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A quantitative study investigating relationships among leadership style, employee satisfaction, and employee tenure

Dissertation
Author: Michael Leon Finn
Abstract:
The purpose of this quantitative research study was to examine and make forecasts pertaining to criterion outcome of part-time employee tenure in the retail industry. The main issues concern leadership practices, employee satisfaction, and employee tenure within the retail industry. Several forms of statistical analysis were used in this quantitative analysis. These included descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, multiple regression, t-tests, and Pearson correlations. Results of the t-test analysis found clear differences in the current leader versus ideal leader comparison. Pearson correlation results on the two satisfaction measures also found employee satisfaction and leader tenure to be predictors of employee tenure.

A Quantitative Study ix TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................vi DEDICATION....................................................................................................vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.........................................................................1 Background of the Problem..................................................................................2 Statement of the Problem......................................................................................7 Purpose of the Study.............................................................................................8 Nature of the Study.............................................................................................11 Hypothesis and Research Questions...................................................................11 Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................16 Definition of Terms.............................................................................................21 Assumptions........................................................................................................22 Scope and Limitations.........................................................................................23 Delimitations.......................................................................................................23 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.............................................27 Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, and Journals.............................28 Research Purpose................................................................................................29 The Predictor Variable and Current Findings.....................................................32 The Five Leadership Practices............................................................................33 Leadership Influence...........................................................................................35 Origins of Motivation.........................................................................................37 Loyalty and Motivational Factors.......................................................................37

A Quantitative Study x The Criterion Variable and Current Findings.....................................................46 Context Setting....................................................................................................52 Research Population............................................................................................53 Literature Review Conclusion............................................................................57 Summary.............................................................................................................58 CHAPTER 3: METHOD....................................................................................59 Research Design..................................................................................................60 Appropriateness of Design..................................................................................64 Hypotheses and Research Questions..................................................................67 Population...........................................................................................................71 Sampling Frame..................................................................................................72 Instrumentation...................................................................................................74 Validity and Reliability.......................................................................................79 Data Analysis......................................................................................................83 Summary.............................................................................................................84 Hypotheses and Research Questions..................................................................86 Demographic Questionnaire...............................................................................93 Data Collection Procedures.................................................................................94 Data Analysis......................................................................................................95 Demographic Results..........................................................................................96 Hypotheses Results.............................................................................................98 Employee Satisfaction and Leader Tenure Measures.......................................100 Findings.............................................................................................................103

A Quantitative Study xi Summary...........................................................................................................104 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS...........................105 Hypotheses, Research Questions, Results, and Conclusions............................105 Significance of this Study for Leadership.........................................................111 Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research..................................114 Summary...........................................................................................................116 REFERENCES.................................................................................................120 APPENDIX A: DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ALL RESPONDENTS..............................................................................................136 APPENDIX B: PARTICIPANTS 18 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER..........137 APPENDIX C: KOUZES & POSNER’S (2003) LEADERSHIP PRACTICES INVENTORY (LPI) OBSERVER QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONS.....138 APPENDIX D: KOUZES & POSNER’S (2003) LEADERSHIP PRACTICES INVENTORY (LPI) QUESTIONNAIRE (OBSERVER)................................140 APPENDIX E: SIGNED PERMISSION TO USE EXISTING SURVEY......142

