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An analysis of the relationship between select organizational climate factors and job satisfaction factors as reported by community college personnel

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Rose-Marie Carla San Giacomo
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall satisfaction with organizational climate factors across seven studies of various levels of community college personnel. A secondary purpose was to determine if there was a significant relationship between satisfaction with organizational climate factors and the importance of job satisfaction factors across the studies. The community college personnel under investigation were college presidents, branch campus executive officers, senior business officers, senior instructional officers, institutional researchers, mid-level managers, and executive secretaries/associates to the president. The community colleges were all members of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and/ or listed in the Higher Education Directory (HED). During the course of conducting seven distinct, but related studies, a total of 3,370 surveys were sent and 1,539 were returned, rendering a 46% rate of return. The data were analyzed to determine the overall satisfaction of community college personnel with the organizational climate factors, and the overall perception of the existence of these factors. These analyses revealed that while satisfaction with organizational climate factors was consistently reported as high among all community college personnel, the percentage of personnel that were satisfied with each factor decreased as the positions moved down the institutional hierarchy. Moreover, satisfaction with an organizational climate factor was not necessarily the same a perceiving a high level of the existence of that factor. Finally, some job satisfaction factors can be viewed as both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, which does not support Herzberg's classification system that categorized a factor as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Results of this descriptive study have implications for the (1) understanding of motivational factors for various levels of community college personnel, (2) attraction and retention of highly qualified professionals and, (3) development of a positive organizational climate.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

..................................................................................................

4

LIST OF TABLES

............................................................................................................

8

LIST OF TERMS

...........................................................................................................

10

ABSTRACT

...................................................................................................................

11

CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION

....................................................................................................

13

Statement of the Problem

.......................................................................................

15

Purpose

..................................................................................................................

17

Limitations

...............................................................................................................

18

Significance of the Study

........................................................................................

19

Summary

................................................................................................................

19

2

LITERATURE REVIEW

..........................................................................................

20

Job Satisfaction

......................................................................................................

21

Job Satisfaction Theories

........................................................................................

22

Content Theories

..............................................................................................

23

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

......................................................................

23

Herzberg’s motivation - hygiene (two - factor) theory

.....................................

24

Process Theories

.............................................................................................

25

Equity theory

..............................................................................................

25

Expectancy (V.I.E. ) theory

.........................................................................

25

Job Satisfaction Factors under Consideration

........................................................

27

Participation in Decision - Making (1)

................................................................ .

27

Autonomy, Power and Control (2)

....................................................................

27

Relationships with Colleagues (3 - 5)

................................................................ .

28

Salary and Benefits (6 - 7)

..................................................................................

29

Professional Effectiveness (8)

..........................................................................

29

Organizational Climate

............................................................................................

30

Organizational

Climate Theories

.............................................................................

31

The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ)

......................

31

The Organizational Climate Index (OCI)

...........................................................

32

Person - Environment Fit Theory

........................................................................

33

Total Quality Management (TQM)

....................................................................

34

Organizational Climate Factors under Investigation

...............................................

35

Internal Communication (1)

..............................................................................

35

Organizational Structure (2)

.............................................................................

36

Political Climate (3)

..........................................................................................

36

6

Professional Development Opportunities (4)

....................................................

37

Evaluation (5)

...................................................................................................

37

Promotion (6)

....................................................................................................

37

Regard for Personal Concern (7)

.....................................................................

38

Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction in Higher Education

..........................

38

Summary

................................................................................................................

39

3

METHODOLOGY

...................................................................................................

41

Historical Overview of Meta - Analytic Methodology

.................................................

41

Meta - Analysis as a Research Me thod

....................................................................

43

Independent Variables

.....................................................................................

44

Dependent Variables

........................................................................................

44

Steps Involv ed in a Meta - Analytical Study

..............................................................

44

Problem Formulation

........................................................................................

45

Data Collection

................................................................................................ .

45

Data Analysis

...................................................................................................

