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Alaska elementary school counseling: Current practices and future directions

Dissertation
Author: Samantha Gale McMorrow
Abstract:
Professional school counseling has roots as far back as the nineteenth century in the United States. Along the way there have been many changes in title and duties for the school counselor, who by recommendation of the American School Counseling Association as well as the state of Alaska Department of Education and Early Development, acts as the professional leading the comprehensive counseling program. Elementary comprehensive counseling programs are designed to be developmental in nature and preventative in practice. Additionally, they are intended to make the counseling program available to all students, not just those who are high achieving or at risk within the school community. However, there is a great deal of variance in how programs operate in Alaska. This research used mail surveys to gather data from potentially all elementary school counselors in the state of Alaska. Data were then considered in regards to the suggested comprehensive counseling program to evaluate and produce informed recommendations. One of the specific challenges that Alaskan elementary school counselors face is that of larger than recommended student-to-counselor ratios. Additionally, many counselors are operating in more than one school. Counselors working in the field suggest that curriculum is a much needed resource as well as recommendations that a counseling coordinator be employed to assist in bringing a more uniformed structure to counseling programs in the state of Alaska. School counseling, as well as education in general, has undergone many changes over the last century. Counseling programs in Alaska will need to continue to change and adapt if they are to meet the needs of students and communities.

ivTableofContentsPageSIGNATUREPAGEiTITLEPAGEiiAbstractiiiTableofContentsivListofFiguresviiListofTablesviiiListofAppendicesxiIntroduction1Chapter1TheDevelopmentofSchoolCounseling41.1Introduction41.2HistoricalPerspectiveonProfessionalSchoolCounseling51.3Counselors'ChangingRoles81.4ChallengesFacingCounselorsToday141.5DefiningtheCounselor'sRole171.6AddressingtheRoleConflict201.7Summary24Chapter2TheComprehensiveCounselingProgram262.1Introduction262.2MainComponentsoftheComprehensiveCounselingProgram272.3ImplementingtheComprehensiveCounselingProgram39

VPage2.4EvaluatingtheComprehensiveCounselingProgram442.5FlexibilityoftheComprehensiveCounselingProgram472.6StrengthsandChallengesinDelivery512.7DeliveringStudentAchievement572.8Summary60Chapter3MethodologyfortheResearch643.1Introduction643.2SurveyDesignandImplementation653.3Participants693.4Summary74Chapter4ResultsoftheResearch764.1Introduction764.2ElementsofCounselingPrograms764.3ComponentsofCounselingPrograms784.3.1GuidanceCurriculum794.3.2IndividualPlanning824.3.3ResponsiveServices854.3.4SystemSupport894.3.5OtherDuties964.4ImprovingtheProgram1004.5Summary101

viPageChapter5DiscussionofElementarySchoolCounselinginAlaska1025.1Introduction1025.2Discussion1025.3Limitations1085.4Recommendations1095.4.1AdaptingtheComprehensiveProgram1105.4.2NeededSupportsforAdaptations1145.4.3.IncreasingStrategicInterventions1175.5FurtherResearch1225.6Summary123Conclusion126References128Appendices144

viiListofFiguresPageFigure1RespondentEthnicity71Figure2RespondentAgeRange72Figure3RespondentExperienceLevel73Figure4StudenttoCounselorRatios74

viiiListofTablesPageTable1ActualTimeCoordinatingwithTeacheronGuidance79Table2PreferredTimeCoordinatingwithTeacheronGuidance80Table3ActualTimeonDevelopingLessons80Table4PreferredTimeonDevelopingLessons80Table5ActualTimeonClassroomGuidance81Table6PreferredTimeonClassroomGuidance81Table7ActualTimeonIndividualAssessment82Table8PreferredTimeonIndividualAssessment83Table9ActualTimeonAcademicAdvising83Table10PreferredTimeonAcademicAdvising84Table11ActualTimeonIndividualPlanning84Table12PreferredTimeonIndividualPlanning84Table13ActualTimeonCareerCounseling85Table14PreferredTimeonCareerCounseling85Table15ActualTimeonIndividualCounseling86Table16PreferredTimeonIndividualCounseling86Table17ActualTimeonSubstanceAbuseCounseling87Table18PreferredTimeonSubstanceAbuseCounseling87Table19ActualTimeonCrisisCounseling88Table20PreferredTimeonCrisisCounseling88

ixPageTable21ActualTimeonSmallGroupCounseling89Table22PreferredTimeonSmallGroupCounseling89Table23ActualTimeonCoordinatingIEP/50490Table24PreferredTimeonCoordinatingIEP/50490Table25ActualTimeonCoordinatingSpecialEvents91Table26PreferredTimeonCoordinatingSpecialEvents91Table27ActualTimeonConsultingwithTeachers92Table28PreferredTimeonConsultingwithTeachers92Table29ActualTimeonConsultingwithParents92Table30PreferredTimeonConsultingwithParents93Table31ActualTimeonConsultingwithAdministration93Table32PreferredTimeonConsultingwithAdministration94Table33ActualTimeonProfessionalDevelopment94Table34PreferredTimeonProfessionalDevelopment95Table35ActualTimeonProgramDevelopment95Table36PreferredTimeonProgramDevelopment96Table37ActualTimeonStudentBehavior97Table38PreferredTimeonStudentBehavior97Table39ActualTimeonAdministrativeDuties98Table40PreferredTimeonAdministrativeDuties98Table41ActualTimeonCoordinatingTesting99

XPageTable42PreferredTimeonCoordinatingTesting99Table43ActualTimeonOtherDuties100Table44PreferredTimeonOtherDuties100

xiListofAppendicesPageAppendixADeliveryofComprehensiveGuidancePrograms144AppendixBSurveyInstrument145AppendixCInitialContactLetter147AppendixDSecondContactLetter148AppendixEFollow-upContactLetter149AppendixFSuggestedTimeDistribution150AppendixGImprovingtheCounselingProgram151

1IntroductionInthiseraofaccountability,professionalschoolcounselorsarerequiredtonotonlydescribewhattheyaredoingbutalsodemonstratehowitiscontributingtostudentachievement(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Thesearedifficultrequirementsforaprofessionthathashistoricallyhadajobdescriptionwhichwasdefinedmoresobyitsvariousresponsibilitiesanddrivenbystakeholders,suchasstudents,parents,schoolboardsorprincipals.Manyprofessionalswithintheschoolbuildingdonotknowwhatexactlyaschoolcounselorshouldbedoing,thusaccountabilityisnearlyimpossibletoconsistentlydemonstrate.ChapterOnewilldescribethehistoricaldevelopmentoftheschoolcounselingprofession,startingatthefirsteffortsofschoolcounseling,beforeitwasevenaprofession.Showinghowschoolcounselinghasbeeninfluencedovertheyearsbymanysocio-politicalforcestoevolveintotheprofessionitistoday,bothnationallyandasitappliesspecificallytoAlaskaelementarycounselingprograms.Professionalorganizations,suchastheAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation(ASCA)haveputagreatdealofeffortintodefiningandguidingtheroleoftheprofessionalschoolcounselor.ASCAdoesthisthroughprovidingacomprehensivecounselingprogrammodelfromwhichtobuildprograms,formrolesanddefinecounselorduties.ThemaincomponentsofthecomprehensivecounselingprogramareexploredinChapterTwo,aswellasotherconsiderationswhenimplementingthistypeofmodel,suchasstrengthsandchallenges.Additionally,variancesinhowprogramsareimplementedinelementarycounselingprogramsversusotherlevelsoftheeducationalsystemarereferenced.

2Theliteraturesupportstheimplementationofacomprehensivecounselingprogram.ThisresearchexaminedhowcloselycurrentpracticesofAlaskaelementaryschoolcounselorsfollowtherecommendedpracticesputforthbyASCA'snationalmodelforcomprehensivecounselingprograms.Duetothespecificneedsofindividualschoolsorlackofresourceswithinschooldistricts,thereareprofessionalelementaryschoolcounselorswhochoosenottoimplementacomprehensiveprogramevenafteradetailedjobdescriptionandsubsequentprofessionalidentityhasbeenoutlined.Otherprofessionalsmaychooseonlytopartiallyimplementtherecommendedpractices(Larivee,2002).ThepresentstudybeganbygatheringsurveydatafromAlaskaelementaryschoolcounselorsworkinginthefield.TheCounselorActivitiesSurvey,developedbythisresearcher,throughtheuseofstateandnationalstandardsaswellastheprofessionalliterature,wasmailedtoeveryelementaryschoolcounselorinAlaska.ChapterThreeexploresthemethodologyofthissurveyresearch.DuetosomecounselorsinAlaskacoveringkindergartenthroughtheeighthgrade,orevenkindergartenthroughthetwelfthgrade,counselorswereaskedtoanswerthesurveyonlyfortheirworkwithkindergartenthroughthesixthgradetomaintainacleardescriptionofwhatismeantbyelementaryschoolcounseling.ChapterFourcharacterizesthedataintotheelementsofcounselingprograms,thecomponentsofcounselingprogramsandselfreportedsuggestionsfromAlaskaelementarycounselorsforhowcounselingprogramscouldbeimproved.Thefifthandfinalchaptercoversadetaileddiscussionofthefindingsandrecommendationsforways

3thatcounselingprogramsinAlaskacanstriveforsuccess.Thefindingsfromthisresearchwillhelptobringmoreclaritytotheprofessionalschoolcounselor'srolewithinAlaskaelementaryschools.ItwillalsoassistinidentifyingfuturetrainingandsupportdirectionswithinthisprofessioninAlaska.ThisstudyprovidesforconsiderationofhowcounselorsinAlaskaareutilizingtherecommendedpracticespresentedbyASCA.Additionally,theneedsofschoolcounselorscurrentlyworkingwithinAlaskaelementaryschoolswillbebetteridentified.ProfessionalschoolcounselorswithinAlaskaarepresentedwithallthesamechallengesasothercounselorsacrossthenationwiththeaddedconcernsofmanyruralandisolatedlocations.Thisadditionalstressorforschoolprofessionalshasbeenidentifiedandaddressedbythestateschoolboardwithregardstodevelopingmentoringprogramsforteachersandprincipals.Similarly,counselingprofessionalswithinelementaryschoolsinAlaskaneedtobesupportedatalllevels(i.e.,national,state,district,school)iftheyaretoachieveeffectivecounselingprograms.

4Chapter1TheDevelopmentofSchoolCounseling1.1IntroductionProfessionalschoolcounselinghasrootsasfarbackasthenineteenthcenturyintheUnitedStates,thoughitwasnotaprofessionthen.Originally,schoolcounselingconsistedofteachersperformingextradutiestoassiststudentswithcareerdevelopment.Alongthewaytherehavebeenmanychangesintitleanddutiesfortheschoolcounselor,broughtaboutlargelybecauseofsocio-politicalchangeswithinthecountry.Thesechangeshaveinturninfluencedlegislationandmandatesaimedatstudentachievement.Aswellaschangesatthenationallevel,schoolcounselinghasevolvedwithinthestateofAlaska.Todaytherearemanyprofessionalsworkingtogetherwithintheelementaryschoolbuildingtopromotethesuccessofstudents.Theroleandpurposeofmostoftheseprofessionalsisclear;whattheprofessionalshouldberesponsibleforaswellaswhattheyshouldnotberesponsibleforwithintheschoolsystemisknown.However,identityandroledefinitioncontinuestobeagrayareaformanyelementarycounselingprofessionals.Whenspeakingofroles,whatisimpliedisasetofexpectationsofanindividualwhoisoccupyingacertainposition.Rolestresswithinthecounselingprofessionisacommonoccurrencewhichhappenswhenthecounselorfacesdemandsthatdirectlyconflictwiththeirbelievedrole,whenthereisnoclearroleexpectation,orwhentherearetoomanyroledemandsonthatindividual.Rolestresscanleadtothecounselorlosingeffectivenessintheirprograms(Culbrethetal.,2005).

5Schoolcounselingprogramsshouldbedesignedfromtheconceptofcounselorsengaginginacontinuousprocessofassistingstudentsincertaincompetencyareasandplanningforthefuturewhileatthesametimetakingtheircurrentdevelopmentallevelintoconsideration(Herr,2002).Therolethataprofessionalschoolcounselorplayswithintheschoolcommunitycaneithersupportthisprocessthroughappropriateinterventionsandtasksoritcanbecomeamorecrisisbasedeffortwherethecounselorperformsmanynon-counselingtasksandrespondstothelatestcrisis(Myrick,1987).Thisiswheretheprofessionalassociationforschoolcounselorsoffersassistance.TheAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation(ASCA)providesastructurefordefiningtherolesandresponsibilitiesofschoolcounselorsthroughthecomprehensivecounselingprogrammodel.1.2HistoricalPerspectiveonProfessionalSchoolCounselingSchoolcounselingbeganwithhighschoolteachersworkingpart-timedoingvocationalguidanceactivitieswiththeirstudents.Overtime,guidancecounselingbecameafull-timepositioninandofitself.However,therearestillcasestodayofteachersactinginthecapacityofschoolcounselorforAlaskaelementaryschoolswhichdonotemployacounselor.Schoolcounselingprogramsalsobegantomoveslowlyfromitsoriginsatthehighschoolleveldowntotheelementarylevel.Therewerechangesinpoliticalandsocialforceswithinthecountrywhichbroughtwiththemchangesinschoolcounselingprograms.Currentelementarycounselingprogramsareverydifferentfromearlyeffortsatthehighschoollevel.Thereisnowafocuswithinelementarycounselingprogramsongroupwork,prevention,andearlyintervention.

6Historically,schoolcounselingwasfocusedonvocationalguidance(Lambie&Williamson,2004).ThefirstprogramthatcouldbelabeledschoolguidancewasintroducedinDetroitbyJesseB.Davisin1889.DaviswasaprincipalwhoincorporatedaguidanceprogramintoeachEnglishclasswithinhishighschool.Heencouragedteacherstohavestudentswriteessaysthatwouldassistthemintheircareerdevelopmentandalsowithsocialconcerns(Coy,1999).Thevalueofguidingstudentsintermsoftheircareerorvocationwasbeginningtobeviewedasanimportantpursuitwithintheeducationalsystem.In1908,FrankParsonsemergedasaleaderinwhatwouldbecomevocationalguidance(O'Brien,2001).Parsonswasemployedinawiderangeofprofessionsthroughouthisshortlifetime.Heisbestknownintheeducationfieldforhispositiononcareerguidance.Parsonsbelievedinindividualizationandequalitythroughcareerguidance.Hefeltthateducationcouldbeanagentforsocialchangeandassuchallpersons,includingthosefromdisadvantagedgroups,shouldhaveaccesstocareerguidancewherebythecounselorwouldassisttheminmakinginformedvocationaldecisions.Additionally,itwasproposedbyParsonsthatcareerguidancewasneededforyoungerstudentsaswell;thusthefirstlookatcounselingwithelementarystudents(O'Brien).BuildingfromtheearlierideasofParsons,E.G.Williamsondevelopedatraitandfactorapproachtocounselinginthe1930s.Williamsonfeltthatthistheorycouldbeapplicabletomorethanjustvocationalguidance,althoughthathasbeenwherethistheoryhasbeenmostapplied.Williamson'sconceptwasthefirstorganizedguidanceand

7counselingtheory(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Itstressedthattherightstimulantsduringtherighttimeperiodscouldaffectchangeinastudent'sdevelopment.Thisideaofguidingdevelopmentreinforcedaneedforguidancecounselorswithintheschoolbuilding,especiallyattheelementarylevel.Today,elementaryschoolcounselorsspendaboutathirdoftheirtimeinassistingstudentsthroughgrouplessonstoacquiretheknowledgeandskillstopromotetheiracademic,career,andpersonal/socialdevelopment.Williamson'stheorypresentedaninitiallookatdramaticallychangingtheroleoftheguidancecounselor.Suddenly,thesolefocusoftransitioningstudentsoutofschooldevelopedintosupportingthemwithinschoolaswell.However,forthemostpart,schoolcounselorscontinuedtobeteacherswhowereonspecialassignmentwithintheschooltoassistinpost-secondarytransitioning,andcontinuedtobeemployedmainlyatthehighschoollevel(Gysbers,2001b).Itwasnotuntilthemiddleofthe20thcenturythatschoolcounselingreceivedaprofessionalstatus(Baumanetal.,2003).Atthattime,schoolcounselorswereoperatingunderthedepartmentofPupilPersonnelServices(Coy,1999),whichaddressedareasofguidance,socialandpsychologicalservices,andattendanceconcerns(Gysbers,2001a).Thethreebasicmodelsthatwereinuseatthistimeweretheservicesmodel,processmodel,andthedutiesmodel.Eachofthesethreemodelsaddressedassessmentsandplacementwithnostatedtaskofidentifyingstudentneedsorsuggestionfortheallocationofschoolcounselors'time.Schoolcounselingwasmorereactiveandadministrative

8whichledtocounselingbeingviewedmoreasanancillaryprogramwithinschools(Gysbers,1990).1.3Counselors'ChangingRolesAfterWorldWarI,theschoolcounselor'srolebeganasignificantchangedueinparttothecommonuseofintelligencetestsbythemilitarywhichthenledtotheuseoftestingwithinthevocationalguidanceprogram(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Schoolswerereceivingpressuretoidentifyandsupportstudentsintheareasofscienceandmathanditwasbelievedthattheuseofintelligencetestscouldassistwiththisgoal.TherewasafearatthattimeintheUnitedStatesthatthecountry'sstudentswerenotbeingguidedproperlyintotheareaofhardsciences,whichinturnwouldmakethecountryfallbehindtechnologywisetotheSovietUnion(Lambie&Williamson),andwiththeuseofintelligencetestscounselorscouldproperlyplacestudentsinareaswheretheywouldbeabletobestservetheircountry.TheaimwasthatschoolpersonnelcouldguidestudentsintomathandsciencecareersandthusmaintaintheUnitedStatesasaworldcontenderintheareaoftechnology,specificallyspacetechnology(Herr,2002).Sincecounselorsusedthesetestresultstoassiststudentswiththetransitiontopost-secondaryeducation,thedutiesofhighschoolguidancecounselorsdidnotchange,simplythemeansforwhichthetaskwascompleted.Thecounselor'sroleduringthistimeremainedprimarilyaverydirectiveone.Schoolcounselorswereexpectedtogatherfactsaboutstudentsandthengiveguidanceordirection.Therewasnotafocusontherelationshipwithstudents,whichwoulddeveloplaterasasignificantpartofthecounselor'sroleintheschool,dueinparttotheworkof

9CarlRogersandtheHumanisticmovementwithintheUnitedStates(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Schoolcounselorswereexpectedtohelpsecondarystudentsdiscovertheiroptionsaftergraduation.Muchattentionwasgiventopreparingcollegeboundstudentsforthetransitionintopost-secondaryeducation(Herr,2002)andpreparingstudentstoentertheworkforce(Gysbers,2001a).Thisimageofschoolcounselorsbeingprimarilytransitionagentsisonethatmanyadministratorsandschoolcounselorscontinuetohaveatthehighschoollevel,despiteallthesocialandacademicchangesofthiscentury(Johnson,2000).CarlRoger'sworkduringthe1940sinfluencedatransitionfortheschoolcounselor'srole,whichbegantheshiftawayfrompsychometrics,suchasintelligencetesting,asafocusofschoolcounseling(Gysbers,2001a).ItisbelievedthatRogersmayhavehadthemostsignificantimpactofanytheoristonthedevelopmentofmoderncounselingapproaches(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Rogersstressedtheimportanceofcreatingasafeenvironmentforthestudenttorealizetheirpotential.Hebelievedthatthiswasbestdonethroughthedevelopmentofarelationshipwiththestudent.Thisapproachhadaneffectofchangingthefocusofguidancecounselingtoassistingstudentsintheareasofcognitive,personal,socialandmoraldevelopmentthrougharelationshipwiththestudent.Thatis,thestudentwastobecomeateammemberintheirowndevelopment,andtheguidancecounselorwastotravelonthepathtothesedevelopmentswiththestudent,butnotleadthestudentinthesamedirectivewayasbefore.Throughoutthisdevelopment,therewerelegislativemovementsthatalsochangedtheroleoftheschoolcounselor.TheNationalDefenseEducationActof1958(Herr,

102002)andthelateramendmentstothisActin1964chargedschoolcounselorswithidentifyingandsupportinggiftedstudents(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Itwasnearthistime,in1959,inwhichAlaskabecameastateandshortlythereafterbeganorganizingandaddressingcounselingwithintheschools.Justeightyearsafterstatehood,Alaskadevelopedastate-levelpositionofSchoolCounselingCoordinator,whichunfortunatelyhasnotbeenconsistentlyinplacewithinthestatesincethattime(Buckner&MacKenzie,1990).TheElementaryandSecondaryEducationAct,aswellastheVocationEducationActAmendmentsof1968,earmarkedfundstosupportguidanceandcounselingprofessionalswithinschoolsystemstodevelopcounselingprograms,specificallymoniesweresetasidetosupportcounselorsinelementaryschools(Baumanetal.,2003).ThentheEducationalActforAllHandicappedChildrenof1975increasedtheschoolcounselor'sroletoincludesupportingallstudentstobesuccessfulwithintheschool(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Bothoftheseacts,aswellaspublicationsbythenationalCommissionofExcellenceinEducation,whichpublishedareportclaiminganeedforinterventionsaswellasaccountabilityfromschoolsforthesuccessofallstudents,contributedtothechangingrolesofschoolcounselorsandsuddenlymadeelementaryschoolcounselingamorecommonoccurrence(Lambie&Williamson),thoughstillnotdefiningroleswithanyclarity(Herr,2002).Betweenthe1960sandthe1980s,schoolcounselorsnationwidebegantobecomeawareoftheincreasingroleconfusionandconflictwithintheirprofessionwhichgaverisetothecomprehensivedevelopmentalprogram(Gysbers,2001a).Threenewmodels

11wereintroducedatthistimeforchangingschoolguidanceprogramsbyMyrick,JohnsonandJohnson,andalsoGysbersandMoore,withlaterrevisionsbyGysbersandHenderson(Gybers).In1971,theUnitedStatesOfficeofEducationawardedagranttotheUniversityofMissouri-Columbiatoassistindevelopingaguideforimplementingcareerguidance,counseling,andplacementprogramsinschools.ThemanualwasheavilyinfluencedbyGysbersandHenderson'smodelandwaspublishedin1974(Gysbers,1990).Theresultingmodelprovidedforthreebasicorganizationalstructures:curriculum-basedfunctions,individualfacilitationfunctions,andon-callfunctions.Thismodelalsoprovidedasuggestedtime-distributionforschoolcounselorstoorganizetheirprograms.Thiswasthefirsttimethattheallocationofcounselors'timehadbeenaddressedinschoolcounseling.Additionally,differingtimeallocationsweregivenforthehighschool,middleschoolandelementarylevels,recognizingthatthereareseparateneedprioritiesforelementarystudents(Gysbers).Overthenextseveralyears,theoriginalmodelputforthbytheUniversityofMissouri-Columbiawasrevisedandenhanced.By1978,thefocusofthismodelhadshiftedtooneofacomprehensive,developmentalguidanceprogram.Intherevisedmodeltherewereseveralnewrecommendationsaddedtotheprogram.Awrittendefinitionthatoutlinesthecounselingprogram'smissionstatementwasoneofthesenewrecommendations.Therewasalsoarecommendationthatprogramsincludeawrittenrationaledefiningtheimportanceoftheguidanceprogramaspartofatotaleducational

12systemandwrittenassumptionsthatprovidedthebasisfortheprinciplesthatshapeandguidethecounselingprogram.InthisrevisedMissouri-Columbiamodel,specificguidanceprogramcontentandprocesseswereoutlinedmoreclearly.Thecontentaspectofthemodeldescribedtheskillsstudentsshouldacquirefromparticipatingintheprogram.Theseskillswerefocusedontheareasofacademic,careerandpersonal/socialdevelopment.Theprocessaspectoutlinedwhatguidanceactivitiesthecounselorshouldbedoingintheprogram.Thesespecificguidanceactivitiesweregroupedintofourmaincomponents:curriculum-basedprocesses,whichchangedovertimetoguidancecurriculum;individual-developmentprocesses,whichcametobecalledindividualplanning;on-callresponsiveservices,whichdevelopedintosimplyresponsiveservices;andsystemsupport(Gysbers,1990).The1980ssawachangeduetoanincreasingdemandforaccountabilitywithintheschool.Whilethereport,ANationatRisk,didnotcallforthisaccountabilityspecificallywithschoolcounselors,itdidfocusthenation'sattentionondecliningstudentperformances(Baumanetal.,2003).Thisreport,alongwiththe2001NoChildLeftBehindlegislation,usheredinaneraofaccountabilityforschoolcounselors.Attentionchangedfromwhattheschoolcounselorsweredoingtohowstudentsweredifferentasaresultofwhatcounselorsweredoing.Thefocuswasnotontheprocessbutonthecontentandoutcomesofprograms.Schoolcounselorswerethencomingintoapositiontobeadvocatesforstudentsandtoassistinremovingbarriersforthem(Baumanetal.),puttingthecounselorattheforefrontofaccountabilityforstudentachievement.

13In1988,duringthisneweraofaccountability,ataskforceinAlaska,inwhichNormanGysbersparticipated,decidedtoendorseGybers'comprehensiveschoolguidancemodel.TheAlaskaSchoolCounselorProgramGuidewasdevelopedfromthismodelandthenadoptedandendorsedforallschoolswithinAlaskabytheAlaskaStateSchoolBoardin1989(Gysbers,1990).Overtheyears,therehavebeenslightchangesintitlewithnewerversionsofthisguide.In2001,TheComprehensiveCounselingProgramforAlaskaPublicSchools:AGuideforProgramDevelopmentK-12'Gradewasproducedasarevisionofthe1989modelbytheAlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment(ADEED).Mostrecently,theAlaskaSchoolCounselorAssociationproducedaguideentitledAlaskaSchoolCounselingFramework,whichtiestogethertheAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation'snationalmodelwithadditionalconsiderationsuniquetoAlaskasuchasrurallocations,lackofsunlight,anditineratecounseling(AlaskaSchoolCounselorAssociation,2007).Theroleofschoolcounselinghaschangedovertheyearsinaccordancewithsocialandpoliticalchangesinthecountry(Gysbers,2001a;Paisley&McMahon,2001).Amongallthehistoricalchanges,schoolcounselorshavetakenonmanyadditionalresponsibilitieswithinschools.Duringthe1990s,theAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociationbeganadvocatingforachangeintitletomatchthechangeinresponsibilities.Schoolcounselorswerenolongersimplyaidingstudentsinthetransitionfromschooltowork.Nowcounselorswereperformingmanydutiesincludingassessment,intervention,collaborationandconsultation,aswellasguidance.Thusthetitleofguidancecounselors

14changedtoprofessionalschoolcounselorstomoreclearlyrepresentthecounselor'sjobduties(Lambie&Williamson,2004).1.4ChallengesFacingCounselorsTodayIncreasingly,professionalschoolcounselorsarebeginningtoberequiredtonotonlyshowwhattheyaredoingbutalsohowitishelpingstudentachievement.Manyprofessionalswithintheschoolbuildingdonotknowwhatexactlyaschoolcounselorshouldbedoing,thusaccountabilityisverydifficulttodemonstrate.Professionalorganizations,suchasASCAhaveputagreatdealofeffortintodefiningandguidingtheprofessionalschoolcounselorthroughcontributingacounselingmodelaswellasoutliningappropriatecounselingtasks.ProfessionalschoolcounselorswithinAlaskafaceallthesamechallengesasothercounselorsacrossthenationwiththeaddedjobstressofmanyruralandisolatedlocations.PaisleyandMcMahon(2001)exploredfouridentifiedchallengeswhichfacecounselorsinschoolstoday.Themostsignificant,accordingtothispair,isthechallengeofroledefinitionfortheschoolcounselor.Therecontinuestobeapullbetweenaccountabilityforacademicachievementandaneedformentalhealthservicestoenhancepersonal/socialareas.Inmanyschools,professionalschoolcounselorsmaywellbetheonlystaffon-sitewithintheschoolbuildingwiththetraininginbothmentalhealthissuesandeducation(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Often,counselorswithintheschoolsystemaretheonlymentalhealthprofessionalthatchildrenwillhaveaccessto(Lambie&Williamson,2004).Johnson(2000)contendsthatthereneednotbeaneither/orapproachtothisissue,butratherthatthementalhealthneedsofstudents

15shouldbeaddressedinthecontextofanoverallapproachtopromotingstudentsuccessintheareasofpersonal/social,careerandacademics.Schoolcounselorsmusthaveatleastamaster'sdegreeandstatecertificationinAlaska(AlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2006).Consideringthislevelofeducationandtraining,itisprofitabletoboththeschoolandthestudentstohaveschoolcounselorsfulfilltheirrolewithintheschoolcommunity.ASCAhasprovidedaroledescriptionwhichoutlineswhatisbelievedtobeabalancedapproachtowardsaddressingstudentneedsthroughthreespecificdomains:academic,careerandpersonal/social(Paisley&McMahon,2001).Itissuggestedinthisproposedroledefinitionthatcounselorsbefamiliarwithandimplementestablishedinterventionsaimedatspecificstudentstandardstothefurthestextentdeemedappropriateintheirschoolcommunity.Asecondchallengebroughtforthisthatofincreasingdiversityinthestudentpopulationswithinschools.Itisbelievedthatmanyinterventionsandmodelsaregearedtowardwhite,middleclassstudentsanddonotmeettheneedsofotherpopulations.Whiston(2002)arguesthatmanyofthetheoriesthatguideinterventionsweredevelopedduringthe1950sand60sandthatthereisaconsiderablelackofcurrenttheoreticalwritingsforschoolcounseling.Additionally,formanyculturalminorities,includingAlaskaNativeyouth,theremustbeatieinwiththevaluesortraditionsinthecultureifstudentsareexpectedtobesuccessfullearnersinthedominantsociety(Moratti,2006).ThechallengeofdiversestudentpopulationsisespeciallyrelevantforcounselingprogramswithinAlaskawherethereareuniqueaspectsofdiversitywithinschools.

