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An analysis of the relationship of Lean Performance Management Variables in Texas International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program schools and student achievement

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: John Edward Villarreal
Abstract:
RAND Corporation (2004) analyzed accountability systems from business sectors to see how well they worked and whether their processes might be applied to education. Manufacturing companies such as Toyota use Lean Performance Management applications to lower production costs and improve their services in response to customer needs (Liker & Meier, 2006). Is it possible that Lean Performance Management processes improve organizational intelligence and performance management? The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived dimension of Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) identified as shared purpose, needs-based processes, respect for people, and problem-solving and their relationship to student achievement in Texas International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (MYP) schools. Flumerfelt's Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey (2010) was distributed to the population of 120 campus administrative team members from 24 certified and candidate MYP schools serving grade 8 students in Texas. A correlation analysis was used to determine the best linear combination of Lean Performance Management independent variables for predicting the 2009 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills in English Language Arts, social studies, math, and science grade 8 student achievement dependent variables. Findings from this study revealed no significant relationships between Lean Performance Management Variables and student achievement. However, results validated that employee involvement in the continuous improvement process included elements of employee shared purpose, a commitment by the organization to value needs-based process, employee empowerment through the concept of respect for people, and embracing organizational learning.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF GRAPHICS ix ABSTRACT x CHAPTER 1 1 Statement of the Problem 3 Purpose of the Study 6 Theoretical Framework of the Study 7 Research Questions 9 Definition of Key Terms 9 Organization of Study 11 Summary 12 CHAPTER II 13 Review of Literature 13 International baccalaureate middle years program overview 13 Lean performance management process 17 Origins of lean performance management 19 Shared purpose as a lean performance management construct 24 Need-based process as a lean performance management construct 27 Respect for people as a lean performance management construct 30 Problem-solving as a lean performance management construct 33 Dependent variable 36 Summary 37 CHAPTER III 38 Overview. 38 Methods and procedures 38 Population and selection of subjects 38 Research design 39 Research questions 43 Dependent variables 44 Independent variables 45 Research hypotheses 45 vi

Ho1 45 H0 2 45 H0 3 45 H0 4 46 H0 5 46 Instrumentation 46 Pilot study 47 Procedures for collecting data. 47 Data analysis 48 Summary 48 CHAPTER IV 50 RESULTS 50 Study summary 50 Organizational intelligence and performance management survey responses 51 Campus administrative team response analysis 53 Research hypothesis 59 Reading . 60 HO1 I Z Z I I Z I Z Z Z Z Z Z Z I Z Z Z Z Z 60 H0 2 6 0 H0 3 6 1 Ho4 61 H0 5 6 2 Social studies 62 H0 6 6 2 H0 7 6 3 H0 8 6 3 H09 63 H0 1 0 64 Math 64 HQ1 1 64 H0 1 2 65 H0 1 3 65 vu

H0 1 4 65 H0 1 5 66 Science 66 HQ1 6 66 H0 1 7 67 H0 1 8 67 H0 1 9 67 H0 2 0 68 Summary of results 68 CHAPTER V 70 Summary, conclusions, and recommendations 70 Summary 70 Methodology 72 Results 73 Conclusions 76 Recommendations 77 REFERENCES 80 APPENDIX 88 Appendix A - International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program Schools and Scale Score Means 89 Appendix B - Flumerfelt's Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey (2010) 91 viii

LIST OF GRAPHICS FIGURE Page 1. Theoretical framework of lean performance management variables 7, 71 2. The middle years program curriculum model 15 TABLE I. Lean Performance Management Variables Empirical Research 20 II. Lean Behavioral Wastes or Muda 23 III. Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey Items Corresponding with Shared Purpose 40 IV. Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey Items Corresponding with Needs-based Processes 41 V. Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey Items Corresponding with Respect for People 42 VI. Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey Items Corresponding with Problem-solving 43 VII. Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey Items and Corresponding Domains 52 VIII. Domain I Shared Purpose Survey Items - Mean Scores 53 IX. Domain II Needs-based Processes Survey Items - Mean Scores 55 X. Domain III Respect for People Survey Items - Mean Scores 57 XI. Domain IV Problem-solving Survey Items - Mean Scores 58 XII. TAKS Scale Score Dependent Variables - Mean Scores 60 XIII. Null Hypothesis Summary 69, 74 ix