4 5

Presentation of Re sults

....................................................................................

45

Detailed Methodology

.............................................................................................

46

Method to Retrieve Sample of Studies

.............................................................

46

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

.......................................................................

46

Statistical Methods

...........................................................................................

47

Summary

................................................................................................................

48

4

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

........................................................

49

Response Rate

.......................................................................................................

49

Description of the Seven Studies

............................................................................

50

Gender and Ethnicity

........................................................................................

50

Classificati on of Community Colleges

..............................................................

50

Number of Years Served Within the Community College System

....................

51

Overall Ratings for Each Factor

..............................................................................

51

Satisfaction Ratings

..........................................................................................

52

Perception R atings

...........................................................................................

52

Importance of Job Satisfaction Ratings

............................................................

53

Satisfaction with Organizational Climate Factors

....................................................

53

Satisfaction with Internal Communication (IC2)

................................................

53

Satisfaction with Organizational Structure (OS2)

.............................................

54

Satisfaction with Political Climate (PC2)

...........................................................

55

Satisfaction with Professional Development Opportunities (PDO2)

.................

55

Satisfaction with Evaluation (EVAL2)

...............................................................

56

Satisfaction with Promotion (PROMO2)

...........................................................

57

Satisfaction with Regard for Personal Concern (RPC2)

...................................

57

Perception of Existence of Organizational Climate Factors

....................................

58

Perception of Internal Communication (IC3)

.....................................................

58

Perception of Organizational Structure (OS3)

..................................................

58

Perception of Political Climate (PC3)

...............................................................

59

7

Perception of Professional Development Opportunities (PDO3)

......................

59

Perception of Evaluation (EVAL3)

....................................................................

59

Perception of Promotion (PROMO3)

................................................................

60

Perception of Regard for Personal Concern (RPC3)

........................................

61

Importance of Job Satisfaction Factors

...................................................................

61

Importance of Decision - making (DM4)

.............................................................

61

Importance of Autonomy, Power, and Control (APC4)

.....................................

62

Importance of Relationship with Peers (RWP4)

...............................................

62

Importance of Relationship with Subordinates (RWSub4)

................................

63

Importance of Relationship with Supervisor (RWSup4)

....................................

63

Importance of Salary (SAL4)

............................................................................

63

Impo rtance of Benefits (BENE4)

......................................................................

64

Importance of Professional Effectiveness (PE4)

..............................................

64

Statistical Significance (p - values)

...........................................................................

65

Correlations and Significance between Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction Factors

.............................................................................................

65

Summary

................................................................................................................

69

5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

.......

84

Conclusions

............................................................................................................

86

Recommendations for Further Research

................................................................

89

REFERENCES

..............................................................................................................

92

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

..........................................................................................

102

8

LIST OF TABLES

Table

page

4 - 1

Description of the seven studies

.........................................................................

72

4 - 2

Overall ratings for each factor

.............................................................................

75

4 - 3

Organizational climate: satisfaction with internal communication (IC2) by job

....

76

4 - 4

Organizational climate: satisfaction with organizational structure (OS2) by job

..

76

4 - 5

Organizational climate: satisfaction with political climate (PC2) by job

...............

76

4 - 6

Organizational climate: satisfaction with professional development opportunities (PDO2) by job

...............................................................................

76

4 - 7

Organizational climate: satisfaction with evaluation (EVAL2) by job

...................

76

4 - 8

Organizational climate: satisfaction with promotion (PROMO2) by job

...............

77

4 - 9

Organizational climate: satisfaction with regard for personal concern (RPC2) by job

..................................................................................................................

77

4 - 10

Organizational climate: perception of internal communication (IC3) by job

........

77

4 - 11

Organizational climate: perception of organizational structure (OS3) by job

......

78

4 - 12

Organizational climate: perception of political climate (PC3) by job

...................

78

4 - 13

Organizational climate: perception of professional development opportunities (PDO3) by job

.....................................................................................................

