is not cited often in the research. However, this construct appears to be the same as personal self-efficacy, defined by Bandura (1997) as “a belief in one‟s personal capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce to given attainments” (p. 4). It is clear that these terms measure the same construct and therefore, the terms personal self-concept and self-efficacy are used interchangeably and the research on self-efficacy was presented.

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Many researchers support the notion that self-efficacy has an impact on academic achievement, motivation, and persistence when faced with difficult tasks (Bandura, 1997; Bandura & Locke, 2003; Golden, 2003; Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2003; Margolis, 2005; Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991). Multon, Brown, and Lent performed a meta-analysis of 39 studies ranging from 1981 through 1987 and concluded that self-efficacy beliefs were related to both academic performance and persistence. According to Bandura, self-efficacy regulates human functioning in four major ways: cognitive, motivational, mood or affect, and decisional processes. Bandura and Locke expanded on this idea by stating, “they [self-efficacy beliefs] affect whether individuals think in self-enhancing or self-debilitating ways, how well they motivate themselves and persevere in the face of difficulties, the quality of their emotional well- being, and their vulnerability to stress and depression” (p.87). In other words, people with low self-efficacy lack motivation and avoid difficult tasks, while those with high self-efficacy are motivated to approach difficult tasks as a challenge. Margolis supported this statement, noting that the opposite is also true: a pessimistic belief that one lacks the ability to succeed is a major obstacle to academic success since self-efficacy influences both motivation and academic success. In 2003, Linnenbrink and Pintrich presented a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the role of self-efficacy beliefs in different aspects of student engagement and learning. The authors concluded that both experimental and correlational research in schools suggest that self-efficacy beliefs are related to students‟ behavioral engagement (i.e., effort, persistence, help- seeking); cognitive engagement (i.e., use of self-regulatory and metacognitive strategies); motivational engagement (i.e., interest, value, and affect); and actual achievement. More recently, Hsieh, Sullivan, and Guerra (2007) studied students‟ self-efficacy and goal orientation.

Full document contains 56 pages
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between academic achievement, as measured by high school GPA and cumulative undergraduate GPA, peer tutoring, academic self-concept, and personal self-concept. A total of 50 students (treatment=29, control=21) from a university in Western, NY participated in this study. The results of this study did not yield significant results. In other words, time spent in tutoring, academic self-concept, personal self-concept, and high school GPA did not account for significant variance in cumulative undergraduate GPA. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are discussed.