ABSTRACT Villarreal, John E., An Analysis of the Relationship of Lean Performance Management Variables in Texas International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program Schools and Student Achievement, Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), May, 2011, 94 pages, 13 tables, 2 figures, references cited, 58 titles. RAND Corporation (2004) analyzed accountability systems from business sectors to see how well they worked and whether their processes might be applied to education. Manufacturing companies such as Toyota use Lean Performance Management applications to lower production costs and improve their services in response to customer needs (Liker & Meier, 2006). Is it possible that Lean Performance Management processes improve organizational intelligence and performance management? The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived dimension of Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) identified as shared purpose, needs-based processes, respect for people, and problem-solving and their relationship to student achievement in Texas International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (MYP) schools. Flumerfelt's Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey (2010) was distributed to the population of 120 campus administrative team members from 24 certified and candidate MYP schools serving grade 8 students in Texas. A correlation analysis was used to determine the best linear combination of Lean Performance Management independent variables for predicting the 2009 Texas

Assessment of Knowledge and Skills in English Language Arts, social studies, math, and science grade 8 student achievement dependent variables. Findings from this study revealed no significant relationships between Lean Performance Management Variables and student achievement. However, results validated that employee involvement in the continuous improvement process included elements of employee shared purpose, a commitment by the organization to value needs-based process, employee empowerment through the concept of respect for people, and embracing organizational learning. xi

CHAPTER I The federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 placed an emphasis on improving education through student performance accountability systems as defined by student test results (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). School districts faced with the continual increase in student accountability standards seek ways to improve student academic performance. School districts continue to be accountable for student performance as defined by college and workforce readiness. Fullan (2005) stated "As agencies have pushed for greater performance and public accountability over the past two decades, we have seen some incremental improvements, but it is obvious that these improvements are fragile and not deep" (p. x). Fullan (2005) continued by saying that leaders "are reluctant to let go of the strategies that have brought us this far in favor of strategies that are far more complex with many more unknowns" (p. x). This general tendency for leadership to avoid root cause analysis continues to plague schools. There appears to be a need for leadership insight to drive meaningful continuous improvement. Educational leaders need paradigms and methods applicable to change action. In contrast, the RAND Corporation (2004) analyzed accountability systems from business sectors to see how well they worked and whether their processes might be applied to education. RAND Corporation (2004) stated "While the uniqueness of the educational setting sets it apart from the other sectors, the researchers concluded that each 1

2 model provides useful insights for enhancing educational accountability and improving the operations and performance of schools and districts" (p. 1). Hence, this research indicated that there were some management systems from other sectors that hold promise for education in this regard. Some manufacturing companies such as Toyota use a model called Lean Performance Management to lower production costs and improve their services in response to customer needs (Liker & Meier, 2006). Is it possible that Lean Performance Management processes can improve organizational development and organizational intelligence? Is it possible for educational leaders to use lean thinking as a tool to improve and sustain student achievement? Lean Performance Management is a production model that advances only specific processes that add to the stakeholder's experience (Jones & Womack, 2003). Collectively, members of an organization engage in identifying value-added processes aligned to specific need-based goals. Jones and Womack (2003) indicated that Lean Performance Management considers any other process not related to the goals to be wasteful; therefore, all non-value-added processes over which one has guidance are targeted for elimination. The goal of lean thinking is to simplify value-added processes so they are easier to understand, do, and manage. According to the RAND Corporation (2004), Lean Performance Management has become "widely recognized for its revolutionary approach to doing business, which provides more choice to consumers, more decision making involvement for workers and enhanced productivity for companies" (p. 2). According to Shah (2002), 271 managers

3 from 63 firms responded to a survey which measured lean constructs. Shah (2002) found the following traits of Lean organizations over non-lean firms: (a) Lean firms had a higher rate of change taking place; (b) Lean firms were more attuned to applying business strategy responsiveness; (c) Organizations utilizing Lean principles were significantly different than non-lean firms in terms of cost and volume flexibility; (d) Lean companies had a higher level of customer requirement awareness due to more vendor-to-customer contacts; and (e) Lean firms made it a higher priority to be involved with customers, vendors, and within their own organizations, hence integration was at a greater level. Organizations outside of education who have committed resources directed towards organizational improvement may be in a position to share Lean Performance Management best practices with educational leaders. Contextualizing Lean Performance Management from the business sector to educational organizations may provide educators with an understanding of benefits of the continuous improvement process and the establishment of a responsible culture that makes teachers and leaders hypothesize, experiment, question, and continuously improve their practices for better student performance. Statement of the Problem School districts faced with the continual need to increase student accountability standards while also addressing limited resources, have sought to improve student academic performance. Unless schools can identify core problems and solve them, increasingly rigorous standards will compound the difficulties currently faced by districts. For example, schools districts continue to be accountable for student