16ElementaryschoolcounselorsinAlaskamayhaveamajorityoftheircommunitycomprisedofpersonswithaWhiteethnicitybutwithasmallpercentofAlaskaNative,Black,Asian,HispanicorHawaiianethnicitiesinthemoreurbanareassuchasAnchorage,JuneauorFairbanks.WhilecounselorsinrurallocationscouldhaveveryhomogeneouspopulationscomprisedofalmostexclusivelyAlaskaNativeethnicitieswithsmallportionsofpersonswithWhiteethnicdemographicsandverylittleotherethnicitiesincommunitiessuchasBethel,DillinghamorvillagesintheNorthwestArcticBorough(U.S.CensusBureau,2000).Thus,counselorsinAlaskaelementaryschoolsarecurrentlyworkingwithinterventionsthatasWhiston(2002)stated,maybeoutdatedforthepopulationtheyserve.AccountabilitycomesasathirdidentifiedchallengeforschoolcounselorsinPaisleyandMcMahon's(2001)study.Thetrendtowardsaccountabilityforcescounselorstoconductprogramevaluationsanddemonstratehowtheprogramisbenefitingstudents.Thisisachallengeespeciallyforcounselorswhoareunawareoruncomfortablewithevaluationtechniquesusedinschools.Thefourthareaoffocusthatmaypresentasachallengetoschoolcounselorsisadvancingtechnology.Counselorsmuststayuptodateinareasoftechnologytobebettercapableoftacklingthefirstthreechallengingareas.Technology,throughtimesaving,connecting,andresearchingabilities,mayreducetheeffectsoftheseissuesoncounselingprograms(Paisley&McMahon).ThismayalsobeavitaltoolforelementarycounselorsinAlaskawherethereareissuesofisolatedschoolsiteswhichcontinuetobeofftheroadsystem,butarelinkedthroughtechnology.

17Professionalschoolcounselorsarethemainstaffmemberswithinschoolcommunitieswhoaddressthesocialandemotionalneedsofstudents,aswellasconnectingfamilieswithresourcesinthecommunity.Thisisonereasonwhyschoolcounselorsareanimportantpieceinpromotingstudentachievement.Additionally,eachcounselingprogramhasuniqueneeds.Schoolcounselorscanidentifywhatthoseneedsareintheirschoolcommunityandwiththeirstakeholdersandthenemphasizetheactivitiesbestsuitedtoachievestudentsuccess.Theprofessionalschoolcounselorisanimportantsourceofsupportwithintheschoolforimprovingstudentachievement.Unfortunately,thesignificanceofthecounselor'sroleisoftenoverlookedandcounselorsareaskedtospendtheirtimeinnon-counselingactivitieswhichdonotworktoprovidethebenefitthatamorefocusedcounselingprogramcouldforstudentsuccess(Herr,2002).1.5DefiningtheCounselor'sRoleProfessionalschoolcounselorshavehadaconsistentlychanginganddivergingrolewithinschoolsystems.Manyschoolcounselorsarestrugglingtodefinetheirrolewithintheschool(JonesSears&HaagGranello,2002).Oftentimes,counselorsarecalledupontofulfillconflictingroles,suchasconfidantanddisciplinarianwiththesamestudents(Cunanan&Maddy-Bernstein,1994).Asaresult,itisimperativethatschoolcounselorsfindawaytoclearlydefinetheirroleswithintheschoolbuilding.Problemscanarisefromcounselorsthathaveunclearorundefinedrolesintheirprograms.Onemajorconflictthatoccurswithundefinedprogramsisthatotherprofessionalsinthebuildingaswellasparentswillbelievethattheiragendasarethenthepriorityofthe

18counselingprogram(Cunanan&Maddy-Bernstein;Herr,2001).Thisinturn,canleadtodisappointmentandcriticismofthecounselorand/orthecounselingprogram.Counselorsnotonlystrugglewithroledefinitioninthebalancebetweenpersonal/socialandacademicareasofthestudents'life,butalsoinwhatareappropriatetasksanddutiesforthecounselor.Typicaldutiesthatbecometheresponsibilityoftheschoolcounselorwhichareoutsidethenationalmodelframeworkincludesuchactivitiesasmasterscheduleduties,testingcoordinators,detentionroomcoverage,discipline,classroomcoverage,andclericalresponsibilities(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Theseareactivitiesthatdonotrequireamaster'sdegreetocomplete,thustheuseoftheschoolcounselorinthesedutiesisamisuseofschoolresources.Additionally,whencounselorsspendsignificanttimeonthesetypesofactivitiestheyaretakenawayfromcounselingduties,whichwillinturncompromisetheirprograms.Oneofthecentralproblemsinthemisuseofcounselors'timeisthatthesenon-counselingactivitiesarevitaltotheoperationoftheschoolandmustbereassignedtotheappropriatestaffmembers.Reassignmentoftenbecomesadifficulttask,yetifprofessionalschoolcounselorsfill-uptheirscheduleswithnon-counselingactivities,notonlyistheprogramcompromisedbutthecounselorisviewedasnon-professional(Madden,2002).ASCApresentsthecomprehensivecounselingprogrammodelasaframeworkforbuildingcounselingprogramsinawaythatwouldassistcounselorsineliminatingthesenon-counselingactivities.However,evenwiththeprofessionalliteratureaswellasprofessionalorganizationsandADEEDsupportingawrittenandwelldevelopedguidanceprogramwhichisimplementedsystematicallytoallstudents(Alaska

19DepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2006),notallcounselorswanttodeliveracomprehensiveguidanceprogramandeliminatenon-guidanceactivities(Larivee,2002).Principalsandcounselorsdevelopworkingrolesfortheschoolcounselorthatarecomfortableandfillavaluableneedwithintheschool,whichoftenbothpartiesarenotwillingtoreassigntonon-counselingstaff.Thecomprehensivecounselingprogrammodelpresentsthatthesystematicuseofsuchaprogramallowsschoolcounselorstobeabletoidentifyandthenjointlyproducedevelopmentallyappropriateinterventionswithclassroomteachersandasaresultincreasestudentsuccess(Poynton&Carey,2006).Inmanyschools,thecaseloadsaresimplytoolargeforschoolcounselorstoeffectivelyworkwitheverystudent,andassuchcollaborationwithteachersdoesbecomeessentialtoaneffectivecounselingprogram(Paisley&McMahon,2001).Whiston(2002)cautionsagainsttheoveruseofcollaboration;hestatesthatcounselorsaretheprofessionalstrainedtodelivercertainlessonsandskilldevelopmentandthatshouldnotbeshiftedontoteacherswhomaynotbefullypreparedtoguidestudentsinsomeareas.Conversely,Sink(2008)stressesthatcounselorsarenotthecentralfigureofthecounselingprogram,morethattheyarethewelleducatedprofessionalintheareaofcollaborationtobothdirectlyandindirectlycoordinateservicesforstudentswhichwillinturnpromotestudentsuccess.Thus,itisarguedthatcounselorsdonotneedtodirectlydeliverservicesinallcasesforstudentstoreceivethebenefitsofthecomprehensivecounselingprogram.Additionally,whencounselorsareleftontheirownwiththecompleteresponsibilityofthecounselingprogramwithoutinvolvementofother

20stakeholderssuchasteachers,theprogramoftenturnstoamorecrisesstyleprogramwherebythecounselorissimplyreactingtothenextcrisis(Myrick,1987).ThisisaconcernforelementarycounselorsinAlaska,caseloadsarelargeandthereisnocoordinatorforcounselingprogramswithinthestate.1.6AddressingtheRoleConflictCounselorsworkinginschoolsitesmaycontinuetoexperienceanidentityconflict,evenwithalltheprovidedroledefinitionsupportfromprofessionalassociations.Thisoccurswhenthereisadissonancebetweenwhatthecounselorfeelshisorherroleintheschoolcommunityisandwhatisactuallybeingaskedofthecounselortoperform.Thissortofvarianceinrolemaypossiblystemfromschoolcounselorprogramsbeingdirectedbynon-counselingprofessionals,suchasprincipalsandassistantprincipals.Aconflictariseswhentheprincipal'sagendadoesnottakeintoconsiderationwhatthecounselor'sroleshouldbewithintheirbuilding,asoutlinedbyprofessionalcounselingassociations,butratherisfocusedonwhatneedstobeaccomplishedwithintheschool(Culbrethetal.,2005;Fitchetal,2001;Shoffner&Williamson,2000).Administratorsaretheprofessionalswholeadtheschoolteam.Theyunderstandtheneedsandmissionoftheschool;however,theydonotalwaysunderstandtherolewhichthecounselorshouldplaywithintheteam.Thelevelofsuccessachievedindevelopinganeffectivecounselingprogramoftendependsontheamountofsupportreceivedfromtheprincipal(Perusseetal.,2004).Theneedforprincipalsupportreinforcestheneedforcollaborationandcommunicationregardingjobresponsibilitiesandexpectationsnotonlywithclassroomteachers,butalsowithprincipalstopromote

21successfulcounselingprogramsinelementaryschools.GrayandMcCollum(2003)stressthatcounselorsshouldnotonlybeeducatedintheskillsnecessarytoeffectivelyimplementcounselingprogramsbutshouldalsobeeducatedinhowtodevelopastrongprofessionalidentitythroughunderstandingthephilosophythatunderliestheirprofessionandtobeabletoeffectivelycommunicatethisidentitytootherprofessionals.Oneproblemthatoccurswithschoolcounselingprogramsisthateachseparateschoolencouragesdifferenttypesofguidanceprograms.Penasseetal.(2004)foundinanationalstudywithparticipantsfromtheAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,theNationalAssociationofSecondarySchoolPrincipalsandtheNationalAssociationofElementarySchoolPrincipals,thatoutofthe1,111respondentsacleardefinitionofinappropriateandappropriatetasksfortheprofessionalschoolcounselorcouldnotbeestablished;therewastoomuchvariability.Thelackofabilitytoclearlyoutlinethecounselor'stasksisproblematicwhentryingtodevelopthemosteffectiveprogramsorwhennewprofessionalsjointheschoolteam;thusthereisaclearneedforoutlinedroles,dutiesandthemissionofcounselingprograms(Herr,2002).Aguideforamorecleardefinitionofrolesanddutiesiswhatthenationalmodelattemptstoprovide.Someelementaryschoolcounselorsstillfindhoweverthatthismodeldoesnotfittheneedsoftheirspecificcommunitiesandassuchdonotimplementrecommendedpracticesoronlydosoonalimitedbasis(Larivee,2002).Additionally,itisstillpossiblethatadministratorsarenotawarethatspecificstandardsoutlinedincounselingmodelsevenexisttoguidetheschoolcounselingprograms;muchlesswhat

22thosestandardsare,therebyhavinganegativeinfluenceonhowprincipalsassignduties(Whiston,2002).Inthenation-widestudybyPerusseetal.(2004),researchersfoundsupportfortheirinitialtheory.Theinappropriatetasksmostfrequentlycitedasbeingperformedbycounselorswerealsothetasksperceivedbyprincipalsasproperdutiesofthecounselor.Aseparatestudyof86principalsintrainingattwoKentuckyuniversitiesfoundsimilarresults(Fitchetal.,2001).Futureadministratorsinthisstudycorrectlyprioritizedcounselorfunctionsinaccordancewithcomprehensiveguidanceprogramstandards,howevertheyalsociteddisciplinary,clericalandspecialeducationdutiesastheresponsibilityofthecounselor.Thefindingsfrombothofthesestudiesdemonstratehowprincipalperceptionsguideacounselingprogramintonon-counselingareasandaffectthecounselor'srolewithintheschoolcommunity.ElementaryschoolcounselorrolemisperceptionisanoccurrencethathasbeencitedinstudiesofAlaskaaswell.Intheir1973reportsubmittedtotheAlaskaDepartmentofEducation,Spazianietal.(1973)hadalreadyidentifiedthatthereexistedsignificantdifferencesinprincipals'andcounselors'perceptionsregardingtheschoolcounselors'roleandtheimportanceofcounselingfunctions.Itwassuggestedinthatreportthatmoreorganizationwasneededtodevelopaphilosophyforguidanceandcounselingprogramswithmeasurableobjectivesandmethodsofoperationaswellasidentifyinganoutlinedmethodofevaluation.Inordertoaccomplishtheseprogramimprovements,elementaryschoolcounselingonthewholeneedstohaveadequatefunding(OfficeofIntergovernmentalandInteragencyAffairs,2000).

23Schoolcounselorshavethepotentialtoimpacttheschoolclimate,schoolpolicies,andstudentachievementifallowedtofulfilltheirproperrolewithintheschool(Fitch&Marshall,2004;Gray&McCollum,2003).Additionally,counselorswhoareabletofulfilltheroleswhichtheyattributetotheirprofessionhavebeenfoundtohaveastrongerprofessionalidentity(Hendersonetal.,2007)andhigherjobsatisfaction.Strongersensesofprofessionalidentityandincreasedjobsatisfactioncouldtheninturninfluenceretentionrateswithinschoolsandallowformoreeffectivecounselingprograms(DeMato&Curcio,2004).JonesSearsandHaagGranello(2002)proposethatpartofthedifficultyinestablishingdefinedrolesandprofessionalidentityforschoolcounselorsliesintheinconsistentandvaguelanguageusedwiththisprofession.Thetermsguidancecounselorandprofessionalschoolcounselorarebothusedintheprofessionalliteratureaswellasdevelopmentalcounselingprogramsandcomprehensivecounselingprogramswhenspeakingofschoolcounselorsandwhattheyaredoingwithintheschoolbuildings.Theseauthorspurposethatthissortofinconsistencyintermsdemonstratesalackofprofessionalidentityandfurthersthatlackofidentitydevelopmentbyconfusingadministratorsandotherstakeholdersregardingtheexpecteddutiesoftheschoolcounselor.Essentially,guidancecounselingwasahistorictermwhichhasbeenreplacedbyprofessionalschoolcounseling;however,thetermisstillusedinmanycasesandreferstothesameposition.Comprehensivecounselingprogramsshouldbedevelopmentalinnatureandthusbedevelopmental,comprehensivecounselingprograms.Themain

24confusionenterswhenprofessionalswithoutacounselingbackgroundareinchargeofthecounselingprogramandmaynotbefamiliarwiththefrequentinterchangeabilityofmanyofthesewords.Thatiswhencounselorsmustbeclearintheircommunicationswithotherprofessionalsregardingtheirroleandthegoalsofthecounselingprogram.1.7SummaryWhiston(2002)predictsthatprofessionalschoolcounseling,aswellaseducationingeneral,isinaneraofchangeorreform.Therehasalreadybeenmuchchangeinschoolcounselingsincethefirstenrichmentactivitiesinhighschoolcoreclasses,bothatthenationallevelaswellaswithinthestateofAlaska.Muchofthischangehasbeenduetosocial,politicalandeconomicissuesconfrontingschools.Whistontheorizesthatcurrenttimesmaybecomeknownasasignificantcriticalperiodinprofessionalschoolcounselinghistory.Meaningthatasprofessionalschoolcounselorshavethroughouttheirhistorychangedtomeettheneedsofthestudentsandcommunitiesinwhichtheyserve,theywillneedtocontinuetodosointothefuture(Paisley&McMahon,2001).Coy(1999)arguesthatschoolcounselorrolesshouldbedeterminedatthedistrictlevelinpartnershipwithbuildingadministratorsandthatthisroleshouldbedrivenbyneedsassessmentsconductedwithstudentsandotherstakeholderssuchasparents,teachers,administratorsandschoolboardmembers.Similarly,Gysbers(1990)statedprogramsarenotfixedentitiesonceenacted;needsassessmentsandchangestomeetthoseneedsmustcontinueifschoolcounselingprogramsaretoremaineffective.ASCAcontributesamethodfordefiningtheroleofelementaryschoolcounselorsthroughtheuseofacomprehensivecounselingprogrammodel.

25Mostcounselingprogramsarecurrentlyoverseenbybuildingadministrators.Theseadministratorstraditionallyhaveverylittletrainingincounselingissues;asaresult,programsarenotalwaysdevelopedwiththepremiseofestablishingthecounselor'srolethroughenhancingcounselingdutiesandreducingnon-counselingtasks.Itthencurrentlyfallstoeachindividualcounselortolearnandcommunicatetothestakeholdersattheirschoolwhataprofessionalschoolcounselorshouldbedoingaswellashowacomprehensivecounselingprogramwouldfunctionwithineachspecificcommunityculture.

26Chapter2TheComprehensiveCounselingProgram2.1IntroductionTheAmericanSchoolCounselorsAssociation(ASCA)haspresentedthecomprehensivecounselingprogramnationalmodelasaframeworkforallcounselorstouseindevelopingtheirschoolcounselingprograms.ThestateofAlaskahasadoptedaversionofthecomprehensivecounselingprogramforusewithallelementaryschoolsinthestatewhichwasbuiltfromthenationalmodel.Comprehensivecounselingprogramshavespecificstandardsforwhatastudentshouldgainasaresultofhavingbeenpartoftheprograminareasofacademic,careerandpersonal/socialdomains,aswellas,definingthespecificdutiesandtimeallocationsforcounselorstoreferencewhendevelopingschoolcounselingprograms.Additionally,comprehensiveprogramsaredesignedtoserviceallstudentsinadevelopmentallyappropriatemannerratherthanonlythosestudentswhoareeitherhighachievingoratriskforschoolfailureasmoretraditionalprogramshavedone.However,Whiston(2002)arguesthatprofessionalschoolcounselorsarestretchedtoothin,thattheytrytodotoomanythingswithtoolargeofcaseloadsandschoolcounselorswillhavetomakedifficultdecisionsaboutwhattheirroleiswithintheschooliftheyhopetohaveaneffectiveprogram.Ascounselorsarebeingaskedtotakeonlargercaseloads,withstudenttocounselorratiosbeingsoextreme,counselorscannotexpecttoserveallstudents.Thisdirectlyconflictswiththemaintenantsofthecomprehensiveschool

27counselingprogramtheoryinwhichallstudentshavedirectaccesstothecounselingprogram.Comprehensiveprogramsshouldhaveclearoutlinesandobjectiveswhichsupportthemissionofboththecounselingprogramandtheschool.Counselorsusingcomprehensiveprogramsshouldbeplanningandimplementingspecific,empiricallysupported,interventionsthroughfourmaincomponentsofthedeliverysystem:guidancecurriculum,individualplanning,responsiveservices,andsystemsupport(Gysbers&Henderson,2002).Alloftheinterventionsineachofthecomponentareasarefocusedonfacilitatingsuccessinoneormoreoftheacademic,career,orpersonal/socialareasofstudentdevelopment.2.2MainComponentsoftheComprehensiveCounselingProgramASCAdevelopedthenationalmodelforcomprehensiveguidanceprogramsin2003,whichwasinfluencedstronglybytheprofessionalworksandwritingsofNormanGysbersandPatHenderson,SharonandCurlyJohnson,andRobertMyrick(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Itisproposedthatcomprehensivecounselingprogramsshouldbeproactiveratherthanreactive(Dimmitt&Carey,2007;Fitch&Marshall,2004).Programsshouldbedevelopedtoassisteverystudenttofurtherhis/herdevelopment.Theprofessionalschoolcounselorshouldbefamiliarwithstudentstandardswhendevelopingthecounselingprogramaswellashowtosupportstudentsinadevelopmentallyappropriatemanner.TakingthisthemeofappropriateinterventionsastepfurthertomeettheneedsofAlaskaelementaryschoolcounselingprograms,

28counselorswillneedtobefamiliarwiththecultureofthecommunityinwhichtheyareemployed.Whenschoolpersonnelrespectstudents'culture,itassistsstudentstobecomesuccessfullearnersinamulticulturalsociety(Moratti,2006).Animportantconceptincomprehensiveprpgramsisthattheyareneeds-drivenprogramsthatpromotethesuccessofeverychildintheschool(Bowers,Hatch&Schwallie-Giddis,2001),butinaproactivemanner.Programsshouldbedesignedtobedevelopmentallyappropriateaswellasrelevanttoindividualstudents(MacDonald&Sink,1999).Areasofdifferencesbetweenmoretraditionalprogramsandcomprehensiveprogramsincludesuchthingsastraditionalprogramsminimizetheuseofgroupworkandassignlargeamountsofclericalresponsibilitiestothecounselorwhilethecomprehensiveprogramextensivelyutilizesgroupworkandfocusesondirectservicewithstudents,staff,andfamilies(Schmidt,2004).Morerecently,therehavebeenintroductionsofothercounselingapproaches(i.e.,school-basedfamilycounseling)thatincorporatedifferentapproaches(Moratti,2008),whichwerenotavailablewhencomprehensivecounselingprogramswerebeingdeveloped.Theuseoflittlegroupworkandemphasizingclericalresponsibilitiesinmoretraditionalprogramsmaybeinpartduetothehistoricaldutiesinwhichhighschoolcounselorswereresponsibleforintheearlieryearsoftheprofession;elementarycounselingcameaboutlater.Holcomb-McCoy,BryanandRahill(2002)foundinastudywithschoolcounselorsthatelementarycounselorsratedcounselingandguidanceknowledgeandskillsasmoreimportantthandidhighschoolcounselors.Theauthorsspeculatedthatthedifferenceinratingmaybeduetomoreindividualandgroup

29counselingactivitiesattheelementarylevelbeingconductedonadailybasisorpossiblybecauseofdifferentdevelopmentalneedsattheelementaryschoollevel.TheAlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment(ADEED)statesthatelementaryschoolcounselorsinthisstatewillassistallstudentsintheareasoftheiracademic,career,andpersonal/socialdevelopment(AlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2006).TheADEEDalsogivesoutlinesfortheneedededucationalrequirementsofaschoolcounseloraswellascompetenciesforthecounselorandthecounselingprogram.Professionalschoolcounselorsareexpectedtofollowanationalmodel,AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation'sNationalModel:AFrameworkforSchoolCounselingPrograms,whendesigningtheirprograms.Tofacilitateresultsthatareinlinewithgoals,comprehensiveguidanceprogramsincludefourmaincomponents:guidancecurriculum,individualplanning,responsiveservices,andsystemsupport.Thecomponentsaredeliveredwithinaframeworkofthreemainstudentcompetencyareas:academic,career,andpersonal/socialareas(Gysbers&Henderson,2002).Fromthis,standardswereformedwiththepremisethatcomprehensiveprogramswouldhelpallstudentstobesuccessfullearners(Penasse,Goodnough&Noel,2001).Thesestudentstandardsassistedprofessionalsinidentifyingaloosesetofgoalstoaimtheirprogramstowardsandalsostressaneedfordevelopmentallyappropriateinterventionsatallgradelevels,thusreinforcingtheneedforelementaryschoolcounselorstoprovidepreventionandearlyinterventionwithstudents.Counselorsshouldbeabletotrackeachofthetasksthattheyconductwithin

30theirprogramtooneofthesefourcomponentsandoneormoreofthethreestudentcompetencyareas(seeAppendixA,pg.144).Inadditiontothefourcomponentareasinthedeliverysystemofthecomprehensivecounselingprogram,therearefourbroaderelementstoestablishingaprogramthatmustbedevelopedfirst,whichthedeliverysystemisjustapart:foundation,deliverysystem,managementsystemandaccountability.Thefoundationpartoftheprogramoutlinesthebasicphilosophyofthecounselingprogram,whichwouldincludeawrittenmissionstatementthatdescribestheprogram'spurposeandcommunicatesthevisionforthecounselingprogramtostakeholderssuchasparents,teachers,administratorsandschoolboardrepresentatives(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Afterafoundationisestablished,theprogrammusthaveadeliverysystem;thisiswherethefourmaincomponentsofthecomprehensiveprogramaredeveloped.Thelasttwobroadbasedelementsinimplementingcomprehensiveguidanceprogramsincludeamanagementsystemandaccountability.Themanagementpartofguidanceprogramsiswherecounselorsinvolvestakeholdersinidentifyingthegoalsandresponsibilitiesoftheprogram.Anexampleofanactivityinthemanagementsystemisthatofinstitutingadvisorycouncils.Advisorycouncilsshouldbemadeupofarepresentativesampleofthestakeholders(e.g.parents,students,teachers,administrators,andcounselors).Unfortunatelyitcanbeverytimeconsumingandlaborintensivetosecureparentinvolvementintheschoolandthecounselingprogram(Cuthbert,2002),especiallywhenseekingaformalmeetingstylecontribution.Finally,accountabilityhelps

31counselorstoseeifprogramsarebeingeffective;ifstudentsareactuallybenefitingfrombeingpartofthecounselingprogram(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Focusingbackinonthedeliverysystem,thebasicstructureofhowaprogramgetsimplementedisoutlinedinthisareaofthecomprehensivecounselingprogram.Inthedeliverysystem,counselorsprovideserviceswhichcanbegroupedintothefourbasicareas:guidancecurriculum,individualstudentplanning,responsiveservicesandsystemsupport.ItispurposedbyRowley,StrohandSink(2005)thattheguidancecurriculumcomponentareamaycontributemoresignificantlytowardsaligningcomprehensivecounselingprogramswiththemissionofschoolsthananyoftheotherthreecomponentareas.However,eachcomponentareahasspecifictasksandtimeallocationsforelementarycounselorstousewhendesigningtheirownprograms.Intheguidancecurriculumarea,servicesaredeliveredinagroupformatthroughsystematicanddevelopmentallyappropriateclassroomlessonswhichtargetstudentgrowthintheareasofacademic,career,andpersonal/socialdevelopment.Skillswhichhavebeenidentifiedasbeingbeneficialinthenaturaldevelopmentofstudentsarespecificallytaughttoallstudents.Onewaythatacademicdevelopmentcanbeaddressedinthecounselingprogramisthroughcollaborationwiththeclassroomteacherregardingtheguidancecurriculumcomponentarea.However,collaborationwithteachersdoesnotneedtobelimitedtotheguidancecurriculumcomponentortheacademicfocusarea.Communicatingandworkingeffectivelywithteacherscanbenefitstudentsinallareasoftheirdevelopment(Clark&Amatea,2004;Shoffner&Briggs,2001).