78

4 - 14

Organizational climate: perception of evaluation (EVAL3) by job

.......................

78

4 - 15

Organizational climate: perception of promotion (PROMO3) by job

...................

79

4 - 16

Organizational climate: perception of regard for personal concern (RPC3) by job

.......................................................................................................................

79

4 - 17

Job satisfaction: importance of decision - making (DM4) by job

...........................

79

4 - 18

Job satisfaction: importance of autonomy, power, and control (APC4) by job

....

79

4 - 19

J ob satisfaction: importance of relationship with peers (RWP4) by job

..............

80

4 - 20

Job satisfaction: importance of relationship with

subordinates (RWSub4) by job

.......................................................................................................................

80

9

4 - 21

Job satisfaction: importance of relationship with supervisor (RWSup4) by job

...

80

4 - 22

Job satisfaction: importance of salary (SAL4) by job

..........................................

80

4 - 23

Job satisfaction: importance of benefits (BENE4) by job

....................................

81

4 - 24

Job satisfaction: importance of professional effectiveness (PE4) by job

............

81

4 - 25

Overall p - value for each factor

............................................................................

81

4 - 26

Correlation coefficient and significance: t he relationship between measures of job satisfaction and measures of organizational climate

................................ .

82

10

LIST OF TERM S

B RANCH C AMPUS E XECUTIVE O FFICERS :

primarily responsible for the daily administration of a branch campus in a multicampus sy stem. All facets of the student s’

experience at the branch campus fell under the purview of the branch campus executive officer (Bailey, 2002).

C HIEF B USINESS O FFICER S :

primary responsibilities are to manage the business of financial affairs of the institution and to keep the chief executive officer and board apprised of the institution’s financial condition. The chief business officer is responsible for creating opera ting systems and selecting and training the personnel to carry out these functions effectively (Zabetakis, 1999).

C HIEF I NSTRUCTIONAL O FFICERS :

responsible for overseeing a community college’s academic program, including faculty recruitment and development , and program identification and development (Chappell, 1995).

E XECUTIVE S ECRETARY /A SSOCIATE :

entrusted with various forms of correspondence, duties and organizational skills performed on a routine basis directed by the executive order of the institution; one that superintends and manages the executive’s affairs (Sofianos, 2005).

I NSTITUTIONAL R ESEARCHERS :

charged with gathering data about and for the college with the intent to publish these data for use by senior leadership (Peek, 2003).

J OB S ATISFACTION :

the extent to which people like

their jobs (Levin, 1995). It is considered a measurable construct when related to both positive and negative attitude and emotion (Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson & Capwell, 1957).

M IDDLE L EVEL A DMINISTRATION /

M IDDLE M ANAGEMENT :

the deans and directors of support or college services, between the first level of supervision and the top executives (Levy, 1989).

O RGANIZATIONAL C LIMATE :

the collective personality of an organization; it is an accumulation of intangible perceptions that individuals have of various aspects of the environment of an organization (Deas, 1994; Lunenburg and Ornstein, 1991; Owens, 1991).

P RESIDENTS :

the chief administrators at the institution. The president is responsible for the daily operations of the coll ege. This administrator serves as the liaison between the board of trustees and the college’s administration, faculty, staff, and student body (Evans 1996).

11

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School

of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education

AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELECT ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE FACTORS AND JOB SATISFACTION FACTORS

AS REPORTED BY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PERSONNEL

By

Rose - Mari e Carla San Giacomo

May

2011

Chair:

David S. Honeyman

Major: Higher Education Administration

The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall satisfaction with organizational climate factors across seven studies of various levels of community co llege personnel . A secondary purpose was to determine if there was a significant relationship between

satisfaction with organizational climate factors and the importance of job satisfact ion factors across the studies.

The community college personnel under investigation were college presidents, branch campus executive officers, senior business officers, senior instructional officers, institutional researchers, mid - level managers, and executive secretaries/associates to the president.