4 performance as defined by college and workforce readiness. Furthermore, Eschbach (2009) stated that Texas population growth projects a higher enrollment of students from economically disadvantaged households which adds an additional complexity to student achievement. In addition, Marzano, McNulty, and Waters (2005) argued that what students know about content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information. Therefore, it is critical that educational organizations spend more time with focused instruction by working together to improve value-added instructional processes specifically connected to improving student achievement gaps in learning. Downey, English, Poston, and Steffy (2009) observed that: Because there is no one thing that causes the achievement gap, but many things operating collectively in situated contexts, we have to think about approaching a complex, multifaceted problem in a diagnostic mode that tries to capture the variables and the key interactions and then eliminating the major causal components one by one. (pp. 6-7) District and campus educational leaders striving for educational success in an ever- changing and complex world must begin by thinking differently to improve their performance management. If Lean Performance Management strategies hold translational value from business to the educational sector, then they should be reviewed and selected as a way to facilitate an increase in student achievement. The elements identified by Liker and Meier (2006) describing Toyota's Lean Performance Management model included attributes

5 aligned with school improvement: (a) shared purpose which requires all stakeholders to take responsibility for achievement of goals; (b) valuing needs-based processes which requires organizational members to create value-added processes that meet the needs and eliminates the gaps in achievement of goals; (c) respect for people which requires a commitment to growing leaders as learners who understand their work and teach it to others; and (d) valuing problem-solving which requires a commitment from educational leadership to establish solutions based on first, seeing the actual problem, second, making decisions slowly by consensus, and finally building on past experiences through on-going reflection and continuous improvement. Liker and Meier (2006) argued that facilitating organizational interdependency as a sustainable system "required top management to realize that lean performance management is more than a set of tools and techniques. Lean Performance Management is a way of thinking about the very process of management" (p. 27). Much of the research in educational leadership has defined principles of effective theories of organizational intelligence or effective behaviors for school leadership; however there is less research in the area of performance management in educational leadership. District and school leadership seeking sustainable organizational improvement may do well to consider key manufacturing, needs-based leadership principles of Lean Performance Management. Jones and Womack (2003) defined lean thinking "as a way to specify value, line up value-creating actions in the best sequence, conduct these activities without interruption whenever someone requests them, and perform them more and more effectively" (p. 15).

Liker and Meier (2006) argued that the lean performance management system provided a setting in which to challenge and develop people. Fullan (2005) noted that sustainable organizations "focus on value-added high expectations, raising capability in others, pull together, and display an ongoing hunger for improvement" (p. 59). Boeder and Burton (2003) added, "To achieve dramatic results, executives must embrace two distinct levels of performance: strategic performance and operating performance" (p. 12). At the strategic level, district and campus leaders must lead, mentor, and live the change process until it becomes embedded in the organizational culture. Balancing organizational intelligence (the thinking) such as strategic planning and performance management (the doing) was an on-going challenge as educational organizations find themselves dealing with increased information flows and complex problems. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived degree of Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) and their relationship to student achievement in Texas International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (MYP) schools. Texas IBMP Y schools were selected for this study due to consistency in standards and practices regarding professional development (IBO, 2010). There were 27 certified International Baccalaureate MYP schools in the state of Texas and 11 candidate schools. MYP candidate schools participate in a three year campus-wide staff development process leading to full Middle Years Program authorization. This study included the population of 125 campus administrative team members defined as Principals or Head of Schools, Assistant Principals, IB Campus Coordinators, Counselors, and Instructional

