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A leadership training manual for the 21st century church leader based on the pattern and principles Jesus created to train the twelve Apostles

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Gregory B Baxter
Abstract:
Christian leadership training for pastors, missionaries, and lay leaders is mostly patterned after academic, business, military, and government models. This leads to a pragmatic, secular, and American approach to building Churches and advancing the Kingdom of God. Secular models of leadership training can inform and supplement but never usurp scriptural principles and values. The best Christian leadership training pattern is the one Jesus created to train the twelve Apostles. This model is found predominately in the gospels. The template this writer will follow is based on A. B. Bruce's 19th century seminal work, The Training of the Twelve . This training model is built on Christ's instruction to the twelve in four stages; the calling of the spiritual leader, the character of a spiritual leader, the competence of a spiritual leader, and the commission of a spiritual leader.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .................... .................... .................... .................... ................... .................... ...... ...... iii

TABLE OF C ONTENTS .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ........ . .. v

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .................... .................... .................... .................... .................. .

1

Introduction................................... ...... ..............................................................................................1

Statement of purpose........................... ....... ..................................................... ................................. 3

Limitations.................................................................................................................. .................. ... .

5

Literature review..................................................... ................................................................... .......

7

Statement of methodology................................................................................................. .......... ...

27

Chapter summary.......................... ............................................................................................. .....

31

CHAPTER 2 THE CALLIN G OF A SPIRITUAL LEA DER .................... .................... ..........

32

The Beginnings................................................................................................................... ............

32

The Commitment..................................................................................................... .......................

3 4

The Outcast.................................................................................................................. ...................

3 5

The Bank of Brethren.....................................................................................................................

3 8

The Deserter................................................................................................................. .. ................

40

Chapter Summary.............................................................................................................. .............

43

CHAPTER 3 THE CHARAC TER OF A SPIRITUAL L EADER .................... .................... ...

4 5

In ner Character................................................................................................................ ...............

4 5

Outer Character................................................................................................. .............................

4 7

Other Character.............................................................................................................. ................

51

Selfless Character.................................................................................................................... .......

5 4

Chapter Summary......................................................................................................... ..................

5 9

CHAPTER

4

THE

COMPETENCE

OF

A

SPIRITUAL

LEADER .........................................

62

Prayer....................................................................................................................... ................ .......

62

Evangelism................................................................................................................... ..................

6 8

Person of Christ.................................................................................. ............................................

73

The Cross.................................................................................................................... ....................

7 6

The Four Lessons on the Cross for the D isciples...........................................................................

7 7

The Three Lessons on the Cross for Everyone........ .......................................................................

8 4

Conflict and Persecution................... ........................................................................................... ..

8 9

The Second Coming of Christ.................................................................................................. .... . .

90

Chapter Summary......... ............................................................................................................... ...

92

CHAPTER 5 THE COMMISSION OF A SPIRITUAL LEADER ........................................ ..95

Overview..................................................................................................................... .................. ..95

vi

Jesus‘ F arewell Discource to the Disciples . ................................................................................... .96

Jesus P redicts F ailure by the D i sciples.. .... ...................................................................................10 1

Jesus‘ Resurrection Confirms the Disc iple‘s Faith .......................................................................102

Jesus‘ Instructions to Future Pastors........................................................................................ .....103

Fulfillment by the Holy Spirit..... ..................................................................................................104

Summary...................................................................................................................... .................105

CONCLUSION ...........................................................................................................................10 7

APPENDIX

A ..................................... ....................................................................... .............. . ...109

Table Of Contents The Training Of The Twelve

APPENDIX

B ............................................................................................................................. . 112

Table Of Passages From The Gospels Discussed I n The Training Of The Twelve

APPENDIX C

S piritual Leadership Training Survey ........................ .................................................................. . 1 1 4

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................... . 1 16

VITA ............................................................................................................................. ............... . 12 2

1

C hapter 1

Introduction

Christians in every generation are called to serve and lead in every area of life. Imitating Jesus Christ is the goal of e ach

believer . 1

The methods that Jesus used to train and equip H is followers two thousand years ago are still the ones that are ef fective for the twenty first C entury

Christian Church. The challenges that Jesus faced in training his

original twelve disciples are very similar to the challenges Christian leaders face today.

Bill Hull captures the dilemma of the conte mporary spiritual leader

today

in

developing leaders to pass on the truths of Jesus Christ to faithful people : 2

There is a stereotype for a person interest ed in spiritual formation. Since the term comes out of the academic world, this st e reotype includes spending long hours in prayer, journaling your prayers and thoughts, and reading ancient

mystics named Theresa, Blasé, and Henri, mediating and memorizing scripture.