The community colleges w ere all members of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and/ or listed in the Higher Education Directory (HED).

During the course of conducting seven distinct, but related studies, a total of 3,370 surveys were sent and 1,539 were returned, rendering a 46% rate of return.

The data were analyzed to determine the overall satisfaction of community college personnel with the organizational climate factors, and the overall perception of the existence of these factors.

12

These analyses revealed that while satisfaction with organizational climate factors was consistently reported as high among all community college personnel, the percentage of personnel that were satisfied with each factor decreased as the positions moved down the institutional hierarchy. Moreover, satisfaction with an organizational climate factor was not necessarily the same a perceiving a high level of the existence of that factor. Finally, some job satisfaction factors can be viewed as both intrinsic and extrinsic

moti vators , which does not support Herzberg’s classification system that categorized a factor as either intrinsic or extrinsic.

Results of this descriptive study have implications for the 1) understanding of motivational factors for various levels of community

college personnel, 2) attraction and retention of highly qualified professi onals and, 3) development of a positive organizational climate.

13

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Historically, there was little interest in the study of job satisfaction and motivation until the 1930s after the studies related to efficiency were released about the Western Electric Company in Hawthorne, Illinois. Before this, it was believed that if th e environment where individuals worked was manipulated to an optimum level, then productivity would increase (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991; Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939).

These studies became known as the Hawthorne studies and were designed to determine the optimum level of illumination in a production plant. Two groups of employees were studied: one group received an increase in illumination and the other did not. As expected, the group receiving increased light also increased productivity. However, what w as surprising was that the group that did not receive increased illumination also increased productivity. There was no direct, simple relationship between the illumination level and the production output of the workers (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

The Hawthorne studies raised more questions than they answered leading researchers to begin to explore behavioral reasons that might have had an impact on the studies. One important finding was the realization that human variability is an important determinant o f productivity (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Patterns established among workers influenced worker behavior more than deliberate controls imposed on physical working conditions. This discovery questioned the previously held belief that employees behaved lik e machines, and therefore there was only one way to perform a given task (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991; Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939).

14

Another important finding was that employee perception and job satisfaction were factors that directly related to job per formance (Mayo, 1933). As a result of these studies, Elton Mayo was considered to be one of the pioneers in the advent of behavioral science (Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson, 1966).

Zytowski (1968) stated that “job satisfaction is proportionate to the degree t hat the elements of the job satisfy the particular needs which the person feels most strongly” (p. 399). Another definition is a person’s attitude or emotional response (either positive or negative) toward his or her place of work (Beck, 1990). Recent studies reported that “more and more people want work that engages the whole person, fulfills social needs, and is meaningful –

in short, work that is psychologically rewarding” (Sisodia, Wolfe & Sheth, 2007, p. 70). Thus, researchers found that there was not an easy explanation for job satisfaction and that many other factors influenced workers’ job satisfaction.

While the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate has been studied for decades in industrial and manufacturing settings, less is known about this relationship as it applies to educational settings (Mayo 1933, Roethlisberger

& Dixon 1939, Herzberg 1966). In business and industry ,

the emphasis has been on profit and production, while in education ,

the focus has been on greater accountability and performance measure relative to teaching and learning and student outcomes ( Lombardi & Capaldi, 1996). However, a growing number of studies have been conducted on public higher education environments examining the relationship between job

satisfaction and organizational climate for various types of college administrators (Levy 1989, Chappell 1995, Evans 1996, Zabetakis 1999, Bailey 2002, Peek 2003, Sofianos 2005).

15

Statement of the Problem

The studies mentioned above examined how the work of specific groups of community college personnel

was

affected by the relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction. However, little is known about the true effect of these relationships when applied to community college personnel

as a whole. A comparison of these various studies would better serve as a further research tool to describe a range of effects regarding job satisfaction and organizational climate in community colleges across th e country .