7 Coaches from 24 certified and candidate MYP schools in Texas who serve grade eight students. Flumerfelt's (2010) Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey was used to determine the perceived degree of congruence with Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV). Student academic achievement was collected from the 2009 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in all four core subject areas. Theoretical Framework of the Study The theoretical framework (Figure 1) of this study proposed that Lean Performance Management consists of four constructs that guide the thinking and doing of the campus administrative team. For the purpose of this study, the campus administrative team included Principals, Head of Schools, Assistant Principals, IB Campus Coordinators, Counselors, and Instructional Coaches. The dimension of LPMV when found impacts the quality of work at the campus level and results in higher student achievement. The greater the dimension of LPMV s the greater the relationship in student achievement. Each LPMV can be assessed individually. Organizational Management Dimensions Shared Purpose Needs-Based Processes Respect for People Problem-Solving Cumulative Dimension of Shared Purpose, Needs-Based Processes, Respect for People, and Problem- Solving Degree of Implementation in IBMYP Schools Figure 1. Theoretical framework of lean performance management variables

8 Liker and Meyer (2006) described the following Lean Performance Management dimensions as: (a) Shared purpose requires stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students and the community) to commit to a common purpose that creates long- term value for the student and society. Shared purpose requires all stakeholders to take responsibility for student achievement; (b) Needs-based processes requires organizational members to create value-added processes that meet the needs and eliminates the gaps in student achievement as determined by frequent formative assessments; (c) Respect for people requires a commitment to growing leaders as learners who understand their work and teach it to others; and (d) Problem-solving requires a commitment from educational leadership to establish solutions based on first, seeing the actual problem, second, making decisions slowly by consensus, and finally building on past experiences through on-going reflection and continuous improvement. The theoretical framework represents the degree of shared purpose, needs-based processes, respect for people, and problem-solving as Lean Performance Management Variables and their relationship in student achievement. Responses from the Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey were analyzed using a correlation analysis to depict the effect size of the four Lean Performance Management independent variables and their individual and cumulative influence on International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (IBMYP) schools' 2009 grade eight TAKS student achievement dependent variables.

Research Questions This study will address the following research questions: 1. To what degree does shared purpose in domain schools relate to student achievement in the context of International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (IBMYP) schools? 2. To what degree does needs-based processes in domain schools relate to student achievement in the context of International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (IBMYP) schools? 3. To what degree does respect for people in domain schools relate to student achievement in the context of International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (IBMYP) schools? 4. To what degree does problem-solving in domain schools relate to student achievement in the context of International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (IBMYP) schools? 5. To what degree does the cumulative effect of shared purpose, needs-based processes, respect for people, and problem-solving in domain schools relate to student achievement in the context of International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (IBMYP) schools? Definition of Key Terms The following definition of terms hold true for this study: 1. Shared Purpose - Requires stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and the community) to commit to a common purpose that creates

10 long-term value for the student and society. Shared purpose requires all stakeholders to take responsibility for student achievement. 2. Needs-based Processes - Requires organizational members to create value- added processes that meet the needs and eliminates the gaps in student achievement as determined by frequent formative assessments. 3. Respect for People - Requires a commitment to growing leaders as learners who understand their work and teach it to others. 4. Problem-Solving - Requires a commitment from educational leadership to establish solutions based on first, seeing the actual problem, second, making decisions slowly by consensus, and finally building on past experiences through on-going reflection and continuous improvement. 5. International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program - According to the International Baccalaureate Organization (2008), the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program provides a challenging academic and social framework that encourages students to appreciate and understand the connections between foundation subjects and the real world. MYP students learn to become critical and reflective thinkers. In addition, MYP students learn their native language, a second language, humanities, arts, physical education, and technology. In the final year of the MYP students engage in a personal project, which allows them to demonstrate their understandings and skills developed throughout the MYP program.

11 6. Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) - A set of four organizational interdependent variables that include shared purpose, valuing needs-based processes, respect for people, and valuing problem-solving. 7. Student Achievement - Assessed by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS): According to the Texas Education Agency (2010), the TAKS test is designed to measure the extent to which a student has learned and is able to apply the defined knowledge and skills at each tested grade level. Students are tested in math, reading, science, and social studies. According to the Texas Education Agency (2009) Accountability Manual, the Academic Excellence Indicator System tables showing campus and student performance is released the first day in August each year. Organization of Study Chapter I included the purpose of the study, the problem statement, an overview of the background of the study, the rationale and importance of the study, the conceptual framework and constructs, research questions, the definition of key terms, and the organization of the study. Chapter II contains a comprehensive review of the literature regarding findings related to each of the constructs in the conceptual framework. The review of literature focused on research regarding International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program, Lean Performance Management Process, shared purpose, needs-based process, respect for people, and problem-solving. Chapter III presents a description of the methodology employed including a description of the population and the selection of participants, research questions and