32Thenationalmodelgivesspecifictimeallocationsforelementaryschoolcounselorswhichdifferfromotherlevelsoftheeducationalsystem.ASCAsuggeststhatcounselorsattheelementaryschoollevelshouldspendthemajorityoftheirtimeintheguidancecurriculumcomponentarea;a35to45percentasopposedtothehighschoollevelwhichrecommends15to25percent(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Thepercentageoftimespentinindividualplanningisalsodifferentforelementaryschoolcounselorsthanitisforcounselorsatotherlevelsoftheeducationalsystem.ASCArecommendsthatelementaryschoolcounselorsspendfiveto10percentoftheirtimeonthiscomponentwhichissignificantlylessthanahighschoolcounselorwouldspendinthisarea(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation).Individualstudentplanningcanbedeliveredinaone-on-oneinteractionorinasmallgroupformat.Thisinterventionhelpsstudentstoplan,evaluateandestablishpersonalgoalsfortheiracademic,careerandpersonalfutures.Individualstudentplanningcanbeaveryvaluabletoolintransitioningstudentstotheirnextlevelofeducation.One-on-onestudentplanningandtransitioningwerethebasicareasinwhichcounselorsoperatedintheearlyyearsoftheprofessionwhencareercounselingwasthepredominatefunctionofschoolcounselors,andstillremainsacomponentareawithstrongemphasisatthehighschoollevel.Theresponsiveservicescomponentinvolvesseveralsubcomponents.Inthisareaofthecomprehensiveguidanceprogram,counselorswilldeliverindividualandsmallgroupcounselingwithstudents.Theymayalsoprovidecrisiscounselingorhelptodeveloppeermediation.Themainfunctionsofschoolcounselorsaretoprovidestudents,

33facultyandparentswithconsultationandcoordinationaswellascounseling,whichalsooccurintheresponsiveservicescomponentarea.ASCArecommendsthattheelementaryschoolcounselorspendapproximately30to40percentoftheirtimeinactivitieswhichfallintotheresponsiveservicescomponentarea.Thiscomponentareamatchesmorecloselyacrosstheeducationallevelsthantheprevioustwocomponentareas.Therecommendedtimeallocationisnotverydifferentattheelementarylevelthantheexpectationsatthemiddleschoolandhighschoollevelsofcounseling(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Whilemostoftheactivitiesassociatedwithconsultingandcoordinatingareprovidedinthesystemsupportcomponentarea,therearesomethatfallwithintheresponsiveservicescomponentsuchasprovidingreferralsforstudentsandtheirfamiliestocommunityresources.Inastudyconcerningcounselors'role,BurnhamandJackson(2000)surveyed80professionalschoolcounselors.Findingsfromthatstudysuggestanoverrelianceonindividualcounselingwhichelevatedthepercentageoftimespentinresponsiveservicesbeyondwhatisrecommended.Itispostulatedbytheseauthorsthatthisoveruseofindividualworkoccurredbecausecounselorsaretrainedpredominatelyinindividualcounselingskills,thusfeelingmorepreparedandconfidentinthisarea.BurnhamandJackson(2000)suggestthatcounselorprogramsshouldincorporatetrainingactivitiesdesignedtoenhanceflexibility,objectivityandrelationship-buildingqualitiesinstudentcounselors.Theseskillsarethoughttoassistinpreparingcounselorstobemorecomfortableintheotherdeliveryareasofthecomprehensiveguidanceprogram.Therearemanywayssuggestedbytheauthorstoaddressgainingtheseskills,

34includingjobshadowing,role-playingandseminarsfocusedonjobroleswithintheschoolbuilding(Holowiak-Urquhart&Taylor,2005).Additionally,helpingcounselingstudentstounderstandthattherewillinevitablybeadifferencebetweentheidealandtherealityintheircounselingprogramsmayreducerolestress(Culbrethetal.,2005).Inturn,reducedrolestresscouldassistcounselorstofeelmorecomfortabledeliveringservicesinallthecomponentareas.Thesystemsupportcomponentareaalsohasmanysubcomponents.Inthesystemsupportareacounselorsaddressprofessionaldevelopmentthroughin-servicetrainings,professionalassociationmembershipsandcontributingtotheprofessionalliteratureintheareaofschoolcounseling.Publishingintheareaofthecounselor'sexpertisehasbeenfoundtobeanactivityinwhichschoolcounselorsdonottraditionallyengagewithanysignificanceascomparedwithacademicians(Weinrachetal.,1998)butwhichshouldbeconductedaccordingtothenationalmodelprovidedbyASCA.Theframeworkgivesabroaddirectiveofcontributingtotheprofessionalliterature;however,specificsupportinhowcounselorswhoarealreadyoverburdenedwithcounselingandnon-counselingtasksalikearegoingtoaccomplishpublishingisnotprovided.ThesameistrueofprofessionaldevelopmentwithinthestateofAlaska;therearelimitedopportunitiesforcounselorsoutsideofthethreemainurbanareasofAlaskatoreceivetrainings.Inthesystemsupportcomponentarea,counselorsalsoperformtasksofconsultation,collaborationandcoordination.Additionally,thereissomeoverlapbetweenthedeliverysystemandthemanagementsysteminthiscomponentareawithaseparatemanagementtaskwithinthesystemsupportcomponentofthedeliverysystem.Focusing

35onthemanagementtaskswithinthesystemsupportcomponentitisshownthatthisiswherecounselorsdeterminethatthegoalstheysetfortheprogramarebeingcarriedoutaswellasotherplanningandsupportactivities.Thesystemsupportcomponentareahasverysimilarcounselortimeallocationsatalllevelsoftheeducationalsystem.Therecommendationisthatelementaryschoolcounselorsspend10to15percentoftheirtimeinthesystemsupportcomponentarea(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003)(seeAppendixF,pg.150).Giventhattherearechallengeswhenimplementingprograms,theactualdailyactivitiesofcounselorsmaynotfollowbestpracticeguidelinessetforththroughnationalandstatestandards(Culbrethetal.,2005).Bradford(1993)foundinastudyof95elementaryschoolcounselorsthatasignificantexpressionofneedfortrainingthatwasmoredirectlytiedwiththeirdailyroleactivitieswaspresent.Inthisstudytherespondentswereprimarilyfemaleandwereemployedinurbanorsuburbanareas.Eachparticipantinthisstudycompleteda44questionsurvey,whichexaminedfivedifferentcounselorrolesandcorrespondingpreparationareas.Therolesconsistedofcoordinatingactivities,consultation,counseling,ateacherrole,andmanager.Counselorsinthisstudywererandomlydividedintotwogroupswhereactualoridealroledutieswereexamined.Nosignificantdifferencewasfoundbetweenthesetwogroupsbasedonthedemographicvariables,thusitisassumedbytheauthorthatthegroupswereevenlymatched.ThepreviouslylistedroleareasforBradford's(1993)studycorrespondwiththeAlaskastatestandardsasfollows,coordinatingactivities,consultationandmanager,astheyaredefinedforthisstudyfallwithintheareaofsystemsupport;counselingis

36relevanttoresponsiveservices;andateacherrolewithguidancecurriculum.Thisstudydidnotappeartoaddressdirectlytheindividualplanningarea,howevertherewereseveraltopicswithineachrolethatcouldpossiblygointomanydistributionareas.SignificantfindingsforBradford'sstudywereintheareaofconsultantorasrelatedwiththenationalstandards,systemsupport,aswellasintheroleofteacherorasotherwisedefinedastheguidancecurriculumcomponentarea.Bradford(1993)foundthatcounselorsfeltthatparentgroupsandin-serviceworkshopswithfacultywereimportant;however,theydidnotactuallyperformtheseactivitiestothesamelevelastheirimportance.Thissuggeststhatsystemsupportareaswhichshouldoccupy10to15percentofthecounselor'stimeareeithernotasdevelopedastheyshouldbe;counselorsareindicatinganoverinflatedneedforperformingtasksinthisarea;orastheauthorsinthisstudysuggestcounselorpreparatoryprogramsarenotadequatelypreparingschoolcounselorsforthetasksrequiredinthisareaofjobduties.Themainfindinginthisstudyisthattheroleofteacher,whichiscomparativelysimilartothecomponentareaofguidancecurriculumandshouldoccupythelargestsectionofthecounselor'stime,presentedasthemostsignificantdifferencebetweenperceivedandactualdutiesperformed.Bradfordsuggeststhatcounseloreducatorsfocusmoretrainingonactualgroupworktoprovidethenecessaryskillsforcounselorstoperformtheirdailyjobdutiestoadesiredlevel.AstudybyFitchandMarshall(2004)lookedattheactivitiesofschoolcounselorsinbothhighachievingandlowerachievingschools,asbasedontestingscoresofstudents.Thisstudyfoundthatcounselorsinhighachievingschoolsdidnotdiffer

37significantlyfromthoseatlowachievingschoolsintheimportancethattheyassignedtodifferentcounselingduties.Counselorsfromhighachievingschoolsdiddifferintheactualhoursreportedonvariouscounselingdutiesperformedhowever;specificallyintheareasofprogrammanagement,evaluationandresearch,andadheringtoprofessionalstandardsandcoordinationactivities.Counselorsfromhigherachievingschoolsreportedspendingmoretimedevotedtothesepreviouslyoutlineactivities.Conversely,counselorsfromlower-achievingschoolsreportagreaterperceivedimportancewithregardstostudentadvocacyactivities.TheresultsfromthestudyconductedbyFitchandMarshall(2004)relateswiththesystemsupportcategoryinthecomprehensiveguidanceprogram,whichonlydemands10to15percentofthecounselor'stime.Thesystemsupportcategorydidnotevenrateassecondinthetimecounselorsinthisstudyspentonthespecificcomponentareas,itwasasmallbutsignificantcomponentareaforsupportingthecomprehensivecounselingprogram.Itappearsthatthehowandwhatofwhatthecounselordidwithinthesystemsupportcomponentareainfluencedstudentachievement,accordingtohowtheresearchersinterpretedthedata.Itshouldalsobeconsidered,however,thatcounselorswereabletoconductthesystemsupportactivitiesbecausethestudentswereperformingwithhigheracademictestingscoresandtimedidnotneedtobespentinmoreremedialareas.Anotherfindingfromthisstudyisthatcounselorsbothfromhighachievingandlowachievingschoolsratednon-counselingactivitiesasoccupyingamajorityoftheirtime.

38Further,astudydonebyFoster,YoungandHermann(2005)lookedtoidentifyanddescribetheworkactivitiescurrentlybeingperformedbyschoolcounselors.Thisstudyspecificallyexaminedstudentdevelopmentinthethreeareasaddressedbynationalstandards:academic,career,andpersonalorsocialdevelopment.ThedataweretakenfrominformationcollectedbytheNationalBoardforCertifiedCounselors(NBCC).Thisstudyfoundfiveitemstobeofmostimportanceinpromotingtheacademicareaofstudentcompetency.Thoseitemsweregeneralschoolcounseling,facilitatingstudentdevelopmentofdecisionmakingskills,identifyingstudents'supportsystems,promotinghealthylifestylechoices,andplanningandconductingclassroomguidancelessons.Theseitemswerealsorankedthehighestforfrequencyofperformance(Foster,Young&Hermann).TheseitemsallfallwithintheindividualplanningandthecurriculumcategorieswithregardtotheAlaskaComprehensiveGuidanceProgramStandardforPublicSchoolswhichisbuiltfromthenationalmodel(AlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2006).Combined,thesetwocategoriesshouldoccupybetween40and55percentoftheschoolcounselor'stime,thusitisexpectedthattheseitemswouldrankasmostfrequent.IntheFoster,YoungandHermann(2005)study,theareaofacademicdevelopmentwasfoundtobemostcongruentwithnationalstandards,whilecounseloractivitiesintheareasofpromotingcareerorpersonal/socialdevelopmentwerenotnecessarilybeingperformedwiththefrequencyorimportancethatissuggestedbythenationalstandards.Theoverlapinratingitemsashighinbothfrequencyandimportancethroughoutthisstudysuggeststhateitherprofessionalschoolcounselorsatthenational

39levelareactivelyperformingtasksthatareviewedasimportantorthatschoolcounselorsareratingactivitiesthattheyperformfrequentlyasimportant.Eitherway,thetasksthatarebeingperformedfallin-linewithexpectationsaccordingtocomprehensiveguidanceprogramguidesandstudentstandardsintheareaofacademicachievementonly.2.3ImplementingtheComprehensiveCounselingProgramImplementingacomprehensivecounselingprogramisproposedasthebestpracticeforschoolcounselors(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003;Gysbers,1990;Rowley,Stroh&Sink,2005).ASCA'snationalmodelforcomprehensivecounselingprogramshasintegratedthekeyelementsofleadingprofessionals'contributioninthefieldofschoolcounseling.Itprovidesaframeworkfordeliveringguidanceandcounselingservicestostudentsinawaythatmaximizesstudentachievement(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation).Itisproposedthatbyusingadevelopmentallyappropriateandsystemicapproachtodeliverservicestoallstudents,notjustthosewhoarehigh-achievingorat-risk,isthebestwayforcounselorstoimplementcounselingprograms(Hatch&Bowers,2002).Professionalschoolcounselorsareinapositiontobebothcounselorsandeducators(Hendersonetal.,2007;Paisleyetal.,2007).Inelementaryschoolsduringcurrenttimes,studentswillfacemanychallengeswhichcouldinfluencetheirachievementinallareasandcounselorsaretrainedprofessionalsavailabletooffersupportwithintheschool.Itisarguedthatdoingsowithplanningandintentionbuildsastrongercounselingprogramandoffersabetterservicetotheschoolcommunity.

40JonesSearsandHaagGranello(2002)arguethatthecontextinwhichaschoolcounselingprogramisdeliveredimpactstheeffectivenessoftheintervention;meaningthatthereareenvironmentalfactorsaffectingstudents'successoutsideoftheschoolbuildingsuchaspoverty,violence,andstressedfamilysituations.Thesearefactorswhichtheschoolcounselorisinauniquepositionwithintheschooltoaddressandwhichmayserveassignificantobstaclestostudentsuccess(Walsh,Barrett&DePaul,2007).Additionally,identifiedriskfactorsforschoolsuccesswhichmanystudentsfacearebeingobservedasontheriseintheUnitedStates(Paisleyetal.,2007).Itisimportantwhencounselorsarelookingatimplementingacomprehensiveguidanceprogramthatthecounselordoesnotforgetaboutsocio-developmentalbasedinterventionswhichcouldpositivelyaffectstudentsencounteringtheseenvironmentalfactors(Sink,2002).Therearealsofactorsfromwithintheschoolbuildingthatcontributetothecontextinwhichthecounselingprogramisprovidedsuchaslackoffundsforprograms,lackoffacultyorbuildingspaceordeterioratingbuildings(JonesSears&HaagGranello,2002).Whenimplementingacomprehensivecounselingprogramthecounselormustinvolveotherschoolpersonnelintheprocessiftheprogramistobecomesuccessful.Thecounselingprogramneedsadministratoraswellasotherstakeholdersupporttoeffectivelyhandlechallengeswhichpresentduringimplementation.Thisisespeciallytruewhenonecounselorhasbeenassignedtomorethanoneschool,asoftenhappensinAlaska,orwhenthereisalackoffunding.Ifaproactive,developmentallybased,comprehensivecounselingprogramistobeeffectivelyimplementedstakeholdersandcounselorsmustworkasateam(Myrick,1987).

41Takingthemultiplechallengesthatcouldpotentiallyimpacttheimplementationofacomprehensiveprogramintoconsideration,counselorsmustfirstperformaneedsassessmentandbegintheinvolvementofstakeholders.Itisnotexpectedthatcounselorswillimplementchangetointroduceacomprehensiveprogramallatonce.Infact,thatisnotrecommended,butratherafive-stepchangeprocess.Thisprocessisintendedtotakeplaceoverathreetofiveyeartimespan(Gysbers&Henderson,2002).Thefirststepistoplantheprogram.Inthisphaseofimplementation,thecounselorwouldbedevelopingtimelinesandmakingestimationsaboutwheretheprogramiscurrentlyandwheretheprogramshouldbeafterimplementation.Thereareplanningandpreparatoryactivitieswhichmustoccur,aswellasthetimeandtaskanalysesandotheractivitieswhichguideandassistinimplementingeffectiveprograms(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Afterthebasicplanningoftheprogramhasbeencompleted,thefoundationmustbedeveloped.Inthisphaseofimplementation,thecounselorconductsneedsassessments,gathersschooldata,andidentifiesschoolstrengthsandweaknessesamongothertasks(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Thecounselorisbuildingastrongbasefromwhichtolaunchthecounselingprogram.Thethirdphaseiscloselyrelatedtothesecondphase.Inthesecondstepofimplementingacomprehensivecounselingprogram,counselorsarebuildingabroadbasefortheirprogram.Inthethird,thecounselorisnarrowingthatfocustojustoneareaoftheprogram:thedeliverysystem.Inthisphase,thecounselorwillidentifywhichcurriculas/hewilluseformeetingspecificstudent

42standardsandprioritizetheinterventions.CounselorswillalsoestablishtimeallocationswhichshouldalignwithASCA'snationalmodelfortimespentineachcomponentarea.Thefourthstepofimplementingacomprehensivecounselingprogramiswherethecounseloractuallyimplementstheprogram.Thefirstthreestepshaveallconsistedofplanningandpreparingtoimplementtheprogram;inthissteptheprogramactuallyisimplemented.Itisduringthisphaseofimplementationinwhichcounselorswillwanttodevelopstrongsupportfortheprogramandinvolvementfromstakeholders.Counselorswillalsowanttodevelopboththeircalendarofanticipatedinterventionsoractivitiesandthecounselingprogrambudget(AmericanSchoolCounselingAssociation,2003).Afterthecomprehensivecounselingprogramhasbeenplannedandthenimplemented,counselorsthenmustturntheirattentiontothefifthstepwhichisprogramaccountability.Inthisstepcounselorsmonitortheprogramandcollectdataresults.Counselorssharethoseresultswithstakeholdersandusethemtocyclebacktotheplanningstageandimplementthemosteffectiveprograms.Itisalsoduringthisstepthatcounselorsarechargedwithcontinuingtheirprofessionaldevelopmentwhichwillstrengthenprograms(AmericanSchoolCounselingAssociation,2003).Allofthesestepstakentoimplementsuccessfulcomprehensivecounselingprogramsalsoservetoreducechallengesandbolsterstrengthsintheschoolcounselingprogram.Thisfive-stepmodelisoutlinedforimplementingtheprogramataparticularsite.Therearenostepsorguidanceonhowanelementaryschoolcounselorwhoissplitbetweenmanysitelocationsorvisitsasiteonlyafewdaysamontharetoimplementcomprehensiveprograms.

43SinkandYilik-Downer(2001)foundinanationalstudyfocusingonhowschoolcounselorsviewedtheircomprehensiveguidanceandcounselingprogramsthatnewercounselorsheldmoreanxietyaboutimplementingacomprehensiveprogram.Thosecounselorswhohadlessthanfiveyearsexperiencefeltthatcollaborationwasanessentialpartofimplementingaprogram.SinkandYilik-Downerproposedthattheirresearchindicatedaneedformoreexperiencedcounselorstoworkwithnewercounselorsindevelopingtheirownprograms.Itwasalsofoundinthisstudythattherewasarelationshipbetweenhowinvolvedcounselorsareindevelopingtheirprogramsandtheimportanceitholdswiththem;asenseofownershipintheprogram.Thisgivessupport,especiallyinareasofhighturn-overinschoolstaff,foramentoringprogramwheremoreexperiencedstaffcanassistnewercounselors.BrigmanandCampbell(2003)andWebb,Brigman,andCampbell(2005),whenconductingresearchtoprovidedlinksbetweenschoolcounselorinterventionsandstudentacademicachievement,decidedthatthefirststepinthisresearchprocessshouldbetoaddresstheneedsofthecounselor.Theprofessionalschoolcounselorsinthesestudieswerenotonlyprovidedwithaspecificinterventioncurriculatouse,butwerealsoconnectedtoamentoringrelationship,andprovidedwithresearchshowingeffectivenessforwhattheywouldbeimplementing.Thisreinforcestheexpectationthatperceptioninfluencesresultsbutalsothatthosecounselorsworkinginamentoringrelationshiparebelievedtobebetterequippedtodeliverguidanceinterventionstostudents.Thereisaneedforcounselorstojointogetherinsupportofeachotherthroughmentoringandsupervisionwhichinturnprovidesabenefittostudentsthroughthe

44developmentofaneffectivecomprehensivecounselingprogram.Culbrethetal.(2005)foundthatrolestresscouldbereducedandcounselingskillsenhancedthroughasupervisoryrelationship,whichthenbenefitsstudents.Additionally,professionalschoolcounselorroleidentitycanbestrengthenedthroughinvolvementwithotherprofessionalcounselors(Hendersonetal.,2007).Mentoringandsupervisionareimportantfornewcounselors;however,neitherisrequiredforcertificationpurposes.Interestingly,theLicensedProfessionalCounselorinthestateofAlaskamustengageinsupervisedworkexperienceafterthecompletionofhisorherdegreeprogram,yettheprofessionalschoolcounselorhasnosuchrequirementorsystemsupport.2.4EvaluatingtheComprehensiveCounselingProgramToassistinensuringthefutureofschoolcounselingspecificthingshavebeensuggestedbytheprofessionalliterature.Researchintodemonstratingthatthecounselingprogramsareeffectiveisanessentialfirststepinthiseraofaccountabilitywithintheeducationalfield(Baumanetal.,2003;Whiston,2002).Counselorsmustnotonlydemonstratewhattheyaredoingbuthowstudentsarereceivingpositiveoutcomesfromhavingbeenpartofthecounselingprogram.Todothis,counselorswillneedtobecomfortablewithevaluationtechniques(Green&Keys,2001).Itisimportantthataccountabilityshouldbeviewedinthesenseofwhetherornotinterventionsforaparticularpurposearebeingeffectiveandnotintermsofwhethercounselorsaredoingagoodjob(Myrick,2003).Thelateronlyleadstodefensivenessandaresistancetoevaluatingprograms.Accountability,whenreferringtocomprehensivecounselingprograms,isessentiallyathreeprongedconceptofexaminingthegoalsthat

45focusedtheprogram,implementationofchoseninterventionsandtheresultsofthoseinterventions.Thisformatallowscounselorstoinvolvestakeholdersinaccountabilityasbeingresponsiblefortheschoolcounselingprogramandfostertheviewoftheschoolcounseloraspartofthewholeschoolteam(Myrick).Evaluationisonetoolthatschoolcounselorshavetogaugetheeffectivenessofthecounselingprogramattheelementarylevelaswellasotherlevelsoftheeducationalsystem.Thefirststep,inthethreeprongedapproach,istodeterminethatthereindeedexistsawrittenprogramandthatthisprogramisbeingimplementedasintended.Thisisreferredtoasprogramevaluation.Thesecondpartinassessingeffectivenessoftheguidanceprogramcallsforadetailedjobdescriptionorroleassignmentfortheschoolcounselorandotherguidancepersonnelsothatevaluationformsmaybecreated.Inthissteppersonnelevaluationisbeingconducted.Thirdly,resultsevaluationsoftheimpactthateachofthefourcomponentareasoftheguidanceprogramhavehadmustbeconducted.Thereneedstobeaconnectiondrawnbetweentheactivitiesofthecounselor(i.e.,guidancecurriculum,individualplanning,responsiveservicesandsystemsupport)andtheachievementsofstudents.Thuswithprogramevaluation,personnelevaluation,andresultsevaluation,itisproposedbyleadingprofessionalsinthefieldthattheschoolcounselorwillbeabletoassesswhethertheirprogramisbeingeffectiveinpromotingstudentsuccess(Gysbers,2001a).Programevaluationisanon-goingprocessusedtoimproveservicesandatoolusedinmeetgoalsoutlinedinthecomprehensiveguidanceprogram.Inprogramevaluation,itisdeterminedwhetherthereisaplanwrittenforachievingstudentsuccess.