A Quantitative Study 1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Excessive employee turnover erodes an organization’s tacit and explicit knowledge, which takes time to replace and cultivate again. Retail leaders often fail to realize the value of the knowledge held by front-line employees, who potentially may be trained to be leaders. Employee turnover is expensive; training new hires can cost as much as 50% of an employee’s salary (McKay, Avery, Tonidandel & Morris, 2007). According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the retail industry reported a combined 52.4% five-year employee turnover rate from 2000 to 2005 (Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey and 2002-2012 Employment Projections). Despite the growing rate of turnover of part-time employees in the retail workforce, leaders have largely failed to discern how employee tenure (longevity) contributes to employee performance and saves money (Adidam, 2006; Latham & Vinyard, 2006; Trinka, 2005). The purpose of this quantitative research study is to examine potential relationships among retail leaders, employee satisfaction, and part-time employee tenure to offer explanations and make predictions about excessive employee turnover as a function of leadership within the retail industry (Latham & Vinyard, 2006; Leedy & Ormrod, 2005; Trinka, 2005). Chapter 1 is organized according to the following topics: (a) the background of the problem, (b) the problem statement, (c) the purpose statement, (d) significance of the study, (e) the nature of the study, (f) hypotheses and research questions, (g) the theoretical framework, (h) definition of terms, (i) assumptions, (j) scope and limitations, (k) delimitations, and chapter summary.

A Quantitative Study 2 Background of the Problem Leadership is an essential aspect of the part-time employee work life. Typically, retailers have multiple leaders (i.e. supervisors and managers) in one setting to manage the business. The complex nature of the retail environment, compounded by a mixture of leadership styles, personalities, behaviors, and flexible scheduling, can often create tension among employees. Employees often bond and become loyal to one favorite supervisor or leader. Retail leaders, managers, and supervisors have responsibility for creating an environment to develop, train, and retain employees. However, the retail environment is a cost-conscious, rapidly changing environment that rarely offers stability. Retail leaders often work flexible schedules to accomplish tasks and to meet the demands of the business. Employees must be motivated and committed to meet the demands of the retail environment and to be rapid changes the affecting many businesses (Ramlall, 2004). Change itself is a source of both stress and dissatisfaction (Kotter & Cohen, 2002). Many organizations have multiple leaders (i.e. supervisors and managers) in one setting who work rotating schedules to meet the demands of the business. While leadership flexibility is a necessary aspect of many businesses, frequent changes in the leadership staff can disrupt employee motivation and can create problems in maintaining continuity due to limited supervisory interaction (Ramlall, 2004). The challenge for many retail leaders or managers is to use effective leadership skills to motivate employees, despite limited supervisory interaction, constant environmental change, and frequent employee turnover. Many retail environments have established work communities typically developed by full-time employees. Although part-time employees are eager to

A Quantitative Study 3 learn and become a part of the “team,” it is challenging for part-time employees to become effective team members without solid leadership guidance. Often, retail leaders tend to forget that part-time employees are an essential aspect of managing the business despite the lack of benefits, decent wages, and stable scheduling. Trinka (2007) suggested that the motivation of employees depends on a leader’s ability to translate objectives into desired results. This is particularly important in a diverse multi-cultural retail environment. The rising level of part-time employee turnover within the retail industry often disrupts employee continuity and operational effectiveness, contributes to increased recruitment and training costs for many retail organizations (Firth, Mellor, Moore, & Loquet, 2004). Employee tenure is often affected by a variety of factors, including leadership practices, human resource strategies, and decision-making policies (Wagar & Rondeau, 2006). Excessive employee turnover is problematic, especially in the retail industry, due to a combined 52.4% five-year employee turnover rate from 2000 to 2005 (Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey and 2002-2012 Employment Projections). Analysis of the factors contributing to employee turnover is significant because (a) a stable employee force is necessary to efficient operations; and (b) leaders are increasingly confronted with lack of employee continuity, which disrupts cost-estimates associated with employee recruitment and training to ensure operational effectiveness. Kouzes and Posner (2003b) posit that the process of leadership involves practicing managerial styles and measuring desired results to achieve goals. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) represents a model of leadership practices that can guide leaders toward achieving desired results while measuring leadership effectiveness