12 hypotheses, dependent and independent variables, a description of the pilot study, procedures for collecting data, and the process of data analysis. Chapter IV includes a presentation of the findings based on the statistical analysis identifying the relationship between the Lean Performance Management Variables (which included shared purpose, needs-based processes, respect for people, and problem-solving) and 2009 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) grade 8 scale scores. Chapter V provides a summary of the findings, conclusions, and implications along with recommendations for further research. Summary School districts faced with the continual increase in student accountability standards seek ways to improve student academic performance. District and campus educational leaders striving for educational success in an ever-changing and complex world must begin by thinking differently to improve their performance management. A review of literature supported Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) as a way to improve organizational management thereby positively impacting student academic performance. Lean Performance Management Variables included: (a) shared purpose; (b) valuing needs-based processes; (c) respect for people; and (d) valuing problem-solving. This quantitative research sought to identify the perceived degree of Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) and their relationship to student achievement in Texas International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (MYP) schools.

CHAPTER II Review of Literature The purpose of this literature review is to investigate research on Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) as a way to improve organizational management thereby positively impacting student academic performance. For the purposes of this study, the dependent variables included student academic performance in International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (IBMYP) schools in Texas. Texas IBMPY schools were selected for this study due to consistency in standards and practices regarding professional development (IBO, 2010). International baccalaureate middle years program overview. The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) (2010a) was founded in Geneva, Switzerland in 1968 by English and French teachers at the International School of Geneva. A review of literature suggested that the goal of the International Baccalaureate Organization was to provide students with a university accepted, international education which promoted an understanding and respect for other cultures, languages, and points of view. IBO developed three programs which included the Diploma Program for ages 16 to 19, the Middle Years Programs for ages 11 to 16, and the Primary Years Program for ages 3 to 11. International Baccalaureate Organization (2010b) stated, 13

14 With the development of a continuum of international education, it is intended that teachers, students, and parents will be able to draw confidently on a recognizable common educational framework, a consistent structure of aims and values and an overarching concept of how to develop international mindedness. (Academic programmes, para. 2) The concept of international mindedness was further defined by IBO's learner profile. The IBO learner profile strived to develop students that are inquirers, knowledgeable, thinkers, communicators, principled, open-minded, caring, risk-takers, balanced, and reflective. Each learner profile characteristic was prescribed in various depths within the IBO program curriculum. To its end, Diploma Program students ages 16 to 19 experienced curriculum in languages, social studies, experimental sciences, and mathematics (International Baccalaureate Organization, 2010b). In addition, each Diploma Program student was required to complete a four-thousand word extended essay theory of knowledge course designed to encourage reflection on the nature of knowledge in terms of perception, emotion, language, reason, and a creativity, action, service, (CAS) project requiring student active learning and doing of tasks outside the classroom. All IB students participated in both internal and external criterion-referenced assessments (International Baccalaureate Organization, 2010b). International Baccalaureate Program described the Middle Years Program as a program for students, ages 11 to 16, who participate in a curriculum model that consists of study in a primary language, a second language, humanities, arts, sciences,

15 mathematics, technology, and physical education (International Baccalaureate Organization, 2010b). Figure 2 illustrates the Middle Years Curriculum Model. Figure 2. The middle years program curriculum model International Baccalaureate Organization (2010) stated, "Students study subjects from each of the eight subject groups through five areas of interaction: approaches to learning, community and service, human ingenuity, environment and health, and social education" (What does the curriculum contain?, para. 3). In the final IBMYP year, students are required to complete a creative, personal project that provides a reflection of student understanding the areas of interaction. Some districts may design a Middle Years

16 Program for a three year period for grades 6 through 8 rather than teaching all five years of the Middle Years Program grades 6 through 10. The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program provided a framework of academic rigor that motivates students to appreciate the interconnectedness between traditional subjects and the real world by applying critical and reflective thinking for understanding (International Baccalaureate Organization, 2010b). Nussbaum (1997) argued that IBO students are encouraged to examine critically their own and others' customs and traditions and is a necessary element for education that enables students to determine what is of value and what ought to be respected and retained. International Baccalaureate Organization (2002) suggested that teachers who participate in the Middle Years Program experiment with ideas. Thompson (1999) suggested that IBO curriculum values teachers as learners, teachers as managers of the learning, teachers as innovators, teacher-student relationship in learning, and the training and recruitment of teachers for international education. International Baccalaureate students showed an increase in state assessment scores when compared to their peers (Magee, 2005; Wilson, 2007). A review of literature indicated that IB students generally scored higher than non-IB participants. Magee (2005) found that students participating in IBMYP, "revealed consistencies of higher ACT Reading and Math scores for IBMYP students when controlling for prior achievement levels" (p. 72). Wilson (2007) found that "IBMYP students post math, language, and reading norm-referenced achievement scores were statistically