46Whencounselorsinvolvestakeholders,orpersonswithaninvestmentintheschoolsuchasteachers,administrators,parentsorschoolboardmembers,withtheprocessofevaluationandtheplanforstudentsuccess,theyarebuildingsupportfortheirprograms(Johnson&Whitfield,1991).AccordingtoGysbers(2001a)themainbenefitsderivedfromprovidingtheevidenceofprogrameffectivenessaretheabilitytocontinueprovidingbenefitstostudentsthatacomprehensiveprogramoffersandanincreaseofsupportfromparents,administrationandotherprofessionals.Abasicandeffectiveframeworkforevaluatingthepersonnelpieceofthecomprehensiveguidanceprogramisthroughatimeandtaskanalysiswithregardstotimespentinthefourmaincomponentareaswithinthenationalmodel(Maliszewski&Mackiel,2002).Thismodelsuggestsatargetedpercentageofthecounselor'stimewhichshouldbespentineacharea.Asimplecomparisoncanbeconductedforimplementationevaluationpurposes;however,itonlytellsuswhatacounselorisdoing,nothowstudentsarebenefitingfromhavingbeenpartoftheprogram(AlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2001;Johnson&Johnson,2003).Thisleavesustolooktoresults-baseddatawhichoutlinesspecificactivitiesthathavebeenimplementedwithinthecomponentareasanddemonstrateshowstudentshavegainedfromtheseactivitiesintheiracademic,careerorpersonal/socialareasofdevelopment.Results-basedformsofevaluationcanincludepre-andpost-interventionevaluationsaswellasothertypesofassessmentandaremoreintensiveandlengthy.Oneconcernisthatwithoutexperienceorresourcestoconductthesetypesofevaluationscounselorscanbecomefrustratedandoverwhelmedbyevaluationattempts(Maliszewski

&Mackiel,2002).Studer(2006)suggeststhatcounselorsneedasimpletoolwithwhichtoperformassessmentofthecounselingprogram.Inastudyconductedwith28schoolcounselorsinalargeurbanareainthesouthwestUnitedStatesitwasshownthatcounselorsneedapracticalandsimpleevaluationmethod(Astramovich,Coker&Hoskins,2005).Factorswhichmayinhibitcounselorsfromperformingevaluationsincludesuchthingsasfearsaboutconfidentiality,concernabouthowresultswillbeused,andabeliefthatevaluationsarenotneeded(Studer,2006).Additionally,withthetraditionalfocusofpunitivereasonswhenconductingevaluationscombinedwiththebeliefthatlargescaleintensiveoperationsbyprofessionalevaluatorsisneeded,counselorsoftenavoidtheevaluationprocess(Astramovich&Coker,2007).Therealityisthatevaluatingschoolguidanceprogramsforeffectivenesshasbecomeanessentialpartoftheprofessionalcounselor'sdutiesinthiseraofaccountabilityforschools.Theuseofdataisproposedasawaytoassisttheprofessionalcounselorinnotonlyidentifyingareasofsuccessandconcern,butalsotoevaluatetheeffectivenessofremediationplansaswell(Poynton&Carey,2006)itcanbeusedasatoolforplanningmoreeffectiveprograms.2.5FlexibilityoftheComprehensiveCounselingProgramThenationalmodelforcomprehensiveguidanceprograms,providedbytheAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation(ASCA),andadoptedforusebymanystates,givesaframeworkfordevelopingprograms.Itprovidestimeallocationsforhowthecounselorspendshisorhertime.Itprovidesanoutlineforwhatacounselorwillberesponsibleforthroughthefourmaincomponentareasofthedeliverysystem,andit

48providesforwhatastudentshouldgain(i.e.,studentstandards)afterhavingbeenpartofthecounselingprogram.Schoolcounselorsareexpectedtousethisguideaswellasthemissionstatementoftheirschoolandtheneedsidentifiedbytheirstakeholderstoformacomprehensiveprogramwhichwillmeettheneedsofallstudents.Theflexibilitywithinthestructureideallyallowsforthenationalmodeltobeapplicabletoallsettingsofdelivery,thoughitisnotspecificallyoutlinedhowcounselorswhofacethechallengesofratioswellaboverecommendationsorwhooperateasitineratecounselorsformanyschoolsaretoadapttheprogramtomeetthesespecialchallenges.BaggerlyandBorkowski(2004)demonstratehowusingstrategicinterventionswithinacomprehensiveprogramadaptsthecounselingprogramforuniquechallengesinacasestudywithahomelessstudentinanurbansetting.ASCA'snationalmodelwasusedtoprovideaframeworkofstandardsfromwhichtochooseinterventions.Strategicgroupandindividualinterventionswerethenplanned,implemented,andevaluatedforsuccessbasedonthecoreareasofthecomprehensiveguidanceprogramstandardsforstudentachievement.Theauthorsproposedthatasaresultoftheseinterventionsthestudentshowedimprovementsinbehavior,wasmoreattentivetoschoolwork,andlessdisruptivetootherstudents.Thusitissuggestedthatusingstrategicinterventionwithintheframeworkofacomprehensiveprogramcanbenefitthetargetedstudent(s)aswellasprovidingbenefitstootherstudentsintheclassroom.Inanotherstudyofonehundredeightystudentsattheelementarylevelwhowereperformingacademicallybelowaverage,BrigmanandCampbell(2003)providedspecificstrategicinterventionsforcounselorstousewithstudentsinagroupformat.Evidence

49fromthisstudypersuadedtheresearchersthatthebehavioralimprovementsweredirectlyconnectedwithacademicimprovementsforstudents.Twoyearslater,Webb,BrigmanandCampbell(2005)conductedafollow-upstudywhichheldthesameresultsasthefirst,furtheremphasizingtheneedforstrategicinterventionswithinacomprehensiveguidanceprogram.ThesestudieswereconductedinFloridaandparticipantswerechosenwhofellbetweenthe25thand60thpercentileonthestatesnorm-referencedtest(i.e.,FloridaComprehensiveAssessmentTest).AnotherstudyinvolvingelementaryschoolcounselorsinBostondemonstratedthatcomprehensivecounselingprogramsbasedonspecificstandardsandinterventionscanbesuccessfullyimplementedinurbanareasfacedwithmanysocialchallenges(Walsh,Barrett&DePaul,2007).ThenationalmodelprovidedbytheASCAtakesanintegratedapproachtoaddressingthediverseneedsofstudentpopulations.Forexample,itispurposedthattheguidancecurriculumcomponentareacanbeusedtofurtherculturalknowledgeforallstudentsthusaddressingstudentdiversityfromasystemwideapproach(Wittmer,2000).Itisbelievedthatincreasingculturalknowledgewillassiststudentsinunderstandingandrespectingdiversityintheirfellowstudentandincreasingacceptancethusreducingbehavioralconcernsinthisarea.Othercomponentareasofthenationalmodel,specificallytheindividualplanningcomponentarea,canbeusedtoaddresstheneedsofadiversestudentbody.CunananandMaddy-Bernstein(1994)arguethatmanystudents,especiallyfromdiversebackgrounds,havelimitedexposuretocareerrolemodels.Counselorshaveauniqueopportunitytoeducateandguidestudentsintheircareerexplorationandcareeridentities.Thisallows

50forcounselorstoassiststudentswithcareerawarenessandreadinesswhichwillfacilitatepersonalgoalachievement,whichisastudentcompetencystandardidentifiedwithinthenationalmodel(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Coy(1999)statesthatinorderforstudentstoeffectivelylearnthatthechallengeswhichmayinterferewiththeirlearningmustfirstbeaddressed.Manytimesthediverseneedsofstudentsarenotbeingmetwithinterventionsthatweredesignedforawhite,middleclasspopulation(Paisley&McMahon,2001).Threecommonchallengeswhicharefacingfamiliesinthe21stcenturyincludeeconomic/workforcechanges;movementsbetweenrural,urbanandsuburbanenvironments;andchangesinsocialpressuresonsocietalvaluesandnorms(Gysbers,2001b).InAlaska,therearethesecommonnation-widechallengesaswellasspecificonessuchasisolationandmulticulturalinfluencesonstudents.Professionalschoolcounselinghasthepotentialtopersonalizetheeducationalprocessformanystudents(Dinkmeyer&Caldwell,1970).Clark(1987)arguesthatschoolcounselorsshouldbeadvocatesforstudents.Thecounselorisinapositiontoremovebarrierswhichstandbetweenthestudentandsuccessinbothacademicandpersonalareas.Thisisespeciallyimportantwhenmeetingtheneedsofstudentsindiversesettingsorbackgrounds.CounselorsareoftentrainedinmoretypicalEurocentricapproachesandmaynotnecessarilyrecognizethehelpseekingbehaviorsofdiversegroups(Holcomb-McCoy,2000).ThislackoftraininglendsitselftooneofthereasonswhyASCAsuggestsproactive,developmentallyandculturallyappropriate,systemicguidanceindeliveringaneffectivecounselingprogramtoallstudents.Comprehensive

51guidanceprogramsshouldbeshapedbystudentneedsandstrengthswhiletakinglearningstylesandotherindividualdifferencesintoeffect(Clark);thusmeetingtheneedsofstudentsindiversesettings.Wittmer(2000)proposesthatschoolcounselorscanassistfaculty,studentsandstakeholderswithintheschoolcommunitytovaluediversityinothers.Walsh,BarrettandDePaul(2007)writethatsettinggoalsin-linewithstandardsfacilitatesacultureoftoleranceandrespectforindividualdifferences,thusassistingallstudentsintheirdevelopment.Eachschoolcounselingprogramhasuniqueneeds.Counselorsshouldidentifywhatthoseneedsareintheirschoolcommunityandthenemphasizetheactivitiesbestsuitedtomeetthoseneeds.Professionalschoolcounselorsareinauniquepositionwithintheschooltosetaclimateofsafetyandsupportfromwhichstudentsarebetterabletoovercomeriskfactors(Holowiak-Urquhart&Taylor,2005).Thecounselorisanimportantsourceofsupportforimprovingstudentachievement.2.6StrengthsandChallengesinDeliveryEducationhasundergonechangesthroughoutthelastcentury.Oftentimes,counselingprogramshavesimplyaddednewresponsibilitieswhenthesesocietalandeducationalchangesoccurredratherthanimplementinganewprogramtoaddressthechangingneedsofstudentsandstakeholders(Johnson&Johnson,2003).Typically,schoolcounselorsareoneofthefewprofessionalsintheschoolbuildingwhohavetraininginbothmentalhealthissuesandeducation(AmericanSchoolCounselingAssociation,2003).Thus,schoolcounselorsaretheonestotakeonaddedtasksinthe

52efforttoassiststudentstoachievesuccesswithintheschool,whenchanginghowthecounselingprogramoperatesratherthanhowhardisreallythetaskathand.Thelevelofsuccessachievedindevelopinganeffectivecounselingprogramoftendependsontheamountofsupportreceivedfromthebuildingprincipal(Perusseetal.,2004).Monteiro-Leitneretal.(2006)foundinasurveystudyinvolvingcounselors,counselorsintraining,andprincipalsinruralsettingsthatallthreegroupsdifferedontheirperceptionsofwhatcounselorsshoulddoandwhattheyactuallydo.Onethemethatcontinuouslyemergedthroughoutthegroupsisthatofcounselorsengaginginnon-counselingduties.Allgroupsrecognizedthatitoccurstodifferentlevels,andconcernwasraisedastothebestuseofacounselor'stimeandabilities;whichspeakstoanawarenessofaproblembutnottoasolution.Implementingacomprehensivecounselingprogramrequiresthewholeschoolteamtobesupportiveandinvolvedinordertosuccessfullyassiststudentsintheareasoftheiracademic,careerandpersonal/socialdevelopment.Additionally,notonlytheimmediatestakeholders,butalsostateandnationallevelsupportforimplementingcomprehensiveprogramsmustoccurinordertoeffectivelydosoinsiteswhichareunder-funded,under-staffedandisolated.Duetodifferencesintrainingandroleswithintheschoolcommunity,principalsandschoolcounselorsoftenapproachstudentconcernsverydifferently.Thisisunderstandableconsideringtheyhaveverydifferentrolesontheschoolteam,yetitcreatesachallengeinimplementingschoolcounselingprograms.Takingacollaborativeapproachcanbebeneficialtonotonlythestudent(s)involved,butalsototheprofessionals,bymeansofreducingconflictandusingavailableresourcestoproblem

53solveinamoreeffectivemanner.Thekeytoadministratorsandcounselorsfacilitatingthismovetowardscollaborationlieswithopeningupcommunicationbetweenthetwoparties(Shoffher&Williamson,2000).InajointstudybytheKentuckyAssociationofSchoolAdministratorsandtheAppalachiaEducationalLaboratoryeffectiveelementaryguidanceprogramswereidentifiedandcontactedtobecomeparticipantsinamulti-statestudyofkeyelementscontributingtotheirsuccess.Collaborationwithotherschoolstaffandhighvisibilityofthecounselorwerebothidentifiedascontributingfactors.Interestingly,95percentofthecounselorsmentionedtheprincipal'ssupportasakeyresourcewhichcontributessignificantlytotheeffectivenessoftheirprograms(Sattes&Miller,1989).Itisimportantfortheprincipaltolearntherolesandfunctionsofschoolcounselorssothattheymaybetterutilizetheresourcesoftheschooleffectivelyandbecomebetterleaders(Lieberman,2004).Thisalsoreducesthechallengescounselorsfaceinimplementingcomprehensivecounselingprograms.LehrandSumaran(2002)conductedresearchinNoviaScotiaregardingimplementingcomprehensivecounselingprogramsattheelementary,middleandhighschoollevels.Thisstudyinvolvedsurveyandinterviewdatafromcounselorswhowereatvariousstagesofprogramimplementation.LehrandSumaranlookedtodiscoversatisfactionlevelsandconcernswithimplementingcomprehensiveprogramsaswellasneedsorrecommendationsforthesuccessfulimplementation.Themajority,87percent,indicatedapositiveperceptionofoverallsuccessinimplementingtheirprograms.Themainconcernsidentifiedbycounselorswhileundergoingthisprocessincludedneeding

54moretimeandresourcesforplanninganddeliveringtheprogramitselfandtherequirementforsupportandinvolvementfromstakeholders.Counselorswhoweresatisfiedwiththeirprogramsindicatedthatthesupporttheyreceivedfromadministratorsandteacherswasinfluential,whilethosewhoweredissatisfiedreportedtheinverse;lackofsupportandinvolvementcreatedamoredifficultenvironmentforimplementingcomprehensivecounselingprograms.Akeyconceptinthisresearchisthatsupportinandofitselfisnotadequate,thereneedstobeinvolvementfromstakeholders,suchasteachers,schoolboardrepresentativesandparents.Theymusttakeownershipinthecounselingprogramasbelongingtostudents,administrators,teachers,parentsandotherstakeholdersaswellastothecounselor.Thisbecomesevenmoreofaconcernwhencounselorsaretryingtoimplementcomprehensivecounselingprogramsinasituationwherethecounselorisassignedtomorethanoneschool.Counselorsmustinvolvestakeholdersandbecomeveryvisibleintheschoolbuildingwiththeirprograms(Myrick,2003).Whatteachersexpectandtheirknowledgeofthecounselor'srolecanimpactstudents,parents,administratorsandeventhecounselingprogramitself.Oneofthemajorrolesthatschoolcounselorshaveaspartofacomprehensivecounselingprogramisthatofconsultant;morespecificallycounselorsconsultwiththeteachersintheirschoolbuildings(Clark&Amatea,2004).Sink(2008)suggeststhatcounselorsandteachersshouldbeworkingcollaborativelyforstudentachievement.Whenschoolcounselorsworktogetherasateamwiththeotherprofessionalsintheschool,theycanhelpcreateasafeandpositivelearningenvironmentwhereparentsandstudentsfeelinvestedinthesuccessprocess.

55Usingacomprehensiveguidanceprogram,itisarguedthatschoolcounselorsmaybeabletojointlyproducedevelopmentallyappropriateinterventionswithteachersinaclassroomenvironment(Poynton&Carey,2006).Additionally,teachersmaybecomebetterabletoidentifyandreferstudentsinneedofextrasupportasaresultoftheworkingrelationshipdevelopedwiththeschoolcounselor,apointofstrengthwhenimplementingcomprehensivecounselingprograms.AstudyconductedbyClarkandAmatea(2004)showresultsfrominterviewswith28teachersregardingtheroleoftheschoolcounselor.Theresearcherspresentedteacherswiththreebasicquestions.Teacherswereaskedwhattheguidanceandcounselingneedsoftheirschoolwereandhowthecounselorcouldmeettheseneeds.Theywereaskedwhattypesofservicestheschoolcounselorsengageinandwhatthingsthattheteacherwouldlikecounselorstodo.Additionally,theywereaskedwhattypesofhelpfulstrategiescounselorsmightbeabletouseindeliveringservices.FindingsfromClarkandAmatea's(2004)studyrevealedthreemainthemes.Thefirstmainthemethatemergedfromthisworkwasthatteachersperceivecounselor-teachercommunicationandteamworkasmostimportant.Thesecondthemethatresultedfromthisresearchwasthatteachersvaluedsmall-groupcounselingandclassroomguidancelessons.Individualcounselingcameinasaclosesecondtosmall-groupandclassroomguidanceasamajorthemeforimportanceindefiningtheschoolcounselor'srolewithintheschoolbuilding.Thethirdthemegatheredfromthisresearchwasthatofvisibility.Theschoolcounselorwasexpectedtobevisiblewithintheschoolbuildingaswellasbridgingthegapbetweenschoolandhome.

56Teacherconsultationisthoughttobeoneofthemainelementsinpromotingstudentsuccess.Onereasonforthisbeliefinconsultationasalinetostudentsuccessisthatcounselorsrelyonteacherstoreferthosestudentswhoarestrugglinginsomeway.Confusionaboutwhataschoolcounselor'sdutiesareorwhatthecomprehensivecounselingprogram'sgoalsarecanimpactateacher'sdecisiontoreferandassuchdepriveastudentofneededservices.Unfortunately,mosttrainingprogramsforfutureteachersandcounselorsdonotexposeeachtotheother'srolewithintheschoolcommunity.Thuscommunicationwithteachersbecomesakeyfactoraswellforensuringaneffectivecounselingprogram.Counselorsmustclearlycommunicatetheirrolesanddutiestoteacherswhilemaintainingregularcommunicationtoreceivereferrals(Astramovich&Loe,retrieved2008;Clark&Amatea,2004).Theexpectationsandsupportorlackthereoffromadministratorsandteacherscanpresentasastrengthorachallengetobuildingcomprehensivecounselingprogramsandcanimpacttheimplementationoftheprogram.Additionally,whatthecounselorexpectswhenimplementingacomprehensiveprogramhasinfluenceontheprogram'seffectiveness.OnestudyconductedbyHolcomb-McCoy,BryanandRahill(2002)foundthatprofessionalschoolcounselorsratedprogramdevelopment,implementation,andevaluationasthelowestofimportancewithregardstothecomponentareastochoosefromonthesurvey.Thisdoesnotimplythattherespondentstothissurveyfeelthatprogramdevelopment,implementation,andevaluationareunimportant,butratherthattheyarenotasimportantasotheraspectsoftheschoolcounselingprogram;whichhindersdevelopingeffectivecomprehensivecounselingprogramsandmayleadtothe

57largepercentofvarianceincounselingprograms.Additionally,ifcounselorsdonotvalueorutilizeprogramevaluationanddevelopment,thiscanbeasignificantchallengeinimplementingcomprehensivecounselingprograms,butcanbeunderstoodinacontextofcounselorswhomayworkinlessthanidealconditionsforimplementingcomprehensivecounselingprograms.ASCAnationalstandardsforschoolcounselingprogramswerecreatedinlargepartasaresponsetoeducationreformlegislationsandagendas(Dahir,2001).Academicreformlegislationsoftendonotaddressthesocial,emotionalandeconomicchallengesthatmanystudentsface(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2004);howevertheseareareasthatarecriticalforstudentsinreachingacademicsuccess.Legislationdoesnotalwayspromotethedevelopmentofschoolcounseling,assomeprofessionalsfearthatlegislationwhichenhancesfundingforstaffsuchasbehavioralinterventionistsordrug/alcoholinterventionistswithintheschoolsystemdirectlythreatenstheworkthatcounselorsaresupposedtobedoing(Paisley&Borders,1995).Whetherlegislationincreasesfundingandthusaidscounselingprograms,increasesfundinginotherareasandthreatensprograms,orsimplyleavesoffcounselingprogramsalltogether,thefactisthatlegislationisachallengethatprofessionalschoolcounselorsmustcontinuallyfaceinimplementingeffectivecounselingprograms.2.7DeliveringStudentAchievementOnewaythatcomprehensiveprogramsassistcounselorsinplanningforstudentsuccessisthroughtheuseofstudentstandardsintheareasofacademic,careerandpersonal/socialdomainsasoutlinedbyASCA.Eachstandardthenhasseveral

58competenciesandindicatorswhichassistindemonstratingthatthestudenthasachievedthearea.Thesestandards,competenciesandindicatorsserveasanoutlineforcounselorstofocusinterventionsondevelopmentallyappropriateareasofstudentlearning,attitudesandskillacquisition.Thereisnosetnumberofstandardsorcompetenciesthatarerequiredtodetermineifaguidanceprogramisfullyinplace,butratherthereshouldbeenoughstandardsinplacethattheprogramiseffectiveinmeetingtheneedsofallstudents(Gysbers,2001a).Eachofthestandardsforthestudentcompetenciesrevolvearoundseveralbasickeythemes.Studentswillgainattitudes,skills,knowledgeandawarenessofoptionswithspecificregardstoacademic,careerandpersonal/socialgoalsofdevelopment.Studentswillalsoformunderstandingsofrelationshipsbetweenthings,eventsand/orpersonsthatwillassistintheirdevelopmentaswellasprovidingabasisfordevelopingpurposefulplanningintheirlives.Atpresent,eventhoughleadersintheprofessionsupportcomprehensivecounselingprograms(Gysbers,2001a),thereareotherprofessionalswhoarguethatthereislittleresearchthatdirectlyshowscausalrelationshipstostudentachievement.Onethingthathasbeensuggestedisperceptionsaboutstudentachievementcannotbelinkedwithcomprehensiveguidanceprograms(Sink&Stroh,2003).Itisclaimedsomeprofessionalsbelievetheremaybeacorrelationbetweenstudentachievementandthepresenceofacomprehensiveprogramattheirschoolwithouthavingdirectevidenceofsucharelationship.

59Additionally,asskepticsoftheresultsproducedbycomprehensiveguidanceandcounselingprograms,BrownandTrusty(2005)objecttothebeliefthatcomprehensiveprogramscansubstantiateaclaimofpromotingacademicsuccess.Itistheirbeliefthatstrategicinterventionsarefarmoreeffective.Strategicinterventionsareimplementedthroughidentificationofaspecificneed,thenaninterventionbasedonempiricalevidenceisselectedandtheinterventionisprovidedtoidentifiedstudents.Thisissignificantlydifferentfromacomprehensiveprograminwhichdevelopmentallyappropriateinterventionsareselectedandpresentedtoallstudentswithapreventativefocus.BrownandTrustypurposethatthemethodofstrategicinterventionwillpromoteacademicsuccessfarmorethanacomprehensiveprograminwhichneedsassessmentsareconductedprogramwideandallstudentsaresystematicallyprovidedwithpreventionorinterventiontechniques.BrownandTrusty(2005)pointtothefaultsoftheresearchdesignsusedtosupportclaimsthatcomprehensivecounselingprogramsaffectstudentachievement.Theauthorsarguepsychometricpropertiesandresearchdesignyetcontinuetoleaveasupportiveimpressionforcomprehensiveguidanceprogramsifnotfortheresearchsupportingtheireffectiveness.ItappearsthatthespecificinterventionsthatarementionedcouldbeusedtomeetstandardsinASCA'snationalmodelforcomprehensiveguidanceprograms,iftheywereadministeredsystematicallyoriftheywereintegratedintotheindividualplanningcomponentarea,andinfactBrownandTrustystatethathavingoneperspectiveofthesituationwouldbeshort-sighted.Theyenvisionstrategicinterventionsandcomprehensiveprogramsasfittingtogetherinonecounselingprogram,yetthey

60continuetosaythattheresearchbasisfordeclaringstudentachievementshouldrestentirelywithstrategicinterventionsatthistime.Cobert,Vernon-JonesandPransky(2006)alsodoubttheabilityofafullyimplementedcomprehensiveguidanceprogramtoincreaseacademicachievementinstudents.Theydo,however,acknowledgetheneedforaccountabilitywithregardstotheschoolcounselingprogram.Otherresearchersarguethataccountabilitycannotstopwiththeimplementationofacomprehensiveguidanceprogramthatitisnotenoughinandofitself.Systematicandevidencebasedguidancecurriculamustbeputintoplace(Rowley,Stroh&Sink,2005).Guidancecurriculumisoneofthefourmaincomponentstothenationalmodelandwithoutempiricallysupportedcurriculum,studentprogressmaybecompromised.Thusselectingcurriculawhichisempiricallysupportedasaffectingstudentdevelopmentshouldbeaprioritywithintheguidancecurriculumcomponentarea,whichwillalsomakeaccountabilitywithregardstoprogramresultsmoreeasilyidentifiable.2.8SummaryProfessionalschoolcounselorsareresponsibleformeetingtheneedsofaneverchangingstudentbody(Wittmer,2000).Duetotheoftenextremediversityofneedinschoolsandalackofresourcesavailable,manycounselorschoosetoemphasizetheirconsultationroles(Holowiak-Urquhart&Taylor,2005).JonesSearsandHaagGranello(2002)arguethatgiventheratioofrelativelyfewcounselorstomanystudents,itisnotrealistictoexpectcounselorswillbeabletoworkwithallstudentsface-to-faceandthatconsultationandcoordinationaretheonlyeffectivemeansofmakingsignificant

61developmentaldifferencesforstudents.Thenationalmodelidentifiesconsultationandcoordinationastwoofthethreemainactivitiesperformedbyelementaryschoolcounselors;counselingistheother.Theprofessionalcounselorwillneedtodevelopmanyskillstoeffectivelyimplementacomprehensiveguidanceprograminaculturallyappropriatemanner.Onesuchskillthatisessentialinasuccessfulprogramiscommunication.Giventhatcounselorscomeintocontactwithsomanyindividualsinvolvedwiththeschool,communicationskillsbecomeexceedinglyimportant.Itissuggestedthatcounselorsshouldhavemostoftheirdayspentinface-to-facecontact.Often,thismaycomeintodirectconflictwiththenon-counselingdutiesassignedtomanyschoolcounselors(Light,2005),whichispreciselywhycommunicationwithprincipalsabouttheschoolcounselor'srolewithinthebuildingbecomessoimportant.Counselingstudentsshouldbeinstructedintheimportanceofcommunicationskillsandtheimportanceofhavingtwo-wayregularcommunicationwithprincipalsintheirbuildings.ASCAattemptstoassistschoolcounselorsindevelopingcomprehensivecounselingprogramsthroughthenationalmodel.Themodelprovidesstudentstandardsthatactasguidesinassistingtheschoolcounselingprograminpromotingstudentachievement.Theconceptofstandards,asusedincounselingprograms,referstowhatcounselorsaredoingtoensurestudentsuccess;whatthestudentsshouldknowandshouldbecapableofdoingasaresultofthecounselingprogramintheirschool(Dahir,2001).Further,counselorroleandfunctionswithintheschoolsettingaredividedintothreemainareasoffunctioning:counseling,consultation,andcoordination.

62Thecomprehensivecounselingprogramitselfiscomprisedoffourmainpartsincludingafoundation,adeliverysystem,amanagementsystemandasystemforaccountability.Thedeliverysystemistheareainwhichfocusisdrawnforthemaincomponentsofaguidanceprogram:guidancecurriculum,individualplanning,responsiveservices,andsystemsupport.Throughthesefunctionsdeliveredinthecomponentareas,threemainstudentcompetenciesarebeingsought;developmentintheacademic,career,andpersonal/socialareas(AlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2001).Thesecomponentareasprovideforthespecificinterventionsthatcounselorscanuseinworkingsuccessfullywithdiverseneedswithintheschoolcommunity.ASCApresentsthatthecomprehensivecounselingprogramallowsfortheschoolcounselortoworkintentionally,withaplan,apurpose,andapurposedevaluationmethod(Sabella,2006).Itisproposedbysomeauthorsthatcounselorsoperatingwithoutacomprehensiveplanmayspend80percentoftheirtimefocusingononly20percentoftheirstudentbody;thosewhoarehigh-achievingstudentsorthosewhoareat-risk(Hatch&Bowers,2002).Theother80percentofthestudentbodyarethoughttobedeniedaccesstotheschoolcounselorandthebenefitsofthecounselingprogram.Holowiak-UrquhartandTaylor(2005)stresstheimportanceofoperatingwithaplanbutalsoremainingflexibleenoughtomeettheneedsofadiversestudentbody.Additionally,thenationalmodelthusfarhasnotgivenguidanceforcounselorsattemptingtoimplementcomprehensivecounselingprogramsinlessthanidealconditions,suchashigherthanrecommendedratiosorinitineratecounselorsprograms.

63Counselorsshouldbecomeproactiveineducatingprofessionalswithintheschoolcommunityaswellasfamiliesandotherstakeholdersastotherolesandresponsibilitiesoftheprofessioninordertopromotethesuccessfulimplementationofacounselingprogram(Fitchetal.,2001).Auxiliaryoradministrativesupportactivitiesshouldbeeliminatedfromthecounselor'sdailyactivitiestoallowforaneffectiveguidanceprogram(Cunanan&Maddy-Bernstein,1994).Whilecomprehensivecounselingprogramsaremeanttodeliverproactiveanddevelopmentallyappropriateinterventionstoallstudents,theyshouldatthesametimebetailoredtothespecificneedsoftheschoolcommunity.Inthiseraofaccountability,counselorsmustdemonstrateeffectivenesswiththeprogramstheyimplement.ASCApresentsthecomprehensivecounselingprogramasthebestpracticeforcounselorsindevelopingtheirprogramswithoutaddressingspecificchallengesthatcounselorsmayfaceintherealityofimplementingprograms.Criticsofthecomprehensivecounselingprogrampresentthatstrategicinterventionsaretheonlywaytomeasureprogrameffectiveness.Atpresent,thereappearstobeenoughconflictingbeliefspresentedthattheremaynotbeaconsistentimplementationofcomprehensivecounselingprograms.