A Quantitative Study 4 (Kouzes & Posner, 2003b). The LPI has been consistently used worldwide in a variety of industries and disciplines to investigate relationships and predict performance levels of managers and leaders (Kouzes & Posner, 2003b). LPI scores have been used to explain relationships in a variety of measures such as job satisfaction, employee commitment, and productivity (Kouzes & Posner, 2003b). The LPI elicits ordinal data from each of the five LPI components. The leadership model identified by Kouzes and Posner (2002a) involves five specific practices. “Model the Way” comprises (a) setting an example, behaving in ways consistent with stated values, (b) planning small wins, and (c) enabling followers to experience tangible success. “Inspiring a Shared Vision” includes (a) creating and communicating a vision of the future, and (b) enlisting others to share that vision. “Challenging the Process” comprises (a) seeking new problem-solving techniques, searching for opportunities, (b) encouraging innovation, and (c) taking risks. “Enabling Others to Act” includes (a) fostering collaboration, (b) cooperation within groups, and (c) strengthening others’ capabilities to perform. “Encouraging the Heart” comprises (a) recognizing contributions, (b) holding, and communicating high expectations, (c) linking performance and rewards, and (d) celebrating accomplishments (Kouzes & Posner, 2002a, p. 13). Leadership involves using a variety of practices or styles to influence others to accomplish objectives. The LPI has been repeatedly tested and has proved to be a valuable method of leadership assessment for measuring effectiveness (Kouzes & Posner, 2002a). Kouzes and Posner (2003b) claim that the process of leadership involves practicing managerial styles and measuring desired results to achieve goals. The five

A Quantitative Study 5 components of the LPI are valuable tools to measure leadership behavior. The LPI elicits ordinal data using a Likert-type scale (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). LPI (observer) instrument and two satisfaction measures were used to examine possible relationships between the five components of leadership style or practices and part-time employee tenure. Leadership style or practices were identified as the predictor variable (PV) and part-time employee tenure was identified as the nominal criterion variable (CV) for this research study. Excessive employee turnover may impede an organization’s operational effectiveness and performance potential (Firth et al., 2004). Although employees are an organization’s most critical and valuable resource (Latham & Vinyard, 2006), retail leaders must find a way to minimize excessive part-time turnover and to increase employee value and tenure. The retail industry workforce comprises part-time and full- time employees at low wage structures and with frequent employee turnover. In the late 1970s, retail wages were nearly half that of manufacturing. By 1983, wages dropped by one-third while retail wages stand at about two-fifths of an increasingly stagnant manufacturing wage (Lichtenstein, 2005). For instance, employee turnover in the automotive industry, in which lifetime employees are rewarded for longevity in the organization, is less than 8% (Lichtenstein, 2005). Conversely, retail industry leaders, such as Wal-Mart, experience an employee turnover of 46% a year (Lichtenstein, 2005). Unlike manufacturing, the retail industry limits overtime and relies heavily on the growing part-time labor force to control labor costs. The background of the problem presents possible relationships in preexisting conditions among leadership practices or

A Quantitative Study 6 style (PV) of retail leaders, employee satisfaction, and part-time employee tenure (CV) within the retail industry. From a business perspective, part-time employment allows for increased scheduling flexibility with minimal expense, such as lower wages and reduced or no health benefits. Organizational success depends on the diverse backgrounds, knowledge, skills, and motivation of the employees (Latham & Vinyard, 2006). Retail jobs are typically remunerated at well below a living wage, resulting in increased employee turnover and/or the need for taking on additional jobs. Increasing employee tenure enhances employee loyalty, commitment, and effectiveness (Latham & Vinyard, 2006). Industry leaders have made concerted efforts to identify the contributing factors related to employee turnover to mitigate employee losses with little success (Siong, Mellor, Moore, & Firth, 2006). Firth et al. (2004) investigated demographic characteristics, organizational stressors, including stress, leadership support, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and employees’ intention to quit as precursors of employee turnover. Firth et al. (2004) found that employees’ intention to quit is predisposed by job dissatisfaction, decreasing commitment to the job, and stress. However, these factors may be influenced by a leader’s style and ability to motivate an employee to accomplish goals that enhance employee commitment and tenure (Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Latham & Vinyard, 2006). Covey’s (1990) Principled-Centered Leadership Paradigm (PCL) recognizes that people have the highest value of all assets within organizations. Fostering relationships helps to enhance employee effectiveness with a sense of purpose, mission, and excitement supported by shared visions and principles to enhance loyalty and effectiveness (Covey, 1990).