As community colleges look ahead, strong leadership is needed to create a climate to enhance excellence and promote learning. The relationship between various levels of community college personnel and job satisf action is central to creating a po sitive

organizational climate .

Community colleges are a vital part of the postsecondary education delivery system serving almost half of the undergraduate students in the United States. They provide open access to postsecondary education, prepare students for transfer to 4 - year institutions, provide workforce development and skills training, and offer noncredit programs ranging from English as a second language to skills retraining, to community enrichment programs or cultural activities. Traditionally, com munity colleges provided crucial access to higher education for economically and academically disadvantaged students given their close proximity, low costs and open access policy (Cohen and Brawer, 2003). There are

also large numbers of students who cho o se

to attend community college for two years and then transfer to a four - year institution to pursue a bachelor’s degree. Increasingly, community colleges are offering more o pportunities to pursue baccalaureate degrees .

16

The average postsecondary education stu dent has changed drastically over the past 30 years (Oblinger & Verville, 1998). Historically, the majority of college students were the 18 - year old high school graduate that transitioned to four - year colleges after leaving his or her home. However, the c ollege student landscape has changed

in recent years . C olleges have been admitting more non - traditional students than ever. These students include

those that have

a career, a home ,

and other family obligations (Fincher, 2002). The population of nontraditional s tudents includes

career changers, persons desiring additional skills for advancement in the workplace, military veterans, and displaced homemakers. The expanding number of this student population has created a demand for higher education that is

geare d to the nontraditional student (Jarvis, 2000). Furthermore, many of these nontraditional students are

geographically place - bound due to family and employment responsibilities (Florida Department of Education, 2005).

The climate of an organization has bee n defined as a manifestation of the values, feelings, attitudes, interactions and group norms of the members (Brown and Harvey, 2006). It referred to constructs such as internal communication, organizational structure, professional development and regard f or personal concerns. As such, organizational climate was viewed as an element that meets

the emotional needs of its members. If those needs are

met, then usually an individual was satisfied with his or her

job. On the other hand, j ob dissatisfaction

produces

uncertainty which could le a d to fear, anxiety, and stress which are

counter productive to job performance and meeting the needs of the organization.

17

Learning more about the nature of the relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction among various levels of community college personnel

may assist

in improving job satisfaction for these individuals

within a particular institution. This is important because the relationship between various levels of community college personnel and job sat isfaction is central to creating a

supportive and positive

organizational climate .

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate across seven studies. The research addressed the following question s:

Research Question 1

a)

As a group, what is the overall satisfaction of community college personnel with the seven organizational climate factors at their respective institutions?

b)

Using the same seven climate factors as an index, what is the group’s overall perception of the existence of these factors at their respective institutions?

c)

As a group, how did the community college personnel rate the overall importance of the eight job satisfaction factors?

Research Question 2

a)

W hat is the relationship between each type of job and satisfaction with each organizational climate factor?

b)

What is the relationship between each type of job and perception of each organizational climate factor?

c)

What is the relationship between each

type of job and the importance of each job satisfaction factor?

Research Question 3

What are the relationships among satisfaction with organizational climate factors and importance of job satisfaction factors?

18

Limitations

This study was limited to the analysis of the results of seven studies conducted on community college personnel

from 1989 – 2005

about the relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction. Further, this study was based on the perceptions of persons responding to the surveys and the findings were limited to the viability of that information.