64Chapter3MethodologyfortheResearch3.1IntroductionElementaryschoolcounselinginAlaskaisfacedwithallthesamechallengesasprogramsacrossthecountry(e.g.,securingsupportfortheprogramorlackoffunds)inadditiontomorespecificchallengessuchashigherthanrecommendedstudenttocounselorratiosaswellasthecommonpracticeofitineratecounseling.Thusfar,theAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation(ASCA)hasnotofferedaguidetocounselorsinhowtoadaptcomprehensivecounselingprogramstoworkinlessthanoptimalconditions.ItwastheintentofthisresearchtogatherthecurrentpracticesofelementaryschoolcounselorsinAlaska,criticallyanalyzethosedata,andcomparefindingswithwhatisprovidedbyASCAasamodelfordevelopingprogramssothatinformedrecommendationscanbemadetoguidethefutureoftheelementaryschoolcounselingprofession.ThefirststepindetermininghowcurrentpracticesmatchwithrecommendedpracticeswastoassesswhatAlaskaprofessionalschoolcounselorsarepresentlydoingintheirelementarycounselingprograms.Inordertoconductthisexamination,theCounselorActivitiesSurvey,whichwasdevelopedbythisresearcherthroughtheuseofstateandnationalstandardsaswellastheprofessionalliterature,wassenttoallelementaryschoolcounselorscurrentlyemployedinAlaska.Theimplementationofthissurveywasthroughathree-stepprocesswhichincludedsendingapre-contactletter,thenthesurvey,andfinallyasecondchancesurvey.Allmailingswerepersonalizedandevery

65surveycontainedastampedreturnenvelope.Effortsweremadetomaximizeresponseratesandminimizeerrorsinthisresearch.3.2SurveyDesignandImplementationAsurveyaimedatcollectinginformationaboutguidanceprogramsinAlaskawasdevelopedbaseduponstate,nationalandprofessionalstandardsofpractice(AlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2001;AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003),aswellastheprofessionalliterature(Brigman&Campbell,2003;Dahir,2001;Gysbers,2001a;Holcomb-McCoy,Bryan&Rahill,2002;Johnson&Whitfield,1991).Thesurveyinstrumentcontainsfourmainsections(seeAppendixB,pg.145).Thefirstsectioncollecteddemographicinformationfromtherespondents.Specificitemsaskedinthissectionincludethoserelatedtoexperience,training,andworkload.Thesecondsectionwithinthesurveyinstrumentincludedspecificprogramquestions.Thesetypesofquestionswereusedtoestablishtowhatextentacomprehensiveguidanceprogramhadbeenputintoplace,whichinturnisindicativeofappropriatejobduties(Sink&Stroh,2003).Thissectionalsoaddressedthecounselor'sstatedsatisfactionlevelsandfutureemploymentplans.Thethirdsectiondealtwithtimespentonduties.Thissectionidentifiedthefrequencyratingswithwhichcounselorsperformtasksidentifiedasbothappropriateandinappropriatebyprofessionalorganizationsaswellashowoftentheywouldprefertoperformthesetasks.Theforthandfinalsectionaddressedprofessionalquestions.Areasrelatedtosupervisionandmentoringthatthecounselorreceivesorcontributeswereexploredas

66wellasprofessionaldevelopmentactivitiesengagedinbytheprofessionalcounselor.Allofthesesections,whileindependentintheirfocus,weretiedtogetherinhowtheycorrelatetodetermineimplicationsforprofessionalretention,programeffectivenessandtheresultingstudentbenefitsasoutlinedbyASCA'sproposednationalmodelforcomprehensivecounselingprograms.Whenworkingwithsurveymailresearch,therearefourcommontypesoferrorsthatoccurandwereaddressedinthisstudy:sampling,non-coverage,non-response,andmeasurementerrors(Dillman,1991).Eachofthesetypesoferrorsoccurswhenpiecesofthedataaremissing.Whetherthisoccurrenceisduetonon-collectionormiscollection,thedatacannotreflectactualinformationifthepopulationwasnotaccuratelysurveyed(Groves,1987).Indevelopingthissurvey,obtainingbothmaximumreturnandminimumerrorwereconsidered.Samplingerrorsoccurwhenthemeansthatareusedtogatherthesampleexcludesomemembersofthepopulation(Dillman,1991).Similartosamplingerror,non-coverageerrorhastodowithhowparticipantsareselected.However,wheresamplingerrorinvolvestherandomizedassignment,orlackthereof,ofparticipantstoaparticulargroupwithinthestudy,non-coverageerrorwhichthreatensvalidityrelatestothelossofchanceforapersonorgroupofpeopletobeselectedtoparticipateinthestudyatall(Groves,1987).ThistypeoferrorwascontrolledforinthisstudybyincludingallelementaryschoolcounselorswithinthestateofAlaskaaspotentialparticipants.Lookingfurtheratcommonerrorsinsurveyresearch,theareaofnon-responseerrorhasbeenvastlystudiedintheprofessionalliteratureinordertoreducethis

67complicationandincreaseresponses.Themajorityofresearchhasbeenfocusedonincreasingresponserates;farlessresearchhasbeendoneonwhypotentialrespondentsmaychosenottoparticipate(Dillman,1991).Indesigninganeffectivesurveyinstrument,theliteraturepointstoseveralthingsthatcanbedonetoincreaseresponserateandlessenthechancesofnon-responseerror.Variablesidentifiedasimportantinincreasingresponseratesincludeapre-contactwithpotentialrespondentstoinformthemofthesurvey,saliencyoftopicwithinthecoverletter,follow-upcontactswithpotentialrespondents,guaranteesofanonymity,personalizingthecontacts,universitysponsorship,andtheuseofhandstampedreturnenvelopes(Dillman;Harvey,1987;Linsky,1975).Alloftheabovevariableswereemployedwithinthisresearchsurvey.Athree-stepapproachwasutilized.Initiallyapre-contactletterthatidentifiedthisresearchstudyandtherequestedcontributionfrompotentialparticipants(seeAppendixC,pg.147)wasmailedtoallelementaryschoolcounselorsinAlaska.Thiswasfollowedbythesurveyinstrumentandaccompanyingintroductionletterwhichaddressedtherelevanceofthisresearchtotheworkthattheschoolcounselorwascurrentlydoing(seeAppendixD,pg.148).Afinalfollow-upmailingandthankyouwassenttopotentialparticipantswhomaynothaverespondedtotheinitialsurvey,toallowforasecondchancetobecomepartofthisresearch(seeAppendixE,pg.149)andthusreducenon-response.Eachmailingwashand-stamped,aswaseachoftheself-addressedreturnenvelopes.Eachcontactletterwashand-signedinblueinktobeavisualelementofpersonalization.TheintroductionlettersaswellasthesurveyitselfreferredtothisresearchasbeingpartofdoctoralresearchattheUniversityofAlaskaFairbankstodemonstratelegitimacyandincreaseresponserates.

68Additionally,thissurveywasformedinbookletstyle(Dillman,1991)toincreaseresponserate.Ontheinitialpage,demographicinformationwasrequestedfromtherespondent.Theinteriorpagesofthebookletaskedrespondentsprogramquestionsaimedatdiscerningthelevelofimplementationofacomprehensiveprogramwithintheparticipant'sschool(Sink&Stroh,2003)aswellasoneopen-endedquestionregardingwhattherespondentperceivesasotherresourcesneededtomeettheneedsoftheirschoolpopulation.Thebackpageofthebookletsurveycontainedspecificroleanddutyquestions(Maliszewski&Mackiel,2002)inordertofurtherevaluatecurrentpracticesofelementaryschoolcounselors.Eachofthethreeareasofcounselorduties(i.e.,consultation,collaborationandcounseling)wereconsideredaswellasthestudentcompetenciesintheareasofacademic,personal/socialandcareerstandards,fordevelopmentofthissurvey.Finally,measurementerrorresultsasadiscrepancybetweenrealandself-reporteddata.Thiscanoccurbecauserespondentsareunabletoreportaccurateinformation,areunclearaboutthequestion,ortheorderinwhichquestionsareaskedinfluencestherespondentsanswers(Dillman,1991).IsraelandTaylor(1990)foundthatwordingwithinthesurveymayinfluenceresponse.Forexample,factualquestionsreceivedhigherresponseratesthandidevaluativequestions.Whilethissurveywasdesignedwithamuchlargerfactualcollectionofinformationthanevaluative,thereisasectioninwhichrespondentswereaskedtoratewhattheirpreferenceswouldbeforspecificcounseloractivities.Additionally,thesurveywasreviewedbytwocounseloreducatorsforclarity

69andcontent.Itemrevisionswerethenmadebasedonfeedbackinanattempttoreducetheeffectsoferroronthissurveyresearch.3.3ParticipantsPotentialparticipantsforthisresearchincludedallelementaryschoolcounselorsinthestateofAlaska.OneofthechallengesofworkinginAlaskaisthatmanycounselorscoverkindergartenthrougheighthgradeorevensometimeskindergartenthroughthetwelfthgrade.Counselorswereaskedtoanswerthissurveyonlyfortheirworkwithkindergartenthroughsixthgradetomaintainacleardescriptionofwhatismeantbyelementaryschoolcounseling.TheprocessoflocatingeveryelementaryschoolcounselorinAlaskabeganwithasearchoftheAlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment's(ADEED)website.Thewebsiteisastate-runsitethatprovidesinformationandlinksrelatedtoeducationinAlaska.Thesearchfunctionprovidedalistof413potentialschools.Thisnumberwasreducedbyeliminatingtheschoolswhichwerelistedasmiddleschoolsorcorrespondenceschools.Itwasenhancedbyincludingschooldistrictsthatemployeditineratecounselorswhotraveltoseveralschools,whileatthesametimereducingdoublecontactbyonlysendingsurveystothemainlocationwhenacounselorservedmultipleschools.TheresultinglistofschoolswasfirstsearchedontheWorldWideWebtoattaintelephonenumbersforeach.Atotalof366individualschoolsandfourdistrictofficeswhichemployeditineratecounselorswerecontactedbytelephonetoestablishifaschoolcounselorworkedwithinthatbuildingandwhatthecounselor'snamewassothat

70correspondencecouldbepersonallyaddressed.Thissearchprovided133potentialparticipants;theotherschoolsreportedhavingnocounselorattheschoolorsharingacounselorwithmultiplesitesinwhichcasethemainschoolwastheonlysitecounted.Afteraninitialmailingtoeachparticipantwassenttointroducetheresearchandtonotifythepotentialparticipantthatasurveyinstrumentwouldfollowwithinaweek,twoparticipantsrespondedviaemailthatonewasnolongerworkinginthecapacityofschoolcounselorwithinherbuildingandtheotherwasworkingasaschoolpsychologistatpresent.Thisallowedfor131potentialparticipants,includingfiveschoolsthatwereunreachablebyinternetortelephonetoconfirmwhethertheirschoolemployedaschoolcounselorandtowhichageneralletteraddressedtotheschoolcounselorwassent.Thesurveywasthensent.Anadditionalemailresponsewasreceivedfromaparticipantindicatingthatshewasnowworkingasaschoolpsychologist.Onesurveycamebackcompletedbutindicatedthatitwasdonebyapsychologistratherthantheschoolcounselor,andindicatedthatthepositionofschoolcounselordidnotexistatthatschool;thissurveywaseliminatedfromthefindings.Twosurveyswerereturnedcompletedbysocialworkerswithintheschoolandwerealsoeliminatedfromthefindings.Anotheremailwasreceivedindicatingthatthecounseloratthatschoolwasintruthateacheronspecialassignmentandthatpotentialparticipantwouldnotbereturningthesurvey.Onesurveywasreturnedtosenderasundeliverable.Additionally,evenwithattemptstonotsenddoublesurveystothosecounselorsemployedinmorethanoneschool,onesurveywasreturnedmarkedwithastatementthatthecounselorhadalreadyfilledoneoutatanotherschool.Theseeliminationsleft124potentialparticipantsforthis

71research.Atotalof85completedsurveyswerereturned,resultingina69percentreturnrate.Amongtheparticipantsinthisstudy86percentwereCaucasian.SixpercentofrespondentsmarkedOtherastheirethnicity.Threeandahalfpercent,orthreerespondents,indicatedAlaskaNativeorNativeAmericanastheirethnicity.TwoandahalfpercentindicatedAfricanAmericanandonepercentindicatedHispanic.Onerespondentdidnotindicateanyethnicity(seeFigure1).DCaucasianDAlaskaNative/NativeAmericanDAfricanAmericanDHispanicBNoAnswerDOtherFigure1RespondentEthnicityInthisstudy,66percentofrespondentswerefemaleand34percentmale.Thepredominateagegroupsrepresentedinthissurveywerethosebetween41and50-years-old(28percentoftherespondents),andthosebetween51and60-years-old(29percentofrespondents).Everyagerangeavailableonthissurveywasrepresented.Twelvepercent

72oftherespondentswereinthe20to30-years-oldbracket,18percentinthe31to40agerange,12percentinthe61to70agerange,andonepercentintheover70-years-oldbracket(seeFigure2).D20-30D31-40D41-50D51-60H61-70D71+Figure2RespondentAgeRangeTheparticipantsinthisstudyalsoindicatedawiderangeofexperiencelevels.Thirty-sevenpercentoftherespondentshadworkedasaschoolcounselorforlessthanfiveyears.Thirtypercentindicatedthattheyhadworkedmorethanfiveyearsbutlessthantenyears,14percentbetween11and15years,and16percentindicatedthattheyhadbeenemployedasprofessionalschoolcounselorsfor16ormoreyears(seeFigure3).However,68percentoftheparticipantsinthisstudyalsoindicatedthattheyhadbeenintheircurrentpositionasaschoolcounselorforlessthanfiveyears.

7340%30%20%10%0%-=a~7G\J-—Z/-^^Dlessthan5yrsD6to10yrsD11to15yrsDmorethan16yrsFigure3RespondentExperienceLevelSixty-eightpercentofcounselorsinthisstudywereemployedinonlyoneschool;however,respondentsreportedworkinginuptosevenschools.Therewere27percentofcounselorswhoreportedhavingcounselor-to-studentratiosthatwerelessthan1:250.Ratiosofonecounselorfor250to350studentswerereportedat26percent.Twenty-ninepercentofcounselorsindicatedthattheircounselortostudentratioswere1:350-450.Therewere18percentofrespondentsthatindicatedtheirratioswereonecounselortomorethan450students(seeFigure4).Onerespondentwroteinseparatelyonthesideofthesurveythats/hewastheonlycounselorserving900students.

74DLessthan250D250to350D350to450D450+Figure4StudenttoCounselorRatiosApproximatelyhalfoftherespondentsinthissurvey,47percent,werepreviouslyteachersbeforebecomingschoolcounselors.Sevenpercentwerenotteachersbuthadundergraduatedegreesineducation.Therestoftherespondents,46percent,wereinanotherfieldbeforebecomingschoolcounselors.Therewere66percentoftherespondentsthatreportedtheyintendedtocontinueasschoolcounselors,onepercentintendedtoquit,13percentplanedtoretireand19percentwereundecidedabouttheirintentionsatthetimeofthissurvey.3.4SummaryTheCounselorActivitiesSurveywasdevelopedbasedonnationalandstatestandards,aswellastheprofessionalliterature.Thesurveywasthensenttoall

75elementarycounselorsinthestateofAlaska.Throughthissurvey,datawerecollectedregardingthecurrentpracticesofelementaryschoolcounselorsinAlaska.Elementaryschoolcounselingwasdefinedasthoseprogramsprovidinginterventions/preventionforkindergartenthroughsixthgrade.Counselorsweredirectedtolimittheirresponsestothescopeofelementarycounselingprograms.Therewasa69percentreturnratewiththissurvey.Thebasicdemographicsofthemajorityofrespondentsalignwithrepresentationsinsurveyresearchacrossthenation.Therespondentswerepredominatelywhitefemalesbetweentheagesof41and60-years-old.Overhalfoftherespondentshadbeenemployedintheircurrentpositionforlessthanfiveyears,and73percentreportedhigherthanrecommendedstudent-to-counselorratioswhencomparedwiththenationalmodel.

76Chapter4ResultsoftheResearch4.1IntroductionFindingsfromthesurveywereorganizedintoseveralsections.Thefirstsectiondescribeselementsofthecounselingprogramthroughbothprofessionalandprogramquestions.Manyoftheseelementscanbeusedtodeterminehowfullyacomprehensiveprogramhasbeenimplemented.Next,eachofthemaincomponentareasofthedeliverysystemwasrepresentedinthedatacollection.Finally,suggestionsforimprovingtheirrespectiveprogramsweregivenbyrespondents.Organizedinthisway,theresultsshowwhatkindofprogramparticipantsoperate,whattaskscounselorsarecompletingandhowtheyseebesttoimprovecounselingservicesattheelementarylevelinthestateofAlaska.4.2ElementsofCounselingProgramsProfessionalschoolcounselorsinthisstudyindicatedthat38percenthaveawrittenplaninplacefortheircounselingprogram,36percentdonothaveawrittenplanand25percenthadschoolsordistrictsthatwereintheprocessofwritingaplanforthecounselingprogram.Intheareaofawrittenjobdescriptionforthecounselor,21percentreportedaclearlywrittenjobdescription.Alargerportionofrespondents,at45percent,indicatedthattheirjobdescriptionsweresomewhatclear.Twelvepercentreportedthatthejobdescriptionwaswrittenbutnotclear,while13percentindicatedthatawrittenjobdescriptiondidnotexistattheirschool.

77Morethanhalfoftherespondents,at61percent,indicatedthattheyusespecificguidancecurriculumwithintheircounselingprograms.Similarly,66percentstatedafamiliaritywithacomprehensivecounselingmodel.Seventy-eightpercentofparticipantsreportedthatintheirprogramtheymeetwithotherstaff/facultyfrequently.Thereportsforsupervisionorconsultationwasnotasgrouped,however,with21percentstatingweeklysupervisionorconsultation,33percentindicatedmonthly,13percentquarterly,19percentyearlyand11percentreportedneverhavingsupervisionorconsultationmeetings.Itisnotsurprisingthen,that64percentofschoolcounselorsreportthattheyhavenotmentoredanewcounselortothefield.Alittlelessthanhalfoftheparticipantsinthisstudy,at41percent,havesupervisedaninternwithinthelastfewyears.Thirty-fourpercentofrespondentsindicatedthattheywouldonlyneedsomeadditionaltrainingtoproperlysuperviseanintern.Therespondentsvariedonthisitemwith12percentfeelingtheywouldneedmuchmoretraining,20percentneedingonlyalittletrainingand31percentfeltthattheywouldneedverylittleadditionaltrainingtosuperviseanintern.Themajorityofparticipants,59percent,feltthattheywereverysupportedbytheiradministration.Fortypercentfeltthattheyhadveryeffectiveprograms,49percentsomewhateffective,eightpercentreportedlimitedeffectivenesswiththeircounselingprogramandonepercentreportedanon-effectiveprogram.Toremaineffective,counselorsmustconductneedsassessments.Theparticipantsinthisstudyreportedthat67percenthadconductedaneedsassessmentatsometime,17percentoftenconductedtheseassessmentsand14percenthadneverconductedneedsassessments.Similarly,57

78percentofrespondentshadatsomepointconductedevaluationsonwhetherneedswerebeingmet,while14percentoftendidthistaskand26percenthadneverconductedtheseevaluations.4.3ComponentsofCounselingProgramsTherearefourmaincomponentsofthedeliverysystem:guidancecurriculum,individualplanning,responsiveservices,andsystemsupport.Thereareotherdutiesoutsideofthesemaindeliveryareasaswell.Thesearetraditionallynon-counselingactivities,andaregroupedunderaheadingofOtherDutiesforthissurvey.Inthecomponentssectionofthesurvey,respondentswereaskedtorankthelistedactivitiestoidentifythefrequencythattheyactuallyperformedthetasksandalsothefrequencythattheywouldprefertodothesetasks.Participantsweregivenascalefromonetofiveforrankingpurposes,withoneindicatingthattheparticipantneverdoesthistaskandfiveindicatingthattheparticipantfrequentlydoesthistask.Therankingsweredelineatedfromeachotherbasedonnevermeaningthattherespondentneverdidthistask,rarelyindicatingthattherespondentdidthistaskaboutoneortwodaysaweek,occasionallyindicatingabouttwoorthreedaysaweek,routinelyindicatesaboutthreetofourdaysaweekandfrequentlyindicatesthattherespondentsdoesthistaskaboutfourorfivedaysaweek.Thereissomeoverlapinamountofdayswhendecidingfrequency.Therankingsandguideswereallintendedtobeaveragefrequencies;notimeandtaskanalysiswasprovided,andnoactualtrackingwasexpected.Thesereportingsareanestimationofthefrequencywithwhichcounselorsperformcertaintaskswithinthecomponentareas.

794.3.1GuidanceCurriculumTherewerethreeactivitiesidentifiedaspartoftheguidancecurriculumcomponentareathatwereexaminedinthissurveyinstrument:timespentcoordinatingwithteachersonguidancelessons,timespentdevelopingguidancelessons,andtimespentonclassroomguidance.Onaveragetherewerefivemissingentriesfromthecategoryofactuallyperformingthetasks.Therewere18missingdataentriesonaveragefromthecategoryofpreferringtoperformthetask.Onthecounselingactivityoftimespentcoordinatingwithteachersonguidancelessonstherewerevariancesacrossmostofthefrequencies.Therewasa14and11percent,respectively,higherreportingintherarelyandoccasionallydothistaskfrequenciesforactuallycoordinatingwithteachersversusthereportingintheprefertodothistaskcategory(seeTable1andTable2).Therewasa15andeightpercenthigherreportingintheprefertodothistaskcategoryoverthecounselorswhoreportthattheyactuallydothistaskroutinelyandfrequently,whichwasnearlydoubleinreporting.Table1ActualTimeCoordinatingwithTeacheronGuidanceValidMissingIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskTotalFrequency31271285Percent4.736.531.814.17.15.9ValidPercent5.038.833.815.07.5

80Table2PreferredTimeCoordinatingwithTeacheronGuidanceFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask3.54.5Irarelydothistask1618.824.2Ioccasionallydothistask1517.622.7Iroutinelydothistask2225.933.3Ifrequentlydothistask1011.815.2Missing1922.4Total85Forthecounselingactivityoftimespentondevelopingguidancelessons,therewereslightdifferencesinvalidpercentagesacrossallfrequencies.Therewerenopercentagedifferencesthatwerehigherthanfivepercent.Additionally,therewasnoidentifiablepattern(seeTable3andTable4).Table3ActualTimeonDevelopingLessonsFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask10.611.4Irarelydothistask2428.230.4Ioccasionallydothistask910.611.4Iroutinelydothistask1821.222.8Ifrequentlydothistask1922.424.1Missing7.1Total85ValidTable4PreferredTimeonDevelopingLessonsIneverdothistaskFrequencyPercent5.9ValidPercent7.5Irarelydothistask2124.7Ioccasionallydothistask1112.9Iroutinelydothistask1720.031.316.425.4MissingIfrequentlydothistaskTotal13188515.321.219.4

81Tablesfiveandsixdemonstratethattimespentonclassroomguidancewassimilarinreportingtotheactivityofdevelopingguidancelessonsinthattherewereslightvariancesacrossthemajorityoffrequencies.However,therewasalsoalargevarianceintwofrequenciesthatshouldbenoted.Inthefrequencyofoccasionallydoingthistask,thepercentageofcounselorswhoidentifiedthattheywouldprefertooccasionallydothistaskwasnearlythreetimeshigherthanthosethatindicatedthattheyactuallyoccasionallyspendtimeonclassroomguidance.Additionally,sevenpercentmorecounselorsindicatedthattheyactuallyfrequentlyspendtimeonthisactivitythanthosewhoindicatedthattheywouldprefertofrequentlyspendtimeonclassroomguidancelessons.Table5ActualTimeonClassroomGuidanceValidMissingIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskTotalFrequency11223785Percent4.712.98.225.943.54.7ValidPercent4.913.68.627.245.7ValidMissingTable6PreferredTimeonClassroomGuidanceIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskTotalFrequency11618261885Percent1.27.118.821.230.621.2ValidPercent1.59.023.926.938.8

824.3.2IndividualPlanningTherewerefouractivitieswithintheindividualplanningcomponentareathatwereincludedinthissurveyinstrument:individualstudentassessment,academicadvising,individualstudentplanning,andcareercounseling.Theaveragemissingentriesfortheindividualplanningcomponentinthecategoryofactuallyperformingtheseactivitieswassevenentries.Theamountofaveragemissingdataintheprefertoperformtheseactivitiescategorywere22entries.Inthreeoutoffouroftheactivitiesexaminedinthiscomponentareaitwasfoundthatcounselorspreferredtospendmoretimethantheywereactuallyabletoonthespecificcounselingactivities.Lookingatthevalidpercentforindividualstudentassessmentactivities,approximatelyninepercentmorerespondentsindicatedthattheyneverorrarelyspendtimeonstudentassessmentoverthosethatindicatedthattheywouldprefertoneverorrarelyspendtimeonthisactivity(seeTable7).Inthecategoriesofoccasionally,routinelyorfrequentlyengaginginindividualstudentassessment,betweenfivetosevenpercentmorerespondentsindicatedtheywouldprefertodothistaskoverthoseindicatingtheyactuallydothistaskwiththesefrequencies(seeTable8).Table7ActualTimeonIndividualAssessmentValidMissingIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskTotalFrequency21401385Percent24.747.115.34.72.45.9ValidPercent26.350.016.35.02.5

83Table8PreferredTimeonIndividualAssessmentFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask1011.815.9Irarelydothistask2630.641.3MissingIoccasionallydothistask1517.6Iroutinelydothistask8.2Ifrequentlydothistask5.92225.9Total8523.811.17.9Inthecounselingactivityareaofacademicadvising,thereweresmallvariationsinpercentagereportingforthecategoriesofpreferredversusactual(seeTable9andTable10).Inthefrequenciesofneverdoingthistaskorrarelydoingthistask,thepercentageofrespondentsindicatingthattheyactuallydoacademicadvisingneverorrarelywashigherthanthepercentageofcounselorsindicatingthattheywouldprefertoneverorrarelydothis.Additionally,thepercentageofcounselorsreportingthattheywouldprefertodoacademicadvisingishigherslightlyinthefrequenciesofroutinelyorfrequentlydoingthistask.Forthefrequencycategoryofoccasionallycompletingthistaskthevalidpercentisnearlythesame;toatenthofapercent.Table9ActualTimeonAcademicAdvisingValidMissingIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskTotalFrequency21231985Percent24.727.122.410.67.18.2ValidPercent26.929.524.411.57.7

84Table10PreferredTimeonAcademicAdvisingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask1517.623.1Irarelydothistask1517.623.1Ioccasionallydothistask1618.824.6Iroutinelydothistask1011.815.4Ifrequentlydothistask10.613.8Missing2023.5Total85Thepercentageofcounselorsindicatingtheyactuallyonlyrarelydoindividualstudentplanningisalmostdoublethatofthosereportingthattheywouldprefertorarelydothistask(seeTable11andTable12).Similarly,thoseindicatingthattheywouldprefertoroutinelydothistaskoverthosethatactuallyroutinelyareabletoconductindividualstudentplanningactivitieswasatenpercentincreaseofindication.Table11ActualTimeonIndividualPlanningFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask1517.619.2Irarelydothistask2731.834.6Ioccasionallydothistask1315.316.7Iroutinelydothistask1315.316.7Ifrequentlydothistask1011.812.8Missing8.2Total85Table12PreferredTimeonIndividualPlanningFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask10.615.0Irarelydothistask1011.816.7Ioccasionallydothistask1416.523.3Iroutinelydothistask1618.826.7MissingIfrequentlydothistaskTotal11258512.929.418.3

85Inlookingatvalidpercentagesforneverengagingincareercounselingorrarelydoingthis,Table13andTable14showthattherearehigherpercentagesforactuallydoingitthanpreferringtoneverorrarelydocareercounselingwithstudents.Respondentsindicatedthatapproximately16percentmoreactuallyrarelydothisthanprefertorarelyengageincareercounseling.Whileatthesametime,respondentsindicatedgreaterpercentagesforpreferringtodothistask.Twelvepercentmorerespondentsreportedthattheywouldprefertofrequentlyengageincareercounselingoverthosethatreportedtheyactuallyfrequentlydothistask._____________Table13ActualTimeonCareerCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask1517.619.2Irarelydothistask2934.137.2Ioccasionallydothistask2124.726.9Iroutinelydothistask9.410.3Ifrequentlydothistask5.96.4Missing8.2Total85Table14PreferredTimeonCareerCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask89.412.1Irarelydothistask1416.521.2Ioccasionallydothistask2124.731.8Iroutinelydothistask1112.916.7Ifrequentlydothistask1214.118.2Missing1922.4Total854.3.3ResponsiveServicesFourareasofcounselingactivitieswereexaminedfortheresponsiveservicescomponent.Threeoutoffouroftheactivitiesinthiscategorywereidentifiedby

86counselorsaspreferringtoperformwithmorefrequency,whileoneactivitywasshowntobepreferredbycounselorstoperformwithlessfrequency.Theaveragemissingdataforthecategoryofactuallyperformingthecounselingactivitieswerefour,whiletheaverageforthepreferredcategorywas19missingentries.Table15andTable16demonstratethesmallpercentofvariancebetweenfrequenciesforthecounselingactivityofindividualcounseling.Elevenpercentmorerespondentsindicatedonlyoccasionallycompletingthistaskversuspreferringtoonlyoccasionallyconductindividualcounseling.Similarly,ninepercentmoreparticipantsindicatedapreferenceforfrequentlyengaginginindividualcounselingversusactuallydoingthiscounselingactivity.Table15ActualTimeonIndividualCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask000Irarelydothistask4.74.9Ioccasionallydothistask1517.618.3Iroutinelydothistask2529.430.5Ifrequentlydothistask3844.746.3Missing3.5Total85Table16PreferredTimeonIndividualCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask000Irarelydothistask1.21.4Ioccasionallydothistask5.97.1Iroutinelydothistask2428.234.3MissingIfrequentlydothistaskTotal40158547.117.657.1