A Quantitative Study 7 Bates (2004) suggested employee “engagement” involves emotions and the way in which employees feel about the work experience and/or how individuals are treated (p. 2). Engagement, like loyalty, involves a “willingness” of employee, which enhances a company’s bottom-line success (Bates, p. 2). Visionary theories attempt to explain how leaders influence employee morale, effectiveness, and motivation consistent with leadership visions and objectives (Lynham & Chermack, 2006), which is the premise of this quantitative analysis. Employee turnover studies (Karsh, Booske, & Sainfort, 2005; Lee & Liu, 2006; Lyons & O’Brien, 2006; Sousa-Poza & Henneberger, 2004) indicate a positive correlation between employee job dissatisfaction and employee turnover. Lyons and O’Brien (2006) contend that job dissatisfaction is a salient predictor of employee turnover intentions. Employee satisfaction is a characteristic that was explored in the regression analysis within the retail industry. Statement of the Problem Research findings indicate that retail leaders recognize but offer no viable solutions to address the growing number of part-time employees as a source of knowledge and as a means to save money. Combined with a 52.4% five-year turnover rate from 2000 to 2005 (Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey and 2002- 2012 Employment Projections), retail leaders fail to recognize how employee turnover detracts from the overall operational effectiveness and efficiency (Phillips, 2004). The retail trade industry experienced 9% employment growth from January 1996 to December 2005 for the ten-year period (BLS Data, 2006a). According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics data report, of the 15,187,000 total workers were employed in the retail trade in 2003, approximately 11,201,000 employees (73.8%) work full-time, and

A Quantitative Study 8 3,986,000 (26.2%) work part-time, with a forecasted increase of part-timers of 9.6% over the next six years (Phillips, 2004). A narrow “cost-oriented” approach may cause employee dissatisfaction, low morale, and high turnover that may contribute to increased labor expenses costs and reduced service outcomes (Broadbridge, 2002). The specific problem here is that despite the growing rate of turnover of part-time employees in the retail workforce, leaders often fail to discern how tenure (longevity) contributes to employee performance. Leaders also fail to understand how work-related outcomes are results of employee satisfaction, attitude, and behavior (Chow & Keng-Howe, 2006). Part-time and non-managerial employees, who are more susceptible to quitting their jobs, represent in excess of a 90% turnover (Broadbridge, 2002). Turnover disrupts routines, continuity, skills, and knowledge, which can diminish employee performance and customer service levels (Broadbridge, 2002). Therkelsen and Fiebach (2003) contend that leaders are capable of mediating employee behavior and performance outcomes, thereby minimizing employee turnover. Motivational studies (Maslow, 1954) indicate that creating a positive work environment may enhance employee effectiveness and tenure. However, retail leaders recognize but offer no viable solutions to address the growing number of part-time employees, despite suggested links between employee motivation, satisfaction, and tenure (Broadbridge, 2002; Silvestro, 2002; Timmer et al., 2005). Purpose of the Study The purpose of the current research was to examine and make forecasts pertaining to criterion outcomes of part-time employee tenure. The study investigated possible relationships between leadership styles and part-time employee tenure. Regression