Third, the response rate varied from 35% to 75% among the seven studies. An adequate response rate for mailed surveys is 50%, so it should be noted that bias may be a factor, especially in

those studies that reported less than a 50% response rate. Fourth, the raw data for each study was not available which made it impossible to conduct an in - depth exploration of each study. Fifth, the survey instrument may not have been sensitive to negativ e responses and the studies do not indicate that respondents were probed for further information in order to clarify responses. Sixth, reliability and validity were not separately established for each study. Five of the studies based their validity on the validity that was already established for the same instrument used in Chappell’s 1995 study. Reliability was based on field - testing that was also performed on the instrument used in Chappell’s study. Validity and reliability for the instrument used in Levy ’s (1989) study was established using a two part process involving a jury of five expert administrators in higher education from outside the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and a mock test by three middle level administrators using the reviewed and revised in strument. Seventh, a

Pearson product - moment correlation was used in each study’s data analysis. However, Pearson’s assumes normality

and is used when each variable is measured to produce a raw score . In these studies, Spearman’s r ho would be preferred sinc e it does not assume normality

and the variables are measured in such a way as to produce ranks. Eighth , large numbers of

19

tests could result in experiment - wise error ( which means that

an increased actual level of significance

could occur ).

Finally, five of

the seven studies were conducted using a national sample,

while two of the studies used

state - wide sample s.

Significance of the Study

This study is

significant for sev eral reasons. First, it advances

the body of knowledge by serving as a further research tool to describe a range of effects regarding job satisfaction and organizational climate in community coll eges. Second, the study analyzes

the similarities and differences in the relationship between

specific aspects of organizational climate and job satisfaction in relation to community college personnel . Third, as community colleges look ahead, strong leadership is needed to create a climate that

enhance s excellence and promote s learning. The relati onship between various levels of community college personnel and job satisfaction is central to creating a positive and supportive

organizational climat e.

Summary

The relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction has been well documented

for decades in industrial and manufacturing settings. Over the last twenty years, a growing body of literature has emerged describing these constructs in community college settings. These studies targeted specific populations of community college personne l . This study analyzed the results of seven

studies that represented a cross- section of community college personnel and that addressed a set of common research questions . It reported the similarities and differences in the relationship between specific con structs

in relation to the different levels of community college personnel . Chapter 2 provides a comprehensive literature review of works related to job satisfac tion and organizational climate.

20

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate across seven

previous

studies. The research addressed the following question: What was the relationship between the eight job satisfaction factors

and seven organizational climate

factors across these studies? This chapter presents a review of the relevant literature on job satisfaction, organizational climate ,

and the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate.

The earliest studies on job satisfaction demonst rated that there was a connection between work environment and worker production, absenteeism, turnover, and the general health of employees (Hersi, 1993; McBride, Munday & Tunnell, 1992 and Spector, 1997). The Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton Mayo (1933) at the Western Electric plant studied the effects of various conditions (most notable

lighting) on workers’ productivity. These studies (1924 - 1933) ultimately demonstrated that changes in the work environment temporarily increased productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). However, further investigation revealed that this increase resulted not from the change in

condition, but rather from the knowledge that the workers were

observed. The social environment, now known as organizational climate, signific antly influenced productivity and morale (Davis & Newstrom, 1985; Lunnenburg & Ornstein, 2008). The Hawthorne studies prompted widespread discussion and ushered in an era of systematic study between the two constructs of job satisfaction and organizational

climate.

The systematic investigation of the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate began in the late 1960s. These early studies include d

Friedlander

21

and Margulies (1969), Downey, Hellriegel, and Slocum (1975), Schneider and Snyd er (1975), and Payne, Fineman, and Wall (1976). Organizational climate appeared to be a significant factor in evaluating job satisfaction in many of these st udies. Recent research supports

these findings

(Anderson, Guido - DiB rito & Morrell, 2000; Duggan, 2008; & Iiacqua, Schumacher, & Li , 1995) . Branham (2005) found that research from dozens of studi es revealed that actually 80 - 90 %

of employees leave for reasons not related to money, but to the job, the manager, the culture ,

or the work environment. These internal reasons (also known as “push” factors, as opposed to “pull” factors, such as better paying outside opportunities) were issues within the power of the organization and

with

the manager to control and change.