87Intheareaofsubstanceabusecounseling,therewereslightvariancesacrossfrequencies(seeTable17andTable18).Inthefrequencyofrarelydoingthistask,therewasareportof13percentmoreactuallyrarelydoingthisascomparedwiththoseindicatingthattheywouldprefertorarelyengageinsubstanceabusecounseling.Sevenpercentmorerespondentsindicatingthattheywouldprefertoconductsubstanceabusecounselingoverthosereportingthattheyactuallyaredoingthistask.Table17ActualTimeonSubstanceAbuseCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask2124.726.3Irarelydothistask4047.150.0Ioccasionallydothistask1112.913.8Iroutinelydothistask5.96.3Ifrequentlydothistask3.53.8Missing5.9Total85Table18PreferredTimeonSubstanceAbuseCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask2023.532.3Irarelydothistask2327.137.1Ioccasionallydothistask10.614.5Iroutinelydothistask4.76.5Ifrequentlydothistask7.19.7Missing2327.1Total85CrisiscounselingshowninTable19andTable20demonstratedanareaofcounselingactivitythatwasdifferentthanmanyoftheothers.Inthisareathereareslightvariations,atthreepercent,intherarely,occasionally,andfrequentlyactivityfrequencies.Elevenpercentmorerespondentsprefertoneverconductthisactivityoverthosereportingthattheyactuallyneverperformcrisiscounseling,whileninepercent

88morerespondentsindicatedthattheyactuallyperformthisactivityroutinelyoverthepercentageofrespondentspreferringtoconductcrisiscounselingroutinely.However,themajorityofrespondentsindicatedthattheyconductedthisactivityrarelyoroccasionallyacrossbothactualandpreferredfindings,withacombinedpercentageinthesetwofrequenciesof69percentofrespondentsindicatingthattheyactuallydothisactivityrarelyoroccasionallyand68percentpreferringtoonlydosorarelyoroccasionally.Table19ActualTimeonCrisisCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask11.21.3Irarelydothistask3136.538.8Ioccasionallydothistask2428.230.0Iroutinelydothistask1214.115.0Ifrequentlydothistask1214.115.0Missing5.9Total85Table20PreferredTimeonCrisisCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask89.412.7Irarelydothistask2630.641.3Ioccasionallydothistask1720.027.0Iroutinelydothistask4.76.3Ifrequentlydothistask9.412.7Missing2225.9Total85Smallgroupcounselingisoneofthecounseloractivitiesintheresponsiveservicescomponentarea.Inthisareaofcounseloractivity,20percentmoreparticipantsindicatedthattheyrarelydothisactivityoverthosethatwouldprefertorarelydothisactivity;anearthreetimesasmany(seeTable21andTable22).Additionally,20percentmorerespondentsindicatedthattheywouldprefertoroutinelyconductsmallgroup

89counselingoverthosethatactuallydoroutinelyconductthisactivity,almosttwotimesasmanyrespondents.Table21ActualTimeonSmallGroupCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask4.74.9Irarelydothistask2630.631.7Ioccasionallydothistask2630.631.7Iroutinelydothistask1315.315.9Ifrequentlydothistask1315.315.9Missing3.5Total85Table22PreferredTimeonSmallGroupCounselingFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask000Irarelydothistask9.411.3Ioccasionallydothistask2630.636.6Iroutinelydothistask2529.435.2Ifrequentlydothistask1214.116.9Missing1416.5Total854.3.4SystemSupportThesystemsupportcomponentareaismadeupofamultitudeoftasksincludingthemaincounseloractivitiesofcoordinatingandconsulting.Thisisalsothecomponentareawherecounseloractivitiessuchasprofessionaldevelopment,research,andliterarycontributionswouldbecontained.Preciselybecausetherearesuchavarietyoftasksinthiscomponentarea,thereweresevenquestionsrelatedtothesystemsupportcomponentinthissurvey.Fiveoutofsevenofthequestionsreceivedoverallindicationsthatcounselorswouldprefertospendmoretimeontheseactivities,whiletwoofthecounselingactivitiesreceivedindicationsthatcounselorsaredoingtheactivitieswiththe

90samefrequencythattheywouldprefertodothesetasks.Therewereonaveragefivemissingdatawhenconsideringwhatcounselorsreportedasactuallyperforminginthiscomponentarea.Onaverageforthecategoryofwhatcounselorsprefertodo,therewere18missingentries.Forthecounselingactivityofcoordinating,thissurveylookedatthespecifictasksofcoordinatingIndividualEducationPlan(IEP)or504meetingsandcoordinatingspecialevents.WhenlookingatcoordinatingIEP/504meetings,therewereslightvariancesinpercentagesindicatedforeachfrequency.However,therewerenovariancesmorethanfourpercent(seeTable23andTable24).Table23ActualTimeonCoordinatingIEP/504FrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask2934.136.3Irarelydothistask3440.042.5Ioccasionallydothistask1214.115.0Iroutinelydothistask3.53.8Ifrequentlydothistask2.42.5Missing5.9Total85Table24PreferredimeonCoordinatingIEP/504FrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask2731.840.3Irarelydothistask2630.638.8Ioccasionallydothistask9.411.9Iroutinelydothistask2.43.0Ifrequentlydothistask4.76.0Missing1821.2Total85Inthecoordinatingactivityofcoordinatingspecialevents,therewereslightpercentagevariationsacrossfrequencieswiththefrequencyratingofrarelydoingthis

91taskashavingthemostvariance.Table25andTable26showthattwelvepercentmorerespondentsindicatedthattheyactuallyonlyrarelyperformthistaskversuspreferringtorarelydothis.Thesereportingsdemonstratethatcounselorsareactuallyperformingthistaskmorerarelythantheywouldprefer.Table25ActualTimeonCoordinatingSpecialEventsFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask1517.618.8Irarelydothistask3844.747.5Ioccasionallydothistask2023.525.0Iroutinelydothistask5.96.3Ifrequentlydothistask2.42.5Missing5.9Total85Table26PreferredTimeonCoordinatingSpecialEventsFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask1517.623.1Irarelydothistask2327.135.4Ioccasionallydothistask1922.429.2Iroutinelydothistask7.19.2Ifrequentlydothistask2.43.1Missing2023.5Total85Thecounseloractivityofconsultingwasaddressedinthreequestionsonthissurvey:consultingwithteachers,consultingwithparents,andconsultingwithadministration.Whenlookingatconsultingwithteachers,10percentmoreparticipantsreportedthattheyactuallydothisoccasionallyoverthosethatwouldprefertoconsultwithteachersonlyoccasionally,asseeninTable27andTable28.Therewereeightpercentmorerespondentsindicatingthattheywouldprefertofrequentlyconsultwithteachersoverthosewhoactuallydo.

92Table27ActualTimeonConsultingwithTeachersValidIneverdothistaskFrequency0Percent0ValidPercent0Irarelydothistask7.17.5Ioccasionallydothistask2225.927.5Iroutinelydothistask1821.222.5Ifrequentlydothistask3440.042.5Missing5.9Total85Table28PreferredTimeonConsultingwithTeachersFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask000Irarelydothistask2.42.9Ioccasionallydothistask1214.117.6Iroutinelydothistask1720.025.0Ifrequentlydothistask3743.554.4Missing1720.0Total85Counselorsperformmanyconsultingtasksintheirpositionswithinschools.Inadditiontoconsultingwithteachers,counselorsarealsoconsultingwithparents.Inthisstudy,therewasalargevarianceonalllevelsoffrequencieswiththeexceptionofnever,whichwasnotindicatedbyeitherpreferredoractual.Tables29and30showavarianceof24percentmorerespondentsindicatedthattheyactuallyoccasionallydothiswhile22percentreportedthattheywouldprefertofrequentlydothistask.Table29ActualTimeonConsultingwithParentsFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask000Irarelydothistask1517.618.5Ioccasionallydothistask4451.854.3Iroutinelydothistask1618.819.8MissingIfrequentlydothistaskTotal7.14.77.485

93Table30PreferredTimeonConsultingwithParentsFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask000Irarelydothistask5.97.2Ioccasionallydothistask2124.730.4Iroutinelydothistask2327.133.3Ifrequentlydothistask2023.529.0Missing1618.8Total85Whenlookingatthethirdquestionrelatedtoconsultation,consultingwithadministration,therewereslightvariancesinpercentageacrossallfrequencies,withnoclearpattern,showninTable31andTable32.Inthecategoryofactuallyperformingthistask,therewerenotanycounselorsthatindicatedthattheyneverconsultwithadministration,yetinthecategoryofpreferringtodothistask,therewasonecounselorwhoindicatedthatitwouldbepreferredtoneverconsultwithadministration.Outsideoftheneverfrequency,varianceswereseenbetweenthreeandsixpercentontheremainingfrequenciesfromrarelycompletingthistasktofrequentlyconsultingwithadministration.Table31ActualTimeonConsultingwithAdministrationFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask000Irarelydothistask910.611.3Ioccasionallydothistask1821.222.5Iroutinelydothistask1922.423.8MissingIfrequentlydothistaskTotal348540.05.942.5

94ValidTable32PreferredTimeonConsultingwithAdministrationIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskFrequency117Percent1.24.720.0ValidPercent1.55.925.0Iroutinelydothistask2023.529.4Ifrequentlydothistask2630.638.2Missing1720.0Total85Theotherareaaddressedinthesystemsupportcomponentareaisthatofdevelopment;bothprofessionaldevelopmentandprogramdevelopmentwereexaminedinthisstudy.Intheareaofprofessionaldevelopment,thereisalargepercentageofvarianceacrossfrequencies.Counselorsindicatedintheareaofprofessionaldevelopmentwith30percentmorefrequencythattheyactuallyrarelydothisactivityascomparedwiththepreferredfrequency(seeTable33andTable34).Additionally,participantsindicatedwithbetweennineto14percentmorefrequencyapreferredabilitytooccasionally,routinelyorfrequentlyengageinprofessionaldevelopment.Table33ActualTimeonProfessionalDevelopmentFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask10.611.5Irarelydothistask4755.360.3Ioccasionallydothistask1922.424.4Iroutinelydothistask2.42.6MissingIfrequentlydothistaskTotal1.28.21.385

95Table34PreferredTimeonProfessionalDevelopmentFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask4.76.2Irarelydothistask2023.530.8Ioccasionallydothistask2327.135.4Iroutinelydothistask1112.916.9Ifrequentlydothistask8.210.8Missing2023.5Total85Programdevelopmentisataskwithinthesystemservicescomponentareainwhichcounselorsdomanythingssuchasplanningandevaluatingresultsofthecounselingprogram.Inthisareaofcounseloractivity,therearevariancesacrosseachfrequencyindicatingthatrespondentsareactuallyneverorrarelydoingthisactivitymorethanwouldbepreferred.Similarly,participantsreportagreaterpreferredfrequencyforoccasionally,routinelyorfrequentlydoingthistaskoverreportsofactuallyperformingprogramdevelopmentactivitiesatthesefrequencies(seeTable35andTable36).Table35ActualTimeonProgramDevelopmentFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask1214.115.2Irarelydothistask3035.338.0Ioccasionallydothistask2023.525.3Iroutinelydothistask1112.913.9MissingIfrequentlydothistaskTotal7.17.17.685

96Table36PreferredimeonProgramDevelopmentFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask7.19.1Irarelydothistask1517.622.7Ioccasionallydothistask2529.437.9Iroutinelydothistask1112.916.7Ifrequentlydothistask10.613.6Missing1922.4Total854.3.5OtherDutiesInadditiontothecounselingactivitiesthatprofessionalschoolcounselorsareconducting,thereareotherdutieswithintheschoolthatcounselorsarebeingaskedtoperform.Forthissurvey,therewerefourquestionswithinthisdomain:dealingwithstudentbehaviors,administrativeduties,coordinatingtestingandthenamorebroadlylistedotherduties.Onaverage,therewereeightmissingdatafromtheactuallyperformingthesetaskscategory.Inthecategoryofpreferringtoperform,therewereonaverage20missingentriesfromrespondentscompletingthissurvey.Overall,respondentsindicatedinallfouractivitieswithinthiscomponentareathatcounselorswouldprefertodothesetaskslessfrequently.Dealingwithstudentbehaviorcanbeataskthatcounselorsperformwithintheirschools.Inlookingatthisareaofcounselordutiesthelargestvariancesoccuratthefarendsofthefrequencyratings.Thereisa12percentgreaterindicationforpreferringtoneverdothistask.Atthesametime,thereisa20percentgreaterreportingofactuallydoingthistaskfrequentlyoverwhatwouldbepreferredatthisfrequencybycounselorscompletingthissurvey(seeTable37andTable38).

97Table37ActualTimeonStudentBehaviorValidMissingIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskFrequency19241730Percent1.210.628.220.035.34.7ValidPercent1.211.129.621.037.0Total85Table38PreferredTimeonStudentBehaviorFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask910.613.2Irarelydothistask1214.117.6Ioccasionallydothistask2225.932.4Iroutinelydothistask1315.319.1Ifrequentlydothistask1214.117.6Missing1720.0Total85Inadditiontodealingwithstudentbehaviors,counselorsaresometimesfacedwithconductingadministrativeduties.Inthistaskarea,varianceswereseenacrossthefrequenciesaswell.Whenlookingatvalidpercentages,counselorsreported14percentmorepreferredtoneverdothistaskoverthosewhoreportedthattheyactuallydothistask.Whilenineto12percentmore,respectively,reportedinthefrequenciesofroutinelyorfrequentlyspendingtimeonadministrativedutiesoverthosewhoreportedpreferringtodothosetasksroutinelyorfrequently(seeTable39andTable40).

98ValidMissingTable39ActualTimeonAdministrativeDutiesIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskFrequency1824131312Percent21.228.215.315.314.15.9ValidPercent22.530.016.316.315.0Total85Table40PreferredTimeonAdministrativeDutiesFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask2529.436.8Irarelydothistask2630.638.2Ioccasionallydothistask1011.814.7Iroutinelydothistask3.54.4Ifrequentlydothistask4.75.9Missing1720.0Total85Coordinatingtestingissometimesanactivitythatbecomestheschoolcounselor'stask.Tables41and42showslightvariationsacrosstherarely,occasionally,routinelyandfrequentlyperformingorpreferringtoperformthesetasksfrequencies,forthetaskofcoordinatingtesting.However,thefrequencyofneverdoingthistaskshowedalargervariancethantheotherswith18percentmorecounselorsreportingthattheywouldprefertoneverdothistaskthanthenumberwhoreportedtheyactuallydocoordinatetesting.At57percent,thiswasamajorityofrespondentsindicatingthattheywouldprefertonevercoordinatetesting.

99ValidMissingTable41ActualTimeonCoordinatingTestingIneverdothistaskIrarelydothistaskIoccasionallydothistaskIroutinelydothistaskIfrequentlydothistaskTotalFrequency2919121285Percent34.122.414.19.45.914.1ValidPercent39.726.016.411.06.8ValidTable42PreferredTimeonCoordinatingTestingIneverdothistaskFrequency36Percent42.4ValidPercent57.1Irarelydothistask1416.5Ioccasionallydothistask1011.822.215.9Iroutinelydothistask3.5Ifrequentlydothistask04.8Missing2225.9Total85Inthebroaderareaofsimplyotherduties,counselorsareaskedtoperformawidevarietyoftasksincludingsuchthingsasbusduty,coveringclassrooms,ordetentionduty.Inthissurvey,20percentmore,oralmosttwotimesasmanyrespondentsindicatedpreferringnevertodothistaskoverthenumberindicatingtheyactuallyneverconductotherduties.Similarly,10to15percent,respectively,morerespondentsindicatethattheyactuallyroutinelyorfrequentlyperformotherdutiesovertheindicatedpreference(seeTable43andTable44).

100Table43ActualTimeonOtherDutiesFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask2023.526.3Irarelydothistask1517.619.7Ioccasionallydothistask1416.518.4Iroutinelydothistask1112.914.5Ifrequentlydothistask1618.821.1Missing910.6Total85Table44PreferredTimeonOtherDutiesFrequencyPercentValidPercentValidIneverdothistask2934.146.0Irarelydothistask1618.825.4Ioccasionallydothistask1112.917.5Iroutinelydothistask3.54.8Ifrequentlydothistask4.76.3Missing2225.9Total854.4ImprovingtheProgramSeventy-sevenparticipants(91percent)inthisstudyrespondedtoanopenendedquestionregardingwhatwouldimprovetheircounselingprograms.Theanswersthenweregroupedinto12maincategorieswhichencompassedthethemesofthecomments.Thecategorythatwasmostoftenreferredtowasthatofsmallercounselor-to-studentratios.Thirtyparticipantsrespondedwithcommentsthatindicatedthattheratiowithintheirschoolswasaconcernthat,ifreduced,wouldimprovethecounselingprogram.Oneschoolcounselorrespondedthats/hewasanitinerantcounselorandthusonlyvisitedsitesoneortwodaysamonthonaverage.Thereweresimilarstatementsmadefrommanyoftheparticipantsinthisstudy.Onerespondentwroteonthesideofthesurveythatthecounselor-to-studentratioinhis/herpositionwas1:900.

101OthersuggestionsforchangesthatcouldproduceimprovementinelementaryschoolcounselingprogramsinAlaskawerenotedas:moreorbetterfacilities/space,increasingparentinvolvement,eliminatingnon-counselingduties,expandingthecurriculumorresourcesavailabletothecounselor,employingacounselingcoordinator,developingapeermentoringprogram,havinglessturn-over,increasingtheschoolcounselingbudget,providingmoretrainingforschoolstaffandfaculty,conductingmorecoordinationwithotherschoolprofessionals,increasedsupportofthecounselingprogram,implementingaspecificplan/model,increasedmentalhealthservicesinAlaska,havingaclearlydefinedrole,andworkingwithamoreteamapproachtotheschoolcounselingprogram(seeAppendixG,pg.151).4.5SummaryThesedatarepresentspecificelementsofcounselingprograms,frequenciesofperformanceontaskswithineachofthecomponentareas,aswellassuggestionsforhowelementarycounselingprogramscanbeimprovedatthelocalanddistrictlevels.Validpercentswereusedforreportingduetolargevariancesbetweenmissingdatainthecomponentareas.Additionally,resultswerepresentedthroughtheuseofdescriptivestatistics.Theresultswereorganizedindistinctsectionsnotonlyforeaseofreadingbutalsotoallowforcomparisonswiththenationalmodelforcomprehensivecounselingprograms.

Chapter5DiscussionofElementarySchoolCounselinginAlaska5.1IntroductionTheAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation(ASCA)presentsanationalmodelwhichservesasanoutlinefordevelopingcomprehensivecounselingprograms.ElementarycounselorsinAlaskafaceallthetypicalchallengesinimplementingacomprehensiveprogram,aswellasspecificchallengessuchasisolatedlocations,strongmulticulturalinfluences,andthepracticeofemployingitineratecounselorstoservemanyschools.ThepresentstudysurveyedelementsofcounselingprogramsinAlaskaelementaryschoolstodeterminetowhatextentthenationalmodelisinuse.Additionally,acomparisonwasmadebetweentherecommendeddutiesofschoolcounselorsandtheactualdutiesofschoolcounselorsinAlaska.CommonbarrierstocounselingprogramsuccessareidentifiedandaddressedinthediscussionsectionastheyrelatetoAlaskaelementarycounselingprograms,withrecommendationsforadaptationstopromotesuccessfulimplementationofthestaterecommendedprogram.Limitationstothisstudyincludetheinstrumentusedandthetypeofdatacollected.5.2DiscussionIthasbeensuggestedthatcounselorsmustacknowledgethepressureforaccountabilitywithintheschoolsystemandbegintodemonstratehowprogramsarepromotingstudentachievement(Studer,2006).Onequestionthatcounselorsmayhaveaboutaccountabilityishowexactlytomeasuretheeffectivenessofaschoolcounselingprogram.ASCAprovidesaguideintheformofthecomprehensivecounselingprogram,

103whichspeakstotheneedfordemonstratingeffectiveness.However,counselorsarestillleftsomewhatinthedarkonexactlywhatthismeans.Gysbers(2001a)expandsonthemodeltospecificallystatehowthisguidecanbeusedforevaluationpurposeswhenfullyimplemented,throughathreepartevaluationincludingawrittenprogram,awrittenjobdescriptionandanevaluationofthecomponentareasofthecomprehensivecounselingprogram.Therewere44percentofcounselorsinthisstudywhoindicatedthattheywerenotfamiliarwithacomprehensivemodel.Itwasnotaskedwhetherthecounselorswereusingamodel,justwhethertheywerefamiliarwithamodel.Thisisasurprisingamountofcounselorscurrentlyunfamiliarwiththistypeofprogram,consideringthattheuseofacomprehensivecounselingmodelisrecommendedforuseinallelementaryschoolsinthisstatebytheAlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment(ADEED)aswellasnationallybyASCA(AlaskaDepartmentofEducationandEarlyDevelopment,2001;AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Thefirstpartofevaluationisthatofawrittencounselingprogram.WhenlookingatcounselingprogramsinAlaska,36percentofrespondentssaidthattheydidnothaveaclearlywrittenprogram.Havingawrittencounselingprogramwithastatedmissionandgoalsisanecessaryfirststepinevaluation.Thatissoacleardeterminationofwhattheprogramaimstocompleteisoutlined.Second,adetailedjobdescriptionorroleassignmentisneededforthecounselingprogram.InthisresearchwithAlaskaelementaryschoolcounselors,itwasfoundthat45percentofrespondentsstatedthattheyhadasomewhatclearwrittenjobdescription,

104while12percentindicatedhavinganuncleardescriptionand13percentreportedhavingnowrittenjobdescription.Again,withoutacleardefinitionofwhattheschoolcounselorissupposedtobedoingintheschool,effectivenessishardtomeasure.Ifacounselingprogramistobeevaluatedinpieces,whicharethensummedtoattesttoeffectiveness,thenthepiecesthatshouldbeexaminearewhethertheprogramhasawrittenstatementofitsmissionandgoals,whetherthereisadetailedjobdescriptionorroleassignmentforthecounselor,andhowtheindividualcomponentareasarebeingaddressedeffectively.JustunderhalfofthecounselorssurveyedinAlaskaelementaryschoolsdonothaveanadequatelywrittenprogramandawrittenjobdescription.Additionally,33percentofthesecounselorsalsoreportthattheydonotregularlyconductneedsassessmentsandevaluatetoseeifneedsarebeingmetbyinterventions,whilemorespecifically14percenthadneverconductedaneedsassessment.Thefinalstepinevaluation,asoutlinedintheASCA'snationalmodelforcomprehensivecounselingprogramsandfurtherelaboratedonbyGysbers(2001a),istomeasuretheimpactofthefourmaincomponentareasofthecounselingprogram.Suggestedwaystoevaluatethesecomponentsincludetheuseoftimeandtaskanalysisorpre-andpost-testmeasures.Thesemethodstendtoassessonasmallscalewhatisbeingevaluatedataprogram-widelevel.Thatistosay,whiletheideaofaccountabilityappliestothecounselingprogramasawhole,eachofitscomponentsmustbeevaluatedindividually.Forexample,oneofthefociofthecounselingprogrammaybetopreventbullying.Tomeasureeffectivenessinthisarea,thecounselormayfirstexplorehow

105manydetentionreferralsorwrittenreprimandsweregiventostudentsbecauseofbullyingpriortotheintervention.Then,afterinstitutingabullypreventioncurriculaschool-wide,thecounselorwouldagainexplorehowmanyreprimandsweregivenforbullyingoveraperiodoftimetoseeiftheprogramhadanimpact.Thistypeofevaluation,however,onlyindicateswhetherornottheparticularinterventionwaseffective,itcannotbegeneralizedtosaythattheentirecounselingprogramiseffective.Validatingprogrameffectivenessiswherecounselorshavedifficultieswiththecomprehensivecounselingprogrammodelandaccountability.Thefirstofthefourmaincomponentareasaddressedinthisstudywasthatofguidancecurriculum.Thirty-ninepercentofthecounselorsrespondingtothissurveyindicatedthattheydonotusespecificguidancecurricula.Counselorswerenotaskedwhetherornotthecurriculathattheycurrentlyuseareempiricallysupported,thoughthatwouldassistintheaccountabilityrequirementsforcounselingprograms.Further,participantsdidreportthatamajorityrarelyoroccasionallyconsultwithteachersonguidance,butwouldprefertodothistaskwithmorefrequency.Sink(2008)suggeststhatcounselorsandteachersshouldworktogetherinacollaborativeeffortforstudentachievement.Theotherthreecomponentareasofthecomprehensiveguidanceprogramwerealsoexploredinthepresentstudy.Fortheresponsiveservicescomponent,itwasfoundthatcounselorswouldprefertoperformmoreindividualcounselingservicesthantheyarecurrentlyabletodo.Theywouldalsoprefertofacilitatemoresmallgroupcounselingsessions.Pre-andpost-teststyleevaluationscanbeusedinbothsmallgroupand

106individualcounselingtoattesttotheeffectivenessoftheinterventionsintheresponsiveservicescomponentarea.However,individualinterventionresultsarenotindicativeofaprogramwideeffectiveness.Timeandtaskanalysiscouldbeconductedtoevaluateifcounselorsarespendingtheamountoftimerecommendedbythecomprehensivecounselingprogramineachcomponentarea.Unfortunately,thistoohaslimitations.Thetimeandtasktypeofevaluationonlytellswhatacounselorisspendingtimedoing,nothoweffectivetheprogramiswiththeseinterventions.Anevaluationofresponsesabouttheremainingtwocomponentareasindicatessimilarresults.Theindividualstudentplanningcomponentareawasaddressedinseveralareasinthissurvey:individualassessment,individualplanning,andacademicadvising.Counselorrespondentsindicatedthattheywouldprefertospendmoretimeonallofthesecounselingactivitiesthanwhattheyarecurrentlydoing.Thefinalcomponentareaisthatofsystemsupport.Severalquestionsinthesurveyaddressedthisareaofcounseloractivity;specificallyprogramdevelopmentwasgivenattention.Alaskaschoolcounselorswhoparticipatedinthissurveyresearchindicatedthattheywouldliketospendmoretimeonprogramdevelopmentthantheyarecurrentlyperforming.Thisfindingisrepresentativeofallthecomponentareas;counselorswouldliketospendmoretimeontheseidentifiedcounseloractivitiesandlessonothernon-counselingduties.Typicaldutiesthatbecometheresponsibilityoftheschoolcounselorthatareoutsidethenationalmodelframeworkincludesuchactivitiesasmasterscheduleduties,testingcoordinators,detentionroomcoverage,discipline,classroomcoverage,andclericalresponsibilities(AmericanSchoolCounselorAssociation,2003).Theseare