A Quantitative Study 9 analysis was used to assess how effectively leadership practices or styles (PV) can be used to make predictions related to part-time employee tenure (CV) within the retail industry. The research design also explored alternative explanations concerning the research phenomenon. Satisfaction measures were used to examine potential relationships in data regarding data on current versus ideal leaders. Relationships between part-time employee satisfaction and leader tenure were examined. Analyses of two satisfaction measures were used to examine and predict criterion outcomes. Employee tenure (CV) was identified as a nominal criterion variable in terms of months and years. Employee tenure data was reported and analyzed collectively and by year group variable in terms of months and years (0 to < 1 year, 1 to < 2 years, and 2 to <3 years). This method was designed to (a) determine if leadership styles (PV) and employee satisfaction correlate with the (CV) and (b) the timeframe when turnover occurs. Employee tenure (CV) is viewed as a function of leadership styles (PV) that was considered to be a continuous variable. The LPI provides ordinal data within each component of leadership style. Data from the LPI and tenure was used to calculate correlations and analysis. Leadership styles are preexisting characteristics not controlled by the researcher. A regression procedure was the most appropriate choice for the present study because the strength of this design uses predictor variables to forecast outcomes on the criterion variable (Creswell, 2003, 2005; Gall et al., 2003; Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). Data analysis for the present analysis reflected a regression analysis using a descriptive research method. Descriptive statistics encapsulated the general nature of the data obtained from participants. Descriptive statistics was used to measure central tendencies (e.g. mean, median, and mode) and variability (e.g. variance and standard

A Quantitative Study 10 deviation) on both LPI and tenure data (Creswell, 2003, 2005). Part-time retail employees were considered to be the specific population for the present study rather than an independent or dependent variable. Data were entered into SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics was conducted on the demographic data. The geographic location represented the retail trade industry in the Sacramento, California area. Significance of the Study Researchers recognize the significance of motivational factors affecting employee effectiveness and tenure and offer a variety of theories, suggesting a relationship among leadership style (PV), satisfaction, and employee tenure (CV). The literature suggests direct connections between leadership style (PV) and employee tenure (CV). The growth and turnover rates of part-time employees, employee demographics, and the minimum wage structure significantly contribute to the composition of the labor force. Despite these factors, there is a gap in the literature concerning how these variables are related to employee tenure in the retail industry, warranting further research in this area. It is essential to determine how leadership styles which affect to part-time employee tenure, thereby potentially suggesting to leaders how to mitigate turnover and control expenses. Continuous improvement theories (Bolman & Deal, 2003; Jones, 2004; LaRue, Childs & Larson, 2004; Latham & Vinyard, 2006) suggest business success, survivability, and growth are among management’s most critical obligations for leaders. Examining leadership style is important because the leader-employee relations may contribute a growing problem of employee turnover within the retail industry. Investigating part-time employee tenure may offer ways to increase organizational effectiveness and stability that is for business success (Fisher, 2003).

A Quantitative Study 11 Nature of the Study The intent of this study was to use predictor variables to examine and make forecasts pertaining to criterion outcome of part-time employee tenure. Regression analysis was used to assess how effectively leadership practices or styles (PV) may be used to make outcome predictions related to part-time employee tenure (CV) within the retail industry. The present research explored alternative explanations concerning part- time employee turnover. Satisfaction measures were used to examine potential relationships in current versus ideal leader data. Relationships between part-time employee satisfaction and leader tenure were also examined. Analysis of two satisfaction measures was used to examine and predict criterion outcomes. The regression design identified tenure as a nominal criterion variable in terms of months and years. Regression was used to analyze part-time employee tenure (CV) as a function of leadership styles (PV). The study investigated possible relationships between leadership styles and part- time employee tenure. Kouzes and Posner’s (2002a) Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership are behaviors that are consistent with the present study’s theoretical framework. The LPI (observer) instrument and two satisfaction measures was used to examine possible relationships among the five components of leadership style or practices (PV) and part-time employee tenure (CV). Hypothesis and Research Questions Retail leaders recognize but see no viable solutions to the significance of the growing numbers of part-time employees in the retail industry, their high turnover rates and the consequences on organizational effectiveness (Broadbridge, 2002; Silvestro, 2002; Timmer et al., 2005). The regression strategy attempted to explain and make