17 significantly greater than traditional academic program students who were equally prepared" (p. 100). School members who participate in the International Baccalaureate Program indicated a high satisfaction rate. International Baccalaureate World School Satisfaction Survey indicated that 96% of those surveyed strongly agree or agree they were very satisfied with the curriculum (International Baccalaureate Organization, 2006). Eight- four percent of survey participants strongly agree or agree they are very satisfied with assessment. Eighty percent strongly agree or agree they are very satisfied with professional development. Eighty-eight percent strongly agree or agree they are very satisfied with support. Percentage of respondents rating the quality of communications between "excellent" and "good" ranged between 85% and 73%. Findings from the International Baccalaureate World School Survey suggested strong levels of satisfaction when support was provided by school leadership. In contrast, International Baccalaureate World School Satisfaction Survey indicated less satisfaction when respondent support services diminished (International Baccalaureate Organization, 2006). Lean performance management process. Jones and Womack (2003) defined lean performance management as a production practice that considers only specific processes that add value to the customer. Collectively, members of an organization engage in identifying value-added processes aligned to specific need-based goals. Lean performance management considered any other process (non-value add) not related to the need-based goals to be wasteful (muda); therefore, all non-value added processes are targeted for elimination. The goal of lean thinking is to strive for perfection by

18 collectively eliminating waste and root-causes to problems simplifying processes so they are easier to understand, do, and manage. RAND Corporation (2004) analyzed accountability systems and methods from business sectors to determine useful insights for enhancing educational accountability and improving the operations and performance of schools and districts. Cameron-Strother (2009) argued that "lean performance management provided management thinking that was responsive to change while maximizing change management on people, processes, and the creation of new knowledge" (p. 2). Rother (2010) argued that managing by means or process rather than managing by results may define a performance management pathway to increased student achievement and long-term organizational survival. Drucker (1998) argued that "organizational performance management relies on three systemic practices which include continuous improvement, the development of applications from its own successes, and the establishment of improved applications as an organized systemic process" (pp. 116-117). A review of literature indicated businesses that practiced lean adapted organizational routines or processes for improvement to their end-use customers' demands by collaboration with their workers to improve business targets. Fullan (2005) argued that, "effective cultures establish more and more progressive interactions in which demanding processes produce both good ideas and social cohesion. A sense of moral purpose is fueled by a focus on value-added high expectations for all, raising capability, pulling together, and an ongoing hunger for improvement" (p. 59). A review of literature argued that lean thinking is driven by needs-based learning as defined

Full document contains 106 pages
Abstract: RAND Corporation (2004) analyzed accountability systems from business sectors to see how well they worked and whether their processes might be applied to education. Manufacturing companies such as Toyota use Lean Performance Management applications to lower production costs and improve their services in response to customer needs (Liker & Meier, 2006). Is it possible that Lean Performance Management processes improve organizational intelligence and performance management? The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived dimension of Lean Performance Management Variables (LPMV) identified as shared purpose, needs-based processes, respect for people, and problem-solving and their relationship to student achievement in Texas International Baccalaureate Middle Years Program (MYP) schools. Flumerfelt's Organizational Intelligence and Performance Management Survey (2010) was distributed to the population of 120 campus administrative team members from 24 certified and candidate MYP schools serving grade 8 students in Texas. A correlation analysis was used to determine the best linear combination of Lean Performance Management independent variables for predicting the 2009 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills in English Language Arts, social studies, math, and science grade 8 student achievement dependent variables. Findings from this study revealed no significant relationships between Lean Performance Management Variables and student achievement. However, results validated that employee involvement in the continuous improvement process included elements of employee shared purpose, a commitment by the organization to value needs-based process, employee empowerment through the concept of respect for people, and embracing organizational learning.