107activitiesthatdonotrequireamaster'sdegreetocompleteandassuchshouldnotbearesponsibilityfortheschoolcounselor.Thecounselorthatspendssignificanttimeontheseactivitiesistakenfromcounselingdutieswhichwilleventuallycompromisetheprogram;howevertheseactivitiesarevitaltotheoperationoftheschoolandmustbereassignedtoappropriatestaff.Reassignmentofnon-counselingdutiesisoftenadifficulttask,yetifprofessionalschoolcounselorsfill-uptheirscheduleswiththesenon-counselingactivities,notonlyistheprogramcompromisedbutthecounselorisviewedasnon-professionalwithintheschoolbuilding(Madden,2002).Commonidentifiedbarrierstocounselingprogrameffectivenessincludecounselorlackoftime,lackofsupport,andoverwhelmingworkloads(Brott,2006).Thesearealsothebarriersidentifiedbymanyoftherespondentsinthisstudy.Approximately73percentofthecounselorssurveyedindicatedthattheyhadhigherthanrecommendedcounselor-to-studentratios.Thirty-twopercentofcounselorsreportedthattheyworkinmorethanoneschool,asituationthatisnotaddressedbyASCA.InordertoimplementcomprehensiveprogramsinAlaska,counselorsneedadditionalsupportduetotheuniquechallengesinthisstate.Itisnotsurprisingthat12percentofcounselorsrespondedthattheyneedsomeformofcounselingcoordinatortoimprovetheirprograms.Itwasstatedthatcounselorsneedsomeonewhounderstandscounselingtobeemployedatthedistrictoffice,whichinturnwouldimprovetrainingforcounselorsanddeliveryofthecounselingprogram.CounselorsinelementaryschoolsinAlaskawereaskedtoreporthoweffectivetheyperceivedtheirownprograms.Ninepercentoftherespondentsindicatedthatthey

feltthecounselingprogramintheirschoolwasnoteffective,49percentcouldreportsomewhateffective,whileonly40percentofcounselorsfeltthattheircounselingprogramswereeffective.Additionally,counselorswereaskedtoreporthowsupportedtheyfeltbytheadministration,59percentfeltverysupported,leaving41percentofcounselorslessthanoptimallysupportedbytheiradministration.Howelementaryschoolcounselorsreportedfeelingabouttheirprograms,aswellaswhatbasicelementsareinplacealreadyindicatesthatthereisroomforimprovementwithinprograms.Italsoindicatesthatclosetohalfofschoolcounselingprogramsdonothavetheveryelementsneededtoinstituteacomprehensivecounselingmodelwithintheirprogramsatthistime,eventhoughtheStateofAlaskaendorsesacomprehensivemodel.5.3LimitationsOnelimitationofthisresearchresultsfromtheinabilitytouseavalidatedandestablishedinstrumenttosurveycurrentpractices.Thetoolthatwasusedinthissurveywasdevelopedwithcurrentliteratureandprofessionalstandardsinmindbecauseapre-existinginstrumentwasnotavailablethatwouldgatherthenecessaryinformation.AninstrumentwasdevelopedbyadaptationfromasurveyconductedbyJenniferBaggerlyandDebraOsborn,withthefirstauthor'spermission.ThissurveyinstrumentwasusedwithschoolcounselorsinFloridatodeterminecounselorsatisfactionandcommitmentlevelstowardtheircurrentpositionsandincludedquestionsregardingcurrentpractices.Anotherlimitationtothisstudyisthattheinformationcollectedforthisresearchwasself-reportdata.Inresearchthatcollectsself-reportdata,reliabilityandvalidityarealwaysaconcern.Onewaytoaddressissuesofreliabilityandvalidityisthroughasking

109respondentsformorefactualinformationratherthanquestionswithmoresubjectiveanswers(DelBoca&Noll,2000).Anexampleofparticipantsrespondingdifferentlyforobjectiveandsubjectivequestionscanbeseeninthisresearchwhenlookingatthemissingdataentriesfromeachsurvey.Inthesectionofthesurveythatrequestshowoftencounselorsarecurrentlyperformingcertaincounselingtasksversushowoftentheywouldprefertodothesametask,therewereonaveragesixmissingentriesforhowoftenthetaskiscompletedandanaverage19missingentriesforpreferencepertask.Additionally,DelBocaandNoll(2000)suggestthatrespondentsmayreportanswersthattheybelievearemoresociallydesirableoranswersthattheybelievearewhattheresearcherislookingforinthestudy.Thissurveywaswrittenwithconsiderationoforderofresponsechoicessothatlessinfluencewouldbeexertedinthisstudy.Thislimitationmustbeconsideredthoughwhenlookingathownearly20percentofcounselorswhoansweredtheopen-endedquestioninthissurvey,indicatedthattheyfeltaspecificmodelshouldbeimplemented,eventhoughthereisaspecificmodelendorsedbythisstate:thecomprehensivecounselingmodel.Additionally,thedemographicinformationshowsthatalargenumberofcounselorsarenotinasettingthatwouldeasilyallowforimplementationofacomprehensivemodel,suchaslargestudent-to-counselorratios,itineratecounseling,orbeingsplitamongseveralcounselingsites.5.4RecommendationsInthestateofAlaska,therearethreemainurbanareas:Anchorage,FairbanksandJuneau.Therestofthestateisconsideredrural.About15percentoftheelementaryschoolsinAlaskaareinAnchorage,withlessthanhalfofthoseschoolsemploying

110elementaryschoolcounselors.Approximatelyfivepercentofthestate'sschoolsareintheFairbanksarea.ThereareelementaryschoolcounselorsinalloftheschoolsintheFairbanksarea.OnlyaboutthreepercentofAlaskaschoolsareintheJuneauarea,withjustoverhalfcontainingelementaryschoolcounselors.Therefore,approximately23percentofschoolsinthisstateareinurbanareas;leaving77percentofschoolsinruralareas.Thus,whenexaminingimplementationofthecomprehensivecounselingprograminAlaska,thespecialchallengesthatcounselingprogramsintheruralcommunitiesfacemustbetakenintoaccount.Therespondentsofthisstudyindicatedthattherearecounselorswhoareworkinginuptosevenelementaryschools.Additionally,upto73percentofcounselorsareworkingwithlargerthanrecommendedstudent-to-counselorratios,withabout30percentofcounselorscitingthischallengeasonethatneededtobeaddressedtoimproveprograms.Onecounselorstatedthats/hehadaratioof900:1;yetanothercounselorstatedthats/heonlyvisitedsitesoneortwodaysamonthonaverage.ThesekindsofchallengesarenotaddressedintheframeworkofthecomprehensivecounselingprogrampresentedbyASCA;however,theseconcernsaretheverythingsthatmakeinstitutingacomprehensivecounselingprogramchallengingforcounselorsinAlaska.5.4.1AdaptingtheComprehensiveProgramComprehensivecounselingprogramsaredevelopedaroundfourmainareas:foundation,deliverysystem,managementsystemandaccountability.Overhalfoftherespondentstothisstudyindicatedthattheyalreadyhadwrittenstatementsinplacethatcouldbethebasisofthefoundationelementofacomprehensivecounselingprogram.

IllPreparingwrittenstatementsofthemissionandgoalsofaprogramisanactivitythatcounselorsshouldengageinforeachprogramthattheyserve.Thesewrittenstatementsalignthecounselingprogramwiththemissionofeachoftheschoolsacounselorserves.Additionally,havingclearexpectationswithinthecounselingprogramcanassiststudentstobesuccessful,especiallywheninteractingwithsystemsandpersonsoutsideofthestudent'slocalcommunity(J.Boyle,personalcommunication,April23,2010).Morotti(2006)proposesthatthereshouldbearefrainingofactivitiestoallowforstudentstobesuccessfulinthedominateculturewhilecontinuingtoholdontotheircorevalues.ThedeliverysystemmaybethemostdifficultaspectofthecomprehensivecounselingprogramtoadapttoschoolcounselingprogramsinAlaska.Thedifficultyisbecausedeliverysystemsarebasedonthepresumptionthatthecounselorisphysicallypresentintheschoolandistheonedeliveringtheprogram.ThatisnottherealityformanycounselingprogramsinAlaska;thus,collaborationbecomesessential.Thedeliverysystemcanbebrokendownintofourcomponentareasinwhichtimeallocationsaregiven.Timeallocationsarelikelytobechallengingforthecounselorwhoisservingmultipleschools.However,throughcollaboration,coordination,theuseoflocalresources,andtechnology,thecomponentareasmaybeabletobeaddressed.Thefourmaincomponentareasofthedeliverysystemareguidancecurriculum,individualstudentplanning,responsiveservices,andsystemsupport.Theguidancecurriculumcomponentmaybeaddressedthroughcollaborationwithteachersandstaff.Morethanthree-quartersofcounselorsinAlaskaalreadymeetfrequentlywithfacultyandstaffattheirsites.Thusitfollowsthatduringthesemeetings,counselorscan

#112collaboratewithfacultyandstafftointegratethecounselingprogramintotheothercoreareasofinstructionatelementaryschools.Ifcounselorsarenotphysicallypresentatasite,theremustbecollaborationwithfacultyandstaffforthedevelopmentalskillstobetaughtthroughintegrationintotherestofthecurriculum.Inadditiontocounselingconceptsbeingintegrated,therealsomustbeanaligningofthecounselingconceptswithlocaltraditionsandculture;foreducation,includingthecounselingprogram,toplayameaningfulroleinstudents'lives,itmustreflectasenseofthelocalcultureandtraditionalvalues(Morotti,2006).TheuseoftechnologycanbeahelpfultoolforcounselorsadaptingtheindividualstudentplanningcomponentareatotherealityofAlaskanschools.Forexample,thestatehasdevelopedcareerexplorationwebsitesavailabletoeveryschoolinAlaskathatcanbeusedasaresourceforstudentstoexplorefuturecareerplanning.Thereisanoptiontoallowthecounselortoreviewcommentssothatthestudentandthecounselormayhaveaccesstothestudent'splanning.Othertechnology-basedadaptationsincludeprovidinginformationlinksfromtheschool'shomepagetolocalresources,aswellasprovidinganelectronicmeansforstudentstorequestameetingwiththecounselor.Schoolcounselorsmaychoosetohaveamailboxtypesysteminplaceattheirhomesitewherestudentscandropanotetorequesttoseethecounselor.Thissameideamaybehelpfulforotherschoolsitesthroughanelectronicnotetorequestameetingwiththecounselor.Thisinterventioncanbehelpfulinthatstudentsarenotwaitingforthecounselortocometotheirsitebeforemakingtherequest.Inaddition,counselorscanscreenforissuesthatmay

113needtobeaddressedbeforetheygettothesiteagainandthuscollaboratewithschoolstafforlocalresourcestoprovidemoreimmediateintervention.Thistypeofscreeningforcrisisinterventionleadsintothecomponentareaofresponsiveservices.Inadditiontocrisiscounseling,smallgroupcounselingservicesmaybemadeaccessibletostudentsatvarioussitesbylinkingthemalltogetherinavideo-conference.Usingthistechnology,counselorswithsmallpopulationsatvarioussiteswhowouldbenefitfromspecificsmallgroupcounselingcanhavethoseservicesavailable.Thesetypesofadaptationswouldrequireequipmentforschools,trainingforcounselors,andsupportfromschoolfacultyandstafftobecomesuccessful.Studentswouldneedtobeidentifiedbystafforfacultyonsiteandreferredtothecounselorforthesetypesofinterventions.Thesystemsupportcomponentareacouldbeadaptedinasimilarwaytotheresponsiveservicesarea,throughthemeansoftechnology.Therearemanyvaluabletrainingopportunitiesavailablethroughdistanceeducationthatshouldnotbeoverlooked.However,ifcounselorscanhelpremoteschoolsconnectwithotherschoolsthatmayneedthesametypeofin-servicetrainings,thiscouldbeawaytosupportandpromotemultipleprograms.Afterexaminingthefoundation,aswellasthecomponentareasofthedeliverysystem,thereisthemanagementsystemandaccountabilitylefttoaddressasbasicareasinbuildingacomprehensivecounselingprogram.Thesetwoareasoftenoverlapwitheachother,aswellaswiththesystemsupportcomponentofthedeliverysystem.Thereareadaptationsintheseareasaswellthatcouldhelpmakeacomprehensivecounseling

114programaframeworkthatAlaskaschoolscoulduse.Whilecalendars,advisorycouncilsandstatementsofresponsibilityareusefultoolsthatcounselorsworkinginruralsitescouldmakegooduseof,lengthywrittenplansforstudentmonitoring,closingthegapforms,andallocationoftimeformsarenot.Counselorsdonothavetheabilitytocompletethesewrittenplansforstudentswhennotonsiteallweekorwhenhavingoverwhelmingstudent-to-counselorratios.5.4.2NeededSupportsforAdaptationsInorderforthesepreviouslyoutlinedadaptationstobecomearealityforcounselorsservingelementaryschoolswithinthestateofAlaska,muchsupportisneeded.Counselorsarealreadyfacedwithoverwhelmingstudent-to-counselorratiosandmaynotbephysicallypresentattheschoolonaregularbasis.ADEEDwillneedtoimplementmanychangestosupportcounselorsineffortstoadaptcomprehensivecounselingprogramsforuseinAlaska,suchasdevelopingandsupportingamentoringprogram,muchlikethecurrentteacher/administratorstatelevelmentoringprogram.Additionally,ADEEDshouldbechargedwitheducatingadministratorsregardingtheroleandresponsibilitiesofprofessionalschoolcounselors.Finally,employingcounselingcoordinatorsatthedistrictlevelscouldallowforthesupportandassistancethatcounselorsneedtodevelopandevaluatecomprehensivecounselingprograms.Therearestandards,competenciesandindicatorsprovidedatthenational,stateandlocallevelsoutliningstudentachievementgoals.Thesestandards,however,arealoosesetofstudentachievementgoalsusedtoaimthecounselingprogramtowardsaneffectivecomprehensivecounselingprogram.CounselorsinAlaskaareoperatingwith

115demographicsnotaddressedbyASCA,theydonothavethetimeorresourcesavailabletoadaptprogramsontheirownwhilealsoattemptingtodeliverprograms.Aguidewhichtakesintoconsiderationtheculturalaspectsoflocaldistrictsaswellasstudentstandards,andisformattedtogiveflowororganizationtotheprogramatthedistrictlevels,wouldbeanassettocounselorsinthefield.Currently,standardsandtheframeworkforthecomprehensivecounselingprogramareprovidedinpiecesrequiringthecounselortoconstructandfittogethertoformamodelorprogram.Thispresentsachallengeforcounselorswhoarealreadystretchedtoothin.LocaldistrictsinAlaskaalongwithADEEDcanpartnerthroughcounselingcoordinatorstoorganizethestudentstandards,communityneeds,andculturalconsiderationsintoanorganizedmodelwithunitsthatflowintoacohesivewhole.Workingfromamoredetailedmodelwithoverviewsaswellasdistinctaspectswillprovidecounselorswithatoolboxfromwhichtoprovideprograms.Additionallyaseparatelydesignedsuggestedmodelforitineratecounselorscouldbeestablishedwhichwouldhighlightthemostcriticalaspectsofthecounselingprogramtobedelivered,whilealsoindicatingtheareasthatwouldbemoreeasilyintegratedintothecorecurriculumareasanddeliveredbyteachersconsideringthatthecounselorwillnotbephysicallypresentattheschoolsiteforthemajorityoftheschoolyear.Further,theAlaskachapterofASCAhastheopportunitytoprovidecontinuingeducationopportunitiesforcounselorswithinthestatetogainfamiliaritywithcomprehensivecounselingprograms.Thisorganizationcouldworkinpartnershipwithlocaluniversitiesandschooldistrictstoprovidethistrainingtocurrentcounselorsinthe

116fieldaswellasassistingADEEDinconnectingcounselorswithinamentoringprogram.Allprofessionalcounselorsarerequiredtoseekcontinuingeducationcreditstokeeptheircertificationstatus,thuscounselingeducatorscanstructurecontinuingeducationcoursestoaddresshowtoimplementacomprehensiveguidanceprogramaswellasassistfutureschoolcounselorstounderstandthedifferentperspectivethatschoolcounselorsbringtotheschoolteam,suchasempathy,understanding,mediationandcollaborationskills,andhowthisenhancesstudentsuccesswhenusedinpartwiththerestoftheteam(Light,2005).Additionally,JonesSearsandHaagGranello(2002)proposethatcounselorsmustbetrainedinadvocacyandhowtochangeestablishedsystemsaswellascollaborativeandcommunicationskills.Atthenationallevel,ASCApresentsthecomprehensivecounselingprogramnationalmodelasthebestpracticeforschoolcounselingprograms.ASCAalsogivesguidesforthebasicstructureinbuildingcounselingprograms,suchasstudent-to-counselorratiosandspecifictimeallocations.WhatASCAdoesnotprovideisarecommendationforadaptingprogramstoconditionssuchasthoseinAlaska,wherecounselorsaresplittingtheirtimebetweenmultiplesitesorexperiencingratiosupto900:1.Additionally,ofthe366elementaryschoolsidentifiedwithinthestate,only124schoolswereidentifiedashavingcounselorsforthisstudy,whichleavesmorethanhalfoftheschoolswithoutafull-timecounselor.Consideringtheseextremechallenges,ASCAshouldbechargedwithadvocatingforallstatestoadheretotherecommendedratiosandbuildingblocksofthecomprehensiveprogram.

1175.4.3IncreasingStrategicInterventionsMajorcriticsofthecomprehensivecounselingprogramsuggestthatratherthanendorsingtheeffectivenessofacomprehensiveprogram,schoolcounselorsshouldbelookingtoimplementstrategicinterventions(Brown&Trusty,2005).UsingstrategicinterventionsmaybeoneoftheareasthatAlaskanitineratecounselorscouldfocusmoreonwiththeirprograms.Beingon-siteforonedayeachmonth,orevenonedayaweek,makesthegoalofimplementingacomprehensivecounselingprogramforallstudentsunrealistic.Oneofthemainconceptsguidingthecomprehensivecounselingprogramisthatthisframeworkwillopenthecounselingprogramtoallstudents.TheconceptiswhatshouldbefocusedonforschoolsinAlaskaratherthantheframework.Throughcollaborationwithon-sitefacultyandstaff,coordinationwithlocalresourcesandtheuseofstrategicinterventions,counselorsmaystillaimtowardsopeningthecounselingprogramtoallstudents.Thusfar,recommendationshavebeenmadetoadaptthecomprehensivecounselingprogrambasedontheuniquechallengesthatprofessionalschoolcounselorsarefacinginruralelementaryschoolsinAlaska.Recommendationscouldalsobemadefromtheperspectiveofwhatstudentsandfamiliesareexperiencingaschallengesandneeds.Thisperspectivealterstheagendafrommerelyadaptingaprogramtofittotheuniquecircumstancesofadeliverysettingnotaddressedbytheprogram,toprovidingaframeworkthatisdrivingbytheneedsofthecommunitiesthatarebeingserved.StudentsinAlaskafacemanychallengesthathavealreadybeenaddressedinthispaper.Forexample,ruralschoollocationscanleavestudentsisolatedfromservicesthat

118theymaybeinneedof,suchasaccesstotheschoolcounselor,duetothecounselorbeingonsiteforonlyafewdaysamonth.Studentsmayalsofacemanyotherpersonal/socialconcernsintheirlives.ThiscanbedemonstratedinthatsuicideratesinAlaskahavebeennearlydoublethoseofthenationalaveragebetween1994to2000.Withinthoserates,rurallocationsreportnearlydoublethenumberofsuicidecompletionsthanurbanlocationsinAlaska(AlaskaDepartmentofHealthandSocialServices,2010).Additionally,therewereover5,000substantiatedreportsofchildabuseandneglectforAlaskain2009withover2,000out-of-homeplacementseachmonthofthatyear(OfficeofChildren'sServices,2010).Further,itisestimatedthatoversevenpercentofthestate'syouthpopulationiscurrentlyexperiencingseriousemotionaldisturbances(AlaskaMentalHealthTrustAuthority,2010).Eventhough,thenumberofstudentswithsevereemotionalandbehavioralconcernsmaybesmall,theeffectthatthosestudentscanhaveontheclassroomandtherestofthestudentsissignificant(Eberetal.,2008).BaggerlyandBorkowski(2004)furthershowhowprovidingtheneededstrategicinterventionsforastudentcannotonlyassisttheminmakingpro-socialchangesbutthattheentireclassroomcanbenefitfromtheseinterventionswiththeidentifiedstudent.Thisindicatesthatservicestargetedataparticularstudentmaybeabeneficialareaforschoolcounselorswithlimitedtimeandlargerthanrecommendedcaseloadstobeginfocusingonwithintheircounselingprograms.Thismaybestbeaccomplishedthroughtheuseofstrategicinterventionsintheformofwraparoundservices.

119TheconceptofwraparoundserviceswasfirstdevelopedintheUnitedStatesinthe1980s.Wraparoundserviceshavebeenincreasinglyusedinprovidingservicestostudentsandfamiliessincethattime(Wyles,2007).Servicesforstudentsaredevelopedthroughafourphaseprocessinthewraparoundconcept.Intheinitialphase,teamsareformedfrombothinformalandformalsupportsinthestudent'slife,akeycomponentindevelopingsuccessfulinterventions.Additionally,thenatureoftheconcernisidentifiedandstrengthsandneedsareaddressedinphaseone.Inphasetwo,aplanisdevelopedtoaddresstheneedsofthestudentbuildingfromthestrengthsandincludingasmanysupportsasneeded.Phasethreeisthephaseinwhichteammemberscontinuetoimplementstrategiesandevaluatethesuccessoftheseinterventions,changesaremadeasneededthroughoutthisprocess.Thefourthandfinalphaseofwraparoundtreatmentinterventionsistransitioning.Theteamplansforcessationofcurrentformalsupportsorbeginspreparingforatransitioninservices(Eberetal.,2008)Wraparoundserviceshavebeenassociatedwithdecreasedout-of-homeplacementsanddecreasedplacementsinmostrestrictiveeducationalsettings(Wyles,2007).Thisisawholesystemapproachwhereastudentinhisorherentiretyisconsidered,notjustintheareaofschoollife.LocaleducatorsinAlaskahavecontributedmuchresearchandguidanceintheareaconnectingschoolwiththerestofastudent'slifeinordertomakeitarelevantandmeaningfulexperienceforstudents.InthepublicationAlaskaStandardsforCulturallyResponsiveSchools,itisstatedthatwhilewehavecontentstandardsforstudentsandperformancestandardsforfaculty,culturalstandardsshouldnotbeoverlooked.Thejointauthorsofthispublicationstate,"Theemphasisison

120fosteringastrongconnectionbetweenwhatstudentsexperienceinschoolandtheirlivesoutofschoolbyprovidingopportunitiesforstudentstoengageinin-depthexperientiallearninginreal-worldcontexts"(AssemblyofAlaskaNativeEducators,1998,pg.3).Parentsareperhapsthemostinfluentialpersonsinstudents'lives(Cuthbert,2002).Itisanessentialpartofdevelopingastrongcounselingprogramtoinvolveparents.Cuthbertstatesthatitisimportantthatcounselorseducateparentsabouttheconnectionsbetweenemotionalhealthandacademicachievement.Itisbelievedthatoncethisconnectionismadeparentswillbecomestrongsupportersofthecounselingprogram.Studentswhohaveparentinvolvementaremorelikelytohaveincreasedacademicsuccessandmorepro-socialbehaviorsthanpeerswithoutthisinvolvement.Itcanbedifficulttosecureparentalinvolvementifitisviewedinthetraditionalsenseofwhattheparentscandotofurthertheschoolsgoals.However,ifparentalinvolvementisviewedfromaperspectiveofsupportingthestudentwithinandoutsideoftheschool,fromateamapproach,thenparentalinvolvementmaybemoreoftensecured(Minke&Anderson,2005).Wraparoundservicesarebasedfromaperspectivethatthefamilyhasstrengthsfromwhichtobuildandthatthestudentandfamilymustbehighlyinvolvedintheirowninterventionplanning(Wyles,2007).Althoughstudentsareinschoolforamajorpartoftheirday,theremaybeotherareasofastudent'slifewhichcouldaffecttheiracademicprogress.Infrequentclassroomguidancelessonsaimedatprovidingsystemicpreventioneducationandskilldevelopmentmaynotbethemosteffectivemeansofaddressingstudentneeds.Supportfromoutsidetheacademicandprofessionalrealmsmayneedtobedrawntogetherto

121formateamcommittedtothestudent'ssuccess.Wraparoundbasedservicescanbeespeciallyhelpfulwheneventsoutsidetheschoolenvironmentarecontributingtodifficultieswithintheschoolandimpactingthestudent'sachievementaswellastheachievementofotherstudentsintheroom.Thistypeofinterventioncanprovideastructuredteamapproachtosupplyingsupportsthechildneedstobesuccessfulintheschoolenvironmentwithintheleastrestrictivesetting(Eberetal.,2008).Itmustberememberedthough,thatcounselorscannotprovidethesolutionstoconcernsfacingstudentsinAlaskaindividually,itmustbeacollaborativeeffort,pullingtogethermanyresourcesbothformalandinformalareaswithinthestudent'slife(J.Boyle,personalcommunication,April23,2010).Alaskaisbeginningtoseethelocaleffortsofresearchers,counseloreducators,andprofessionalschoolcounselorsinprogramssuchasTheCopperRiverProject(Morotti,2008).ThisprojectsuccessfullypulledtogethertheconceptsofacomprehensivecounselingprogramwiththoseofwraparoundservicesinanefforttodelivereffectiveschoolcounselingservicesthroughSchool-BasedFamilyCounseling.ElementaryschoolcounselinginAlaskaisachallengingandoftendifficulttask,wherebyresourcesarelimitedandneedsarevast.OneaspectwhenbuildingcounselingprogramsinAlaskawhichshouldbekeptinconsiderationisthatofculture.Alaskahasauniquelydiverseculture,whichvariesfromonelocationtoanotherwithinthestate.Educationalprograms,includingcounselingprograms,shouldbebuiltfromaperspectiveofbecomingculturallyinclusive,sothatstudentsmaystrivetobesuccessfulinthedominateculturethroughanappreciationoftheirtraditionalvalues(Morotti,2006).