A Quantitative Study 12 predictions involving possible relationships between leadership styles (PV) and part-time employee tenure (CV) within the retail industry. The following null and alternative hypotheses was designed to examine possible relationships between leadership styles or practices (PV) as related to criterion outcomes of part-time employee tenure. Null Hypotheses Leedy and Ormrod (2005) posited that because researchers “can never really prove a hypothesis,” researchers often attempt to disprove an “opposite” or null hypothesis to reject the “no differences” or no “relationship” hypothesis, thereby supporting the research hypothesis (p. 55). As such, there are four null hypotheses for this analysis. H 01: There is no relationship between tenure and each of the five leadership practices (Modeling the Way, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the Process, Enabling Others to Act, and Encouraging the Heart). H 02: The five leadership practices (Modeling the Way, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the Process, Enabling Others to Act, and Encouraging the Heart) do not predict length of tenure. H 03 : There is no relationship between leadership practices of current leaders and ideal leaders that may predict employee satisfaction or tenure. H 04 : Employee satisfaction and leader tenure do not predict length of employee tenure. Alternative Hypotheses The alternative hypotheses suggest that different leadership styles are related to part-time employee tenure. Part-time employee tenure has significant implications for organizations. Employee maturity and motivation are factors that are related to the level of effectiveness of employee outcomes (Milano, 2005; Ramlall, 2004). Argyris (1962) posited a maturity-immaturity theory suggesting that organizational effectiveness is most

A Quantitative Study 13 effective when leadership supplies the means (e.g. tools, training, direction, and assessment) that empower followers to achieve performance objectives as a natural outgrowth of individual development, self-expression and maturity. Individual tasks or objectives and the psychological maturity of subordinates determine the specific leadership styles or behaviors that will result in optimal effectiveness (Argyris, 1962). The increasing rate of part-time employee turnover within the retail industry detracts from overall organizational continuity and effectiveness while increasing recruitment and training costs (Timmer et al., 2005). Job dissatisfaction and lack of commitment may contribute to part-time employee turnover. Dissatisfied employees often lose their organizational commitment resulting in decreased motivation and increased intentions to quit their jobs (Yaying, 2007). Job dissatisfaction and organizational commitment are factors in determining employees’ propensity to quit their job (Heger, 2007). Leaders have the ability to motivate followers to accomplish objectives (Bolman & Deal, 2003). Tosti and Amarant (2005) recognized that an individual’s motivation to perform is affected by the immediate consequences a leader’s effectiveness. Theorists (Kotter & Cohen, 2002; Tosi & Amarant, 2005) acknowledge that leaders have the ability to motivate others to accomplish goals. Leadership is a dynamic process in which leadership practices govern outcomes including employee recruitment, training, and retention (Kouzes & Posner, 2002a). These established motivational, maturity, and performance theories contributed to formulating possible explanations for excessive part-time employee turnover. The hypotheses and research questions were designed to examine possible relationships involving leadership practices or styles (PV), employee satisfaction, and

A Quantitative Study 14 part-time tenure (CV), within the retail industry. H 1 :

There is a relationship between tenure and each of the five leadership practices (Modeling the Way, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the Process, Enabling Others to Act, and Encouraging the Heart). H 2 : The five leadership practices (Modeling the Way, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the Process, Enabling Others to Act, and Encouraging the Heart) do predict length of tenure. The five leadership practices identified by Kouzes and Posner (2002a) are: “Model the Way” that includes: (a) setting an example, behaving in ways consistent with stated values, and (b) planning small wins, enabling followers to experience tangible success (p. 13). “Inspiring a Shared Vision” includes: (a) creating and communicating a vision of the future, and (b) enlisting others to share that vision (Kouzes & Posner, 2002a, p. 13). “Challenging the Process” includes: (a) seeking new problem-solving techniques, searching for opportunities, and (b) encouraging innovation, and taking risks (Kouzes & Posner, 2002a, p. 13). “Enabling Others to Act” means: (a) fostering collaboration and cooperation within groups, and (b) strengthening others’ capabilities to perform (Kouzes & Posner, 2002a, p. 13). “Encouraging the Heart” comprises: (a) recognizing contributions, holding, and communicating high expectations, linking performance and rewards, and (b) celebrating accomplishments (Kouzes & Posner, 2002a, p. 13). H 3 and H 4 were designed to distinguish and examine potential factors influencing the CV apart from leadership style (PV). Aspects of employee satisfaction and leader tenure were also measured and investigated by the t-test analysis and Pearson correlations. The t-test analysis used LPI data derived from current leader versus ideal leader comparisons to investigate employee satisfaction as related to PV and CV. H 3 : There is a relationship between current leader and ideal leader leadership practices that