Job Sati sfaction

Job satisfaction has been

one the most frequently studied variables in organizational behavior research because of its perceived association with absenteeism, productivity, turnover, and the general mental health of employees (Chappell, 1995; Grat to, 2001; Spector, 1997). The assessment of job satisfaction, its causes, consequences and nature were important variables that drew the attention of researchers for almost seventy years. The earliest studies focused on productivity and turnover while later students focused on need fulfillment (Gratto, 2001).

Job satisfaction is

a subjective term defined in a number of ways. Pincus (1986) used the word interchangeably with morale in the workplace. Vroom (1982) defined job satisfaction as the “affective ori entation of individuals toward work roles they are presently occupying” (p. 99). Other researchers emphasized the affective nature of job satisfaction in the workplace (Beck, 1990; Bretz & Judge, 1994 &

Satterlee, 1988 ; Spector, 1997). Levin (1995) stated that job satisfaction could be viewed from the

22

perspective of the employee as well as from the perspective of the employer. He asserted that for employees, job satisfaction came from having work that mattered and from a sense of job security. For the employer, job satisfaction came from involving employees in decisions that affected them and from providing people with the skills, motivation, and freedom to do their jobs better (Gratto, 2001). Although definitions vary, there appears to be a general consensus that job satisfaction is

related to the emotional feeling that one has towards his or her

job during the course of employment (Satterlee, 1988). For the purpose of this study, job satisfaction is

defined as a person’s attitude, or emotional response (eit her positive or negative) toward his or her job (Bailey, 2002; Chappell, 1995; Evans, 1996; Levy, 1989; Peek, 2003; Sofianos, 2005 & Zabetakis, 1999).

Job Satisfaction Theories

Job satisfaction

theories fall into two broad categories: content and process t heories. Content theories are based on the assumption that motivation comes from within the individual instead of from an external source (Hanson, 1996). Content theories explain

what motivates people while process theories explain

how people are motivated

(Higgins,

1991). Content theories assume

that

n eeds or drives initiate, channel and

sustain goal directed behavior

n eeds or drives are activated when an equilibrium imbalance is felt

n eeds or dri ves are prioritized into levels

w hen a need is fulfilled it no longer generates motivation

a ll individuals share basically the same prioritization of needs and drives

(Hanson, 1996 ; Higgins, 1991; Luthans, 1981)

Process theories, on the other hand, focus

on explaining how specific variables

interact to influence c hoice, effort, and persistence (Campbell & Pritchard, 1976). “These theories rejected the assumption that human behavior is generated by a

23

common set of needs or drives, and that all humans shared the same priorities in satisfying those needs” (Chappell, 1 995).

Process theories assume that

w orkers exert effort as long as there is an expectancy of success

w orkers are independent and seek solutions through the most effective routes available

Full document contains 103 pages
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall satisfaction with organizational climate factors across seven studies of various levels of community college personnel. A secondary purpose was to determine if there was a significant relationship between satisfaction with organizational climate factors and the importance of job satisfaction factors across the studies. The community college personnel under investigation were college presidents, branch campus executive officers, senior business officers, senior instructional officers, institutional researchers, mid-level managers, and executive secretaries/associates to the president. The community colleges were all members of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and/ or listed in the Higher Education Directory (HED). During the course of conducting seven distinct, but related studies, a total of 3,370 surveys were sent and 1,539 were returned, rendering a 46% rate of return. The data were analyzed to determine the overall satisfaction of community college personnel with the organizational climate factors, and the overall perception of the existence of these factors. These analyses revealed that while satisfaction with organizational climate factors was consistently reported as high among all community college personnel, the percentage of personnel that were satisfied with each factor decreased as the positions moved down the institutional hierarchy. Moreover, satisfaction with an organizational climate factor was not necessarily the same a perceiving a high level of the existence of that factor. Finally, some job satisfaction factors can be viewed as both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, which does not support Herzberg's classification system that categorized a factor as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Results of this descriptive study have implications for the (1) understanding of motivational factors for various levels of community college personnel, (2) attraction and retention of highly qualified professionals and, (3) development of a positive organizational climate.