Doing it for hours and loving it, doing it for years and it flows out of you. Yes there are

people like that, but to play into such stereotypes will hurt the cause. There must be a way for the non - contemplative common man to practice the disciplines and experience transformation that is not laden with the academy.

The other stereotype comes from the classic discipleship literature. It has been

heavily influenced by the para church movement in groups like Navigators, Campus Crusade for Christ and others. The classic d iscipleship literature has been task oriented. Engi neers and athletes have been drawn to it. It tends to be linear with steps and methods. It works real well for task - oriented people who are looking for results. So discipleship took on a program approach, a regime to finish, a project to do and a goal to b e reached. This has tended to cut out people with non - linear learning styles or those who are repulsed by task oriented programs. 3

1

John 14:6; Philippians 3:8. All Scripture

references taken from the Net Bible ( www.bible.org , 1996 - 2005), unless otherwise noted.

2

2 Timothy 2:2.

3

http://bible.org/article/about - choose - life

(accessed 1 / 3 /201 1 ).

2

There is a model that strikes a balance between the two extremes listed above. One that will ―blend the best of both the spiritual formation movement and the classic discipleship movement‖ so everyone can participate regardless of temperament or style. 4

For nearly one hundred and forty years The Training of the Twelve

by A.

B.

Bruce 5

has been a seminal work for pastors and other ministry leaders to teach and train disciples and leaders in the church. His work examines the four gospels in detail and documents how Jesus called, instructed, and mentored

his disciples from the inside out. Bruce documents how our Lord explained biblical principles, modeled character formation, and infused passion into 12 ordinary men. This was accomp lished over a three year period in the context of a vibrant personal relationship ,

violent opposition from the religious leadership of the day ,

and in the end the Roman Empire.

Dr. Alexander Balmain Bruce

(1831 - 1899)

faithfully served the Free Church of Scotland as a pastor and professor

for over forty years.

He was born in Aberargie, Scotland (near Perth)) and was educated at New College, Edinburgh. He pastored two churches from 1868 - 1875. From there he was appointed the chair of A pologetics an d New Testament exegesis in the Free Church Divinity H all in Glasgow (Trinity C ollege). Dr. Bruce served in that capacity until his death on August 7, 1899. His contemporaries knew him as being plain spoken and focused on understanding and knowing ― God‘s glory in Jesus ‘

humble humanity. ‖ 6

His singular focus on studying the gospels and trying

4

Ibid.

5

A. B. Bruce, The Training of the Twelve ,

(Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1971). This book was first published in 1871.

6

For a detailed discussion of the life and work of Dr. Bruce see Donald K. McKim, ed ., Dictionary of Major Biblic al Interpreters ,

(Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2007), 234 - 235.

3

to understand the historical Jesus 7

is reflected in a work that has captured the interest of serious Bible students for generations.

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

The purpose of this project is to take the principles that Dr. Bruce articulated and reformat them into a leadership training manual for Church leaders to use as a template to grow disciples and spiritual leaders in the 21 st

Century Church.

Stuart Briscoe

in writing

the foreword

for the book explains that

Bruce‘s work

is still rel e v a nt today

for three reasons - it us es

the gospels as the source material t o

train believers to minister, challenges the church to function as

the church as the body of Christ, an d instructs

us to grow spiritually by developing a personal relationship with Jesus Christ :

Dr. Bruce would have felt

right at home with the present emphasis on

training people to minister, and his book has much to offer as a resource for such training as it shows the Master training His special team.

Seeing the church as the body of Christ is another healthy contemporary

emphasis. It serves to delive r people from the mistaken idea that church is something people attend and introduces them to the biblical concept that the church is something people are. For C hristians to see themselves as the body of Christ and to order their lives in loving response t o each other as fellow members, committed to mutual nurture, is potentially revolutionary. This book carefully documents the struggles and successes of the first group of people who endeavored so to love each other that they became recognizable as Christ‘s

disciples.

Dr. Bruce‘s work will greatly benefit modern readers because his studies carefully examine how the disciples grew as a result of their relationship with the Master. The contemporary church needs to remember that the invaluable infor mation gleaned from the social scientist about human behavior must never be seen as a substitute for a personal relationship with the living Lord Jesus similar to that enjoyed by the twelve as they walked the highways and byways together. How they heard hi s word, studied his reactions, fulfilled his commands, and responded to

7

Ibid, 234.