A Quantitative Study 15 predicts employee satisfaction or tenure. Pearson correlations were used to examine data- derived employee satisfaction as related to a current leader. H 4 : Employee satisfaction and leader tenure does predict length of employee tenure. Investigating employee satisfaction and leader tenure may correlate with the research variables and may provide an alternative explanation related to the CV (Meltzoff, 2004). Two aspects of satisfaction: (a) intention to change jobs, and (b) job satisfaction were investigated in an attempt to explain possible relationships and make forecasts pertaining to any of the five leadership practices (PV) and employee tenure (CV). Investigating these two aspects of satisfaction allow the hypotheses to be evaluated while minimizing the potential variability of the CV. These two aspects of satisfaction were investigated using two Likert-style questions on the demographics survey measured by Pearson correlations. In quantitative studies, research questions pertain to the specific characteristics of individuals as related to the study variables and identify the research objectives. The following research questions were designed to examine the relationship between each of the five leadership practices styles (PV) and part-time employee tenure (CV), and was consistent with the regression analysis: RQ1: Is there a relationship between tenure (0 to < 1 year, 1 to < 2 years, and 2 to <3 years) and each of the five leadership practices (Modeling the Way, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the Process, Enabling Others to Act, and Encouraging the Heart)? RQ2: Do the five leadership practices (Modeling the Way, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the Process, Enabling Others to Act, and Encouraging the Heart) predict length of tenure?

A Quantitative Study 16 The following sub-questions were used attempt to identify and investigate potential factors or confounds that may contribute to the CV apart from leadership style (PV), such as employee satisfaction and leader tenure (Meltzoff, 2004): SQ1: Is there a relationship between current leader and ideal leader leadership practices that predicts employee satisfaction or tenure? SQ2: Does employee satisfaction and leader tenure predict length of employee tenure? Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework provides the rationale for the analysis. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the factors influencing employee satisfaction and how leadership practices (PV) may be related to employee tenure outcomes (CV). Despite the growing percentage and high-rate of turnover of part-time employees in the retail workforce, leaders fail to recognize that retail employees “represent a very clear link to loyal customers” and that “loyal employees engender loyal customers and higher revenue” (Drizin & Schneider, 2004, p. 53). The theoretical framework suggests that retail leaders have the capability of influencing employee outcomes through position power, performance measures, leadership style(s), and practices. Leaders, through their influence, have the potential to control or minimize employee turnover and create positive work environments that enhance performance outcomes and profits (Therkelsen & Fiebach, 2003). LaRue, Childs, and Larson (2004) found that despite leaders’ recognition that employees are an organization’s most valued and essential resource, many organizations and leaders have no clear employee development plans or strategies to maintain a stable

Full document contains 154 pages
Abstract: The purpose of this quantitative research study was to examine and make forecasts pertaining to criterion outcome of part-time employee tenure in the retail industry. The main issues concern leadership practices, employee satisfaction, and employee tenure within the retail industry. Several forms of statistical analysis were used in this quantitative analysis. These included descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, multiple regression, t-tests, and Pearson correlations. Results of the t-test analysis found clear differences in the current leader versus ideal leader comparison. Pearson correlation results on the two satisfaction measures also found employee satisfaction and leader tenure to be predictors of employee tenure.