122InmanyAlaskaelementaryschools,studentsareleftwithitineratecounselorswhoonlyvisittheirschoolacoupledaysamonthoracounselorwhoistryingtoprovideacomprehensivecounselingprogramtoupto900students.Thiscanleaveastudentwhoisinneedofassistanceinalonglinetogetaccesstothecounselor,whilethecounselorprovidespreventativeclassroomguidancelessonstoallthegradelevels,ifthatis,thecounselorisfollowingtherecommendedstateandnationalprogramframeworks.Initialresearchintousingawraparoundservicesapproachispositiveforintendedoutcomes(Maynard-Moody,1994).Thisprogram,orothersimilarprograms,pullfromthelocalresourcesandintegratethestudents'strengthsandvaluesintointerventionswhichcouldbeeffectiveforuseinAlaskacommunities.5.5FurtherResearchThecomprehensivecounselingprogrammodelpresentedbyASCAhasbeenadoptedforuseinallschoolsinAlaskabythestateschoolboard.Giventhisdeclaration,adaptationstothisprogrammustbeconsideredifcounselorsinapredominatelyruralstatearegoingtoimplementthisprogramwithanysuccess.Probableadaptationshavebeenidentifiedandpresentedintherecommendationssectionofthispaper.Throughtheuseofcollaborationandtechnology,counselorsmaybeabletoimplementanadaptedversionofthecomprehensivecounselingprograminAlaska.FurtherresearchintheareaofschoolcounselinginAlaskaisneededthroughpilotstudiestodeterminetheeffectivenessoftheseadaptationsonprogramsandtheresultingstudentachievement.Additionally,furtherresearchintospecificcurriculumdevelopmentinwhichculturallyrelevantcounselingthemesareintegratedintocoreacademicareasis

123needed.Furtherresearchisalsoindicatedinexaminingadifferentapproachofwraparoundbasedservices.Initialevaluationsofwraparoundservicesareshowingpositiveoutcomes;however,furtherstudiesintocomparisonswithcurrentrecommendedapproachesshouldbeconducted.5.6SummaryTheCounselorActivitiesSurveyyieldeddatathatindicatednearlyhalfofrespondentstothissurveydidnothaveawrittencounselingprogram,awrittenjobdescription,conductneedsassessments,orcouldindicateafamiliaritywithacomprehensiveprogram.Inthecomponentareasofguidancecurriculum,individualplanning,responsiveservices,andsystemsupport,itwasfoundthatoverallcounselorsareperformingthetaskspromotedbyASCA'snationalmodelforcomprehensivecounselingprograms.Alaskaelementarycounselorsarealsoindicatingthattheywanttodotasksinthecomponentareaswithmorefrequency.Thenationalmodelsuggeststhatnon-counselingtasksbeeliminatedasmuchaspossiblefromthecounselor'sduties.ThispreferenceisreflectedinthedatafromtheAlaskaelementaryschoolcounselors.Additionally,itappearsthatabouthalfofelementarycounselingprogramsarenotinapositionconducivetoimplementingacomprehensivecounselingprogram;counselorsaredeliveringservicesinlessthanoptimalconditions.TherealsoappearstobenothingwithinASCA'snationalmodelthataddressesmanyofthesechallenges,suchaslargestudent-to-counselorratiosandservingmultiplelocations.AdaptationsareneededifelementarycounselorsinAlaskaaretoimplementtherecommendedcomprehensivecounselingprogram.Conversely,ratherthanadaptingaprogramsothat

studentsinAlaskacanfitintotheprogram,thereisadifferentapproachthatcounselorsmayuseinservicingtheneedsofstudentsandfamiliesattheirschools.Throughtheuseofwraparoundbasedservices,counselorsmayserveasateamfacilitatorinaddressingtheconcernsofstudentsinAlaskanelementaryschools.CounselorswithinAlaskahaveofferedsuggestionstothedilemmasfacedinthestatewhentryingtoimplementacomprehensiveprogram.Whencounselorsarespreadbetweenmultiplelocations,caseloadsareextreme,orcounselorsarenewtotheirpositions,itstandstoreasonthataddedsupportswouldneedtobeputintoplacetofacilitateprogramdevelopment.Whenaskedwhatwouldimproveprograms,12percentofcounselorsrecognizedtheneedforacounselingcoordinator.Acoordinatorcouldhelpfacilitateprogramdevelopmentforalreadyover-stretchedcounselors.Additionally,counselorspresentedideassuchasimplementingaspecificmodel,eliminatingnon-counselingduties,expandingthecurriculumresources,andclearlydefiningroles.AlloftheseideaswouldbepromotedthroughthepresenceofacounselingcoordinatoratthedistrictlevelsworkinginpartnershiptodevelopworkableandclearmodelsforAlaska.Anothersuggestion,givenbycounselorscurrentlyworkinginAlaskaelementaryschools,thatbearsconsiderationismentoring.Arelativelysmallpercentageofcounselorssuggestedmentors;however,itmaybeaverypowerfuluntappedresource.InAlaskatherearealreadymentoringprogramsinplacefornewteachersandprincipals,sothebasicstructureforthistypeofsupportisalreadyinplace.Oftherespondents,68percentindicatedthattheyhadbeenintheircurrentpositionforlessthanfiveyears.Additionally,counselorswithlessthanfiveyearsexperienceholdmoreanxietyabout

125implementingprograms,andmaybenefitgreatlyfromamentoringrelationshipwhenattemptingtoimplementacomprehensivecounselingprogram.Findingwaystopromotesuccessfulcounselingprogramsandincreasestudentachievement,whileatthesametimesupportingprofessionalschoolcounselorsintheirpositionswithinschools,isanimportantendeavorforallAlaskanstakeholders.Itbecomesapparentjusthowimportantwhenconsideringthatattheendofthe2008/2009schoolyear,33percentofelementaryschoolcounselorswhorespondedtothissurveyeitherplannedtoleavetheirpositionorwereundecidedabouttheirplanstocontinueintheirpositionasanelementaryprofessionalschoolcounselor.

126ConclusionAccountabilityisatermthathascometorestheavilyontheschoolsysteminthiscountry.Increasingly,professionalschoolcounselorsarebeginningtoberequiredtonotonlyshowwhattheyaredoingbutalsohowitishelpingstudentachievement.Manyprofessionalswithintheschoolbuildingdonotknowwhatexactlyaschoolcounselorshouldbedoing,thusaccountabilityisverydifficulttodemonstrate.Professionalorganizations,suchastheAmericanSchoolCounselorAssociationhaveputagreatdealofeffortintodefiningandguidingtheprofessionalschoolcounselor.However,evenafteradetailedjobdescriptionandprogrammodelhasbeenoutlined,thereareprofessionalswho,becauseofspecificneedsoftheirschool,choosenottoimplementortoonlypartiallyimplementacomprehensiveschoolcounselingprogram.ProfessionalschoolcounselorswithinAlaskafaceallthesamechallengesasothercounselorsacrossthenationwiththeaddedjobstressofmanyruralandisolatedlocations.Intheir1973reportsubmittedtotheAlaskaDepartmentofEducation,Spazianietal.(1973)hadalreadyidentifiedthatthereexistedsignificantdifferencesinprincipals'andcounselors'perceptionsregardingtheschoolcounselors'roleandtheimportanceofcounselingfunctions.Itwassuggestedinthatreportthatmoreorganizationwasneededtodevelopaphilosophyforguidanceandcounselingprograms.Aswellasdevelopingmeasurableobjectives,methodsofoperationandmethodsofevaluationforAlaskacounselingprograms.SinkandYilik-Downer(2001)foundinanationalstudyfocusingonhowschoolcounselorsviewedtheircomprehensiveguidanceandcounselingprogramsthatnewer

127counselorsheldmoreanxietyaboutimplementingacomprehensiveprogram.Thosecounselorswhohadlessthanfiveyearsexperiencefeltthatcollaborationwasanessentialpartofimplementingaprogram.SinkandYilik-Downerproposedthattheirresearchindicatedaneedformoreexperiencedcounselorstoworkwithnewercounselorsindevelopingtheirownprograms.Thedevelopmentofmentoringrelationshipsisparticularlyrelevantinthisstatewhere68percentofcounselorswhoparticipatedinthisstudyindicatedthattheyhadbeenemployedintheircurrentpositionforlessthanfiveyears.Additionally,toensurethefuturesuccessofschoolcounselingthereneedstobeseveralcomponentsinplace.Thereneedstobeajoiningtogetherofcounselorsinsupportofeachotherthroughmentoringandsupervision.Thereshouldbeconsiderationfortheuseofcounselingcoordinators.Also,thecounselingprogramasawholeshouldbesupportedthroughprofessionalmembershipandliterarycontributions(Sink,2002).Finally,researchintodemonstratingthatcounselingprogramsandinterventionstosupportsuccessfulprogramsareeffectiveisessentialatthistimeinthedevelopmentofschoolcounselingasaprofession(Baumanetal.,2003;Whiston,2002).

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138Madden,J.(2002).Criticalissuesonidentifyinganddisplacingnon-guidanceactivities.InN.Gysbers,&P.Henderson(Ed.),ImplementingComprehensiveSchoolGuidancePrograms:CriticalLeadershipIssuesandSuccessfulResponses(pp.55-64).Greensboro,NC:CAPSPublications.RetrievedJuly18,2008fromERICClearinghouseonCounselingandStudentServices.Maliszewski,S.J.,&Mackiel,JJ.(2002).Comprehensiveguidanceresults-basedevaluation:Developingapracticalapproach.InN.Gysbers,&P.Henderson(Ed.),ImplementingComprehensiveSchoolGuidancePrograms:CriticalLeadershipIssuesandSuccessfulResponses(pp.141-154).Greensboro,NC:CAPSPublications.RetrievedJuly18,2008fromERICClearinghouseonCounselingandStudentServices.Maynard-Moody,C.(1994).Wraparoundservicesforat-riskyouthsinruralschools.SocialWorkinEducation,16(3),187-192.RetrievedMarch12,2010,fromAcademicSearchPremierdatabase.Minke,K.M.,&Anderson,KJ.(2005).Family-schoolcollaborationandpositivebehaviorsupport.JournalofPositiveBehaviorInterventions,7(3),181-185.RetrievedMarch12,2010,fromAcademicSearchPremierdatabase.Monteiro-Leitner,J.,Asner-Self,K.K.,Milde,C,Leitner,D.W.,&Skelton,D.(2006).Theroleoftheruralschoolcounselor:Counselor,counselor-in-training,andprincipalperceptions.ProfessionalSchoolCounseling,9(3),248-251.RetrievedMarch5,2008,fromAcademicSearchPremierdatabase.

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142Sink,CA.,&Stroh,H.R.(2003).Raisingachievementtestscoresofearlyelementaryschoolstudentsthroughcomprehensiveschoolcounselingprograms.ProfessionalSchoolCounseling,6(5),350-365.RetrievedOctober13,2006,fromAcademicSearchPremierdatabase.Sink,C,&Yilik-Downer,A.(2001).Schoolcounselors'perceptionsofcomprehensiveguidanceandcounselingprograms:Anationalsurvey.ProfessionalSchoolCounseling,4(4),278-296.RetrievedJuly17,2008,fromAcademicSearchPremierdatabase.Spaziani,R.L.,Reiger,A.,Jones,J.,&Moore,CM.(1973).AnevaluationofsecondaryschoolguidanceandcounselingprogramsinAlaska:PhaseItechnicalreport(abridged).TheProjectReportSubmittedtoStateAvisoryCouncilforVocationalandAdultEducation,AlaskaDepartmentofEducation.Juneau,Alaska.Studer,J.R.(2006).Producingevidencetoshowcounselingeffectivenessintheschools.ProfessionalSchoolCounseling,9(5),385-391.RetrievedMarch3,2008,fromERICdatabase.U.S.CensusBureau.(2000).Census2000DatafortheStateofAlaska.Author.RetrievedSeptember19,2009,fromtheWorldWideWeb:http://www.census.gov/census2000/states/ak.html.Walsh,M.E.,Barret,J.G.,&DePaul,J.(2007).Day-to-dayactivitiesofschoolcounselors:AlignmentwithnewdirectionsinthefieldandtheASCANationalModel.ProfessionalSchoolCounseling10(A)370-378.RetrievedMarch5,2008fromAcademicSearchPremierdatabase.

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144AppendixA:DeliveryofComprehensiveGuidanceProgramsRolesandFunctions:CounselingConsultationCoordinationdeliveredthroughtheFourComponents:GuidanceCurriculumResponsiveServicesSystemSupportIndividualPlanningPercentofcounselor'$time35-45%FocusedonskilldevelopmentandapplicationThroughclassroomguidancelessonsaddressingstudentcompetencies30-40%preventionandinterventionsmallgroup/indiv.counselingdealingwithspecificconcerns,workingwithstaff10-15%programdelivery/supportplanningimplementingandprogramevaluationprofessionaldevelopment,educatingfamilies5-10%studentplanningandgoalsettingone-on-oneplanningassessingandgoalsettingaimedatreachingspecificStudentCompentencies:AcademicPersonal/SocialCareer

145AppendixB:SurveyInstrumentcetíOtete«4MOUO*co*jtoü._??>oc?(U>t/1^,_Fes.£>-«if^.>>4-"(U>?(U**—(UO4->DOC?'!ö>co(U*+—OL-Q.(U(UCO?l—(Ui;C(U>(0¦ffgC(UCo¦o(U.o(UQ.O(0(U—?-?E¦s(U(Uc3(UO<*¦·c^C|(U(Uuo>"O(U3(D??Xl(03mC3OU(Uc(0-o(U(UE3°°ai>(0Xm?F"*->-CFE(???F???3FC?TJft£«?:m4J~-~11Ss=oc°Q£«^(0F(0F>¦s-cF—FcFf£FI§!>4->?3¦sc??3O.3f>(0O5m(0S3^FOIO•?CfEQ.OF>F"O"<0c?(0?3F¦sffO—.FFEfeBQ-F?U4->L.7"«J-™-t-.^Jj:F1/1fUfF£fcoc?U__rt/1(0FCU·°-??3J=F¿3aja>f?E?-?NOt/i(0F>»F£E3UC3O?un"?J-?^:(0FL.F(0XlFgo^TSf?.3>—(0-CO??3¦«-O>>«?£«O•^F5>»-smfT>>^-?.EfcfFX)F>(0F>(0fte?dgoO8-2£°DOC_o>(ÖI"J-ITIF>(0-ConcP<^.£S-??>.2FÍ.8T?a?•?.3+OO-OOC(0'??IOU310Ufd?1S?·?S-FQ.F„^E.?Í3?<(0€°TDFsiDO¦»LO¡=TT?FLO(0m4->CF^S4->LO??fO>>?SLO^G??-2?X??»??O3O>>O?3UlOOC(0E???O.GSB(B[G£•-S?g?-'-s>;e~Ë..C?•???-ft-«?O¿"8•asf-5?-sW(?O-

146ceSOV«=Oece2O(D>>Ü(?>-JS3?cKJTJ°5on.iS?.COl•M4-»•cICdi>reo?2CL(U"oVlC3Ou"ooCO*.¿3CL•cU(?01tj.Cto·»—\COl(UEo""CTJOl4->J-Iao£zsil.?a.=rw»*J~3Eftj%roE?-O3??O>>>.10aiaiTJQTJ01tOQ.Q.33C^.>s(D-(0(u"C5L.fv.«](0«iEüc52«JSHDIl-U¦*CL>-?TJCL^«j3rat<"£t/io01>Oi^-£M-O4-J(U??_QTJ4->C(U«oE£«JZ(DU.C(0(U¦s?J(O^D(IEQio"-l/>4-»Ol01e>>3??9<=>>(US^(U1/1L_(D(UTJ>.Ol0S¿(U*-·¦?.x.£0113(UCL-Oj4-·¡í¡§£CU4-»>>^(U5o1-CLOOtUc.Sí"5!.Q3O>*OTJ(U>X3o.(Us¡«4-(U(U>4-1'-M10U*£(U(U?-9(UTJPEone?;JZa».-t:S*3?-?(D?:3>!Ol(D(UC>(U"^--'e5a»CLOlTJEEg??EU(?^>>CID(U<£5.9PCx3?5(DE??M-OlOlit-s(U????I>-I3P>>C?4->E(D?-???eCLDl)C3PUfJZ<«—OOPSì,Q.USSSi¡?*DD4->C£§5:5Va?:10Ct5_OOOU(JaftOl.tctíOLJ13O(LI3OOO

147AppendixC:InitialContactLetterSamanthaMcMorrowM.Ed.,LPC,CDCIC/ODr.AllanMorattiftsgp@uaf.eduUAF-EducationDept.P.O.Box756480Fairbanks,AK.99775-6480April10,2009Dear(participantsname),Iwouldliketointroducemyselfandmypurposeincontactingyou.IamastudentattheUniversityofAlaskaFairbanksconductingmydoctoralresearchintheareaofelementaryschoolcounseling.WithinthenextcoupleofweeksIwillbesendingyouasurveywhichwillgreatlyhelpmeinmyresearch.IencourageyoutotakeafewminutestocompletethiscomingsurveyandhaveyourexperiencewithintheK-6levelheardintheareaofschoolcounselingresearchforAlaska.Allanswerswillbekeptconfidentialandifyouhaveanyquestionsonceyoureceivethesurveypleasefeelfreetocontactme.Thankyouforyourtime,SamanthaMcMorrow

148AppendixD:SecondContactLetterSamanthaMcMorrowM.Ed.,LPC,CDCIC/ODr.AllanMorattiftsgp@uaf.eduUAF-EducationDept.P.O.Box756480Fairbanks,AK.99775-6480April22,2009Dear(participantsname),Hello,IrecentlycontactedyouregardingthegraduateresearchIamconducting.PleaseletmeintroducemyselfmorefullyatthistimemynameisSamanthaMcMorrow.Igraduatedwithamaster'sdegreeinGuidanceandCounselingfromtheUniversityofAlaskaFairbanks3yearsago.Sincethattime,Ihavebeenemployedinadaytreatmentfacilityservingelementarystudents.TherolesanddutiesInowperformaredifferentfromwhatItrainedfor,andthatbeganmyinterestin"whatdoschoolcounselorsdo"and"arethenationalstandardsinlinewiththeexpectationsforAlaskaschoolcounselors?"Thisisthebasisofmydissertationwork.IamagainagraduatestudentatUniversityofAlaskaFairbanksintheEducationDepartment.IamworkingtowardsaPh.D.inCounselorEducation,andIneedyourhelpwithmyresearch.Attachedyouwillfindasurveyinstrument.Thissurveywilltakeperhapsfifteenminutesofyourtimetocomplete.Yourparticipationiscrucial.Ifyouchoosetoassistmeinthisvaluableresearch,justcompletetheattachedsurveyandreturnitintheenclosedstampedenvelope.Yourreturnedsurveywillbetakenasconsenttobeincludedinthisresearch.Noticethatallinformationiskeptstrictlyconfidential.Ifyouwouldliketheresultsofthisresearchsenttoyoupleasefillouttheinformationbelow,thiswillbeseparatedfromallsurveyanswers.Thankyouverymuchforyourtime,SamanthaMcMorrowCompleteandsendtoaddresslistedabove,oremailmetorequestacopyoftheresultsofthissurvey.Pleasesendresearchresultsto:__________________________________________________(email)IJYes,Iwouldliketobecontactedtopotentiallybecomepartofafollowupfocusgroup/interview.(email)

149AppendixE:Follow-UpContactLetterSamanthaMcMorrowM.Ed.,LPC,CDCIC/ODr.AllanMorattiftsgp@,uaf.eduUAF-EducationDept.P.O.Box756480Fairbanks,AK.99775-6480May12,2009Dear(participantsname),Iwouldliketothankyouforyourvaluableparticipationinmyresearchstudy,ifyouhavenotyetcompletedthesurveyIstronglyencourageyoutotakeafewminutestodosonow.Asaprofessionalcounselor,IknowyourtimeisverylimitedandItrulyappreciateyourassistancewithmyresearch.Iamsendingyouanadditionalsurveyatthistime.Ifyouwouldlikeresultssenttoyoupleasecompletethesectionbelow.Thiswillbeseparatedfromallsurveyanswers.Thankyouverymuchforyourtime,SamanthaMcMorrowCompleteandsendtoaddresslistedabove,oremailmetorequestacopyoftheresultsofthissurvey.Pleasesendresearchresultsto:__________________________________________________(email)IIYes,Iwouldliketobecontactedtopotentiallybecomepartofafollowupfocusgroup/interview.(email)

150AppendixF:SuggestedTimeDistributionsAdaptedfromTheComprehensiveCounselingProgramforAlaskaPublicSchoolsELEMENTARYLEVELSuggestedTimeDistribution23Ato3V2hrs(14-18wkly)-Curriculum1Ato3Ahrs(2-4wkly)-IndividualPlanning2/4to3Vahrs(12-16wkly)-ResponsiveServices3Ato11Ahrs(4-6wkly)-SystemSupport1Ato1Ahrs(0-8wkly)-OtherActivitiesCurriculum:AneffectiveschoolcounselingprogramcontainscurriculumthatprovidesactivitiesthatareconsistentlypresentedtoallstudentsingradesK-12.Thepurposeofthesecurriculumareasistoproactivelyaddressstudents'academic,career,andpersonal/socialdevelopmentalneeds.TheAlaskaSchoolCounselingProgramhasadoptedtheNationalAcademicCounselingStandardsforcurriculum.ThethreecurriculumareasincludeAcademicDevelopment,CareerDevelopment,andPersonal/SocialDevelopment.IndividualStudentPlanning:IndividualStudentPlanningconsistsofactivitiesthathelpallstudentsplan,monitorandmanagetheirownlearningaswellastheirpersonalandcareerdevelopment.Withinthiscomponent,studentsevaluatetheireducationaloccupationalandpersonalgoalsandplans.Theseactivitiesmaybedeliveredonanindividualorgroupbasisunderthesupervisionanddirectionofthecounselor.ResponsiveServices:ResponsiveServicesaddresstheimmediateneedsandconcernsofindividualsandgroupsofstudents,parents,staff,and/orcommunity.Counselorresponsibilitiesinclude:prevention,intervention,crisisresponse,referralsandresources.SystemSupport:Systemsupport,asacomponentofacomprehensiveschoolcounselingprogram,consistsofactivitiesdesignedtoenhanceandsupporttheAlaskaQualitySchoolsInitiative.Byutilizingateamapproach,schoolcounselingprogramsservetoenhancethetotaleducationalprogram.Counselorshelpteachersandstaffdevelopmeaningfulactivitiesthatassiststudentsinachievinghighacademicstandards,developingemployabilityskills,andutilizinggoodpersonalandsocialskillsnecessarytobecomeproductivecitizens.Thisteamapproachisessentialtoincreasestudentsuccessasmeasuredbyassessments,suchasthebenchmarktests.OtherActivities:Otheractivitiesthatprofessionalschoolcounselorsoftenengageinthroughouttheschooldayincludesubstitutingforclassroomteachers,havingbusdutyorlunchduty.Moresporadicallythroughouttheschoolyear,professionalcounselorswillperformactivitiessuchasbalancingclassroomlistsoractingasthetestingcoordinator.ResponsiveServices30-40%SystemSupportLO-15%Other0-2%ndividualPlannin5-10%Curriculum35^5%

151AppendixG:ImprovingtheCounselingProgramWhatwouldimprovethecounselingprogramwithinyourbuildingordistrict?Smallerratiosofstudentspercounselor:IwouldbemoreeffectiveifIwasnotspreadsothin.Smallercaseload.Smallercaseload,Ihavetwoschools,900students.Morecounselors.Moretimeforgroups.Moretimewithstudents,needtobeemployedFULLTIMEeachelementaryschoolonlygets0.5FTEcounselor.Workwithfewerstudentsmoreindepth.Iamanitinerant-notaseffectiveaswhenIwasthecounselorfulltimeinoneschoolinthelower48.Ourdistrictpopulationislowbycomparision-thisistherealityofthejobhere.Muchtimeisspentontravel.I'matsitesoneortwodaysamonthonaverage,exceptformyhomesite.Notspreadsothin.Increasedstaffing.Havingeachelementarycounselorhaveonly1school!Moreindividualcounselingtimeandgrouptime,playtherapytime.Hiremorecounselors.Havingeachelementarycounselorhaveonlyoneschool.Acounselorateveryschool-moretimeineachschool.Havingafulltimecounselor.Sometimesthereisnotenoughtimeinthedaytomeetwithallthestudentswhohaveneedstobeaddressed.Providemoregroupactivitiessuchaspeercounseling.Nothavingthechallengesoftravelingtoremotesites-winterweathermakesthisarealtest.Havemoretimeineachschooltodeliverlessonsandspendtimewiththeindividualstudents.Lesstravel,1schoolinsteadof2.Hugecaseloadforonepersonwhodoessomuch.Morecounselors(oneateachschool).Havingafulltimecounselorateachelementaryschool.Alowercounselortostudentratioormoreflexibilitywithclasses(e.g.Icoverteacherprepssothistrumpsanythingthatmayarisewithstudents).Moretimewithstudents.Hiredmorecounselorsona300:1ratio.Currentratio=1:443;Improvement=2:443(moreinlinewithASCAmodel).1counselorpersite.Time.Moretime.

152Implementationofaspecificmodel/plan:TogetASCA'sRAMP.Formalizesomeprocesses.Completionofplanofservice.Havingclear,mandatedguidelinestofollowsoprincipalscan'tuseushowevertheywant(enlessSPEDmeetings).Havingclear,mandatedguidelinestofollowsothatprincipalscannotuseusastheyseefit(asst.principalduties-discipline).Haveaconcretewrittencurriculumforallelementaryschoolcounselors.Ourdistrictisworkingongettingeverybodyonthesamepage.IfallschoolcounselorsfollowedASCA'smodel.Ageneraloutlineofcontenttobetaughtduringagivenmonththroughoutthedistrict.Moreunifiedcurriculumbetweenallschoolcounselors.Tohavebasicguidelinesforallelementarycounselorsbutonsightmanagement.Allcounselorsdoingthesamework.Consistencyamongbuildings.AcomprehensiveguidancemodelforK-12.EmployingaCounselingCoordinator:HiringofanElementarySchoolCounselorCoordinator.Asupervisorofthecounselors.Wecurrentlydonothaveacounselingdirector,whichwouldimprovetraininganddelivery,wealsohaveveryhighturnoverwithcounselorsandprincipalsinourdistrict,longevityiskeyouthereinruralpositionsandwithoutadirectortooverseetrainingofnewhires,thisresponsibilityinevitablyfallsonothercounselorswithinthedistrict.Distancehampersusmeetingasagroup.Adistrictrepresentative.Acounselorcoordinator.Primarysupervisorhasacounselorbackgroundsoisbetterabletounderstandandsupporttypeofprogramneededineachschool,allowingforflexibilitywiththepopulationandneedsoftheparticularschool.Someonewhounderstandscounselingbeemployedindistrictoffice.Gotapositionwithsomeonefillingtherollofcounselorsupervisororcoordinator.Trainingandplanningtimewithmiddleschoolandhighschoolpartnerschools,asupervisorforelementaryandmiddleschoolandhighschoolcounselors.EliminationofNon-CounselingDutiesTakingawaynon-counselingduties.Eliminateextradutiessuchasbeingresponsibleforalltesting,behavior,cafeteriaduties-etc.ProblemsinruralAK.Ismuchdifferentfromcityorlower48.Everyonehastobeateamforthebettermentoftheschool.

153LessAdministrativework,lessdisciplinework.Lessresponsibilityforteachers'preptimes.Iweartoomanyhats,counselor,registrar,tutor,pseudo-administration,etc.Letmebeacounselorfulltime.Lesssecretarial/administrativeduties(reportcardsinchargeofschoolmaster,etc.)fewerhatstowear,i.e.504coordinator,studentassistanceteamcoordinator.Makingsurethatcounselorsarenotlockedintocoveringteacherspreptimes.Moretimeforcounselingandlifeskills,lesstimespenttesting!Stoppedusingcounselorsforprepperiods.ExpandedCurriculum/Resources:MorematerialsdealingexclusivelywithNatives.Biggerbudgetfornewmaterials.Notcutordecreaseprogram(schooldoesn'thavecounselingcurriculaormaterialsandnotinbudget).Ifthedistrictwouldprovidemoremoneyforbooksandcurriculum.Continuingtocreateunitsandpurchasecurriculummaterials.BetterresourcesthattargetNativestudents.Moregroupresources.Moneyformaterials.Acurriculum.I'mproudofmyprogramandfeelthatitisquiteeffective.Forimprovement,I'malwaysworkingonincreasingparentcommunication,seekingnew/differentresources,varyinggroupstructures,etc.It'samatterof"polishing"ratherthan"developing"myprogram.ClearlyDefinedRoles:Clearlydefinedroleandduties.Betterjobdescription.Clearjobdescription.Betterknowledgeoftheroleofthecounselor.Similarrolesthroughouttheelementarybuilding.DevelopingaPeerMentoringProgram:Havingamentor/peertohelpevaluatetheprogram.Someonetoreflectwithontheprogrammorecritically.Mentoringprogramspecifictocounseling.IncreasingParentInvolvement:Aneffectiveoutreachthatwouldfacilitatemoreparentinvolvement.Morefamilybuy-in.Moreinteractionwithparents.

?-154MoreSupport:Beingsupportedandrecognized.AdministrativeSupport.IncreasedBudget:Money.Budgetarysupport.Money.Higerbudget.LessTurn-Over:Juststayingforawhile.Moreorbetterfacilities/space:Morephysicalspace,ownclassroomorbiggeroffice,moreflexibleschedule.Better(more)spaceforacounselor.

Full document contains 167 pages
Abstract: Professional school counseling has roots as far back as the nineteenth century in the United States. Along the way there have been many changes in title and duties for the school counselor, who by recommendation of the American School Counseling Association as well as the state of Alaska Department of Education and Early Development, acts as the professional leading the comprehensive counseling program. Elementary comprehensive counseling programs are designed to be developmental in nature and preventative in practice. Additionally, they are intended to make the counseling program available to all students, not just those who are high achieving or at risk within the school community. However, there is a great deal of variance in how programs operate in Alaska. This research used mail surveys to gather data from potentially all elementary school counselors in the state of Alaska. Data were then considered in regards to the suggested comprehensive counseling program to evaluate and produce informed recommendations. One of the specific challenges that Alaskan elementary school counselors face is that of larger than recommended student-to-counselor ratios. Additionally, many counselors are operating in more than one school. Counselors working in the field suggest that curriculum is a much needed resource as well as recommendations that a counseling coordinator be employed to assist in bringing a more uniformed structure to counseling programs in the state of Alaska. School counseling, as well as education in general, has undergone many changes over the last century. Counseling programs in Alaska will need to continue to change and adapt if they are to meet the needs of students and communities.