4

his pro mises is faithfully recorded for us in Scriptures and beautifully applied to our situation in this book. 8

This paper will attempt to describe

a leadership training pl an based on Dr. Bruce‘s exhaustive exegetical study of the four gospels. He gives his readers a detailed account of how Jesus trained the twelve disciples . Using a total of thirty one chapters he recounts the process by which our Lord calls, trains, and co mmissions the disciples. In the closing pages of the book he

summarizes it t his way:

To enumerate the topics, as far as possible in the order in which they have been considered in this work, Jesus gave His disciples lessons on the nature of the

divine Kingdom (chaps. 5, 8); on prayer (chap. 6); on religious liberty, or the nature of true holiness (chap. 7); His own Person and claims (chap. 11); on the doctrine of the cross and import of His death (chap. 9, 12, 17, 18, 22); on humility and kindre d virtues, or on the right Christian temper required of disciples both in their private life and in their ecclesiastical life

(chaps. 14, 15, 17, 21, 29); on the doctrine of self - sa c rifice (chap. 16); on the leaven of Pharisaism and Sadduceeism, and the wo es it was to bring on the Jew i sh nation

(Chap. 7, 10, 22); on the mission of the comforter, to convince the world and to enlighten themselves (chaps. 25, 29). The teaching conveyed, assuming that we have even an approximately correct account of it in the g ospels, was fitted to make the disciples what they were required to be as the apostles of a spiritual and u niversal relig io n: enlightened in mind, en d owed with a charity wide enough to embrace all mankind, duty, yet delivered from all superstitious scruple s, emancipated from the fetters of custom, tradition, and

8

A. B. Bruce, The Training of the Twelve , x . There are also striking parallels between the end of the 19 th

Century and the first decade of the 21 st

Century. Both periods are marked by tremendous changes; the former saw a secularization of the culture after the Civil War, the rise of Darwinism and an emphasis on scientific knowledge and as a result an age of statistics, standardization, specializatio n, and information. Theological liberalism and higher criticism challenged traditional Christian thought. Also, the Industrial Revolution divided the private realm of family and faith from the public realm of business and industry. Our 21 st

Century culture

is almost completely secularized. Scientific knowledge has replaced God because He cannot be proven naturalistically. The industrial age has been replaced by the information and technology age. Postmodernism posits truth as constructed, not found, but Da rwin‘s evolutionary model is now the only objective fact that is true. Theological liberalism has morphed into the emergent church; a return of old world liberalism couched in orthodox theological language. Not much has changed in 140 years. For further di scussion see George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture , ( Oxford :

Oxford University Press, 2006 ), 11 - 62; and Nancy Pearcey, Total Truth: Liberating Christianity from Its Cultural Captivity

Wheaton, Crossway Books, 2004), 227 - 243, 325 - 350.

5

commandments of men, and possessing

tempers purged from pride, self - will, impatience, angry passions, vindictiveness and implacability. 9

In order to unpack what Bruce is trying to con vey this writer

will submit

a somewhat similar but more complete

outline. 10

Appendix A and B will have Dr. Bruce‘s original table of contents and Bible passages so the reader can follow his train of thought. The leadership training model will consist of fou r parts; t he calling of a spiritual leader

( c hapters 1 - 4 , 23 ) , t he character of a spiritual leader

( c hapters 5, 7, 14, 16, 21) , t he c ompetence of a spiritual leader

( c hapters 6, 8, 9 - 11, 12 -

13, 15, 17 - 19, 22), and the c ommission of a spiritual leader

( c hapters 24 - 31) .

LIMITATIONS

There are several limitations that will frame this project despite

the above mentioned purpose statement. First, the author will use the terms ‗Leadership Training‘ and Discipleship Training‘ somewhat synonymously. There will be a fuller discussion under the review of the literature.

Secondly, this paper is not an attempt to write an exhaustive commentary on the four gospels. The focus is on drawing out biblical principles on Leadership Training based on

Jesus method of training the twelve apostles

as documented in Dr. Bruce‘s book .

Thirdly,

the a uthor assumes a n orthodox hermeneutic (following in the heritage of the Reformers) of interpreting the Bible, stressing the grammatical,

historical,

literary

9

Ibid, 544 - 545.

10

Dr. Bruce included only twenty of the thirty - one chapters in his summation. This paper will incorporate all thirty - one chapters under four main themes.

6

( r hetorical)

position. 11

Doct r inal pos i tions are based on a dispensational moderate C alvinistic theology. 12

Fourthly, this project will not attempt to explain or develop Dr. Bruce‘s apologetic and

detailed argument s

against the ―Tubingen School ‖

of critics . There will be no attempt to

explain F.C. Baur‘s anti - supernatural presuppositions , rationalistic approach to explaining Jesus deity,

and his rejection of divine revelation in the New

Testament. 13

Bruce had a crisis

of faith during his college years studying for the ministry. He read David F. Strauss‘s book Life of Jesus , where he claimed the B ible was not a supernatural book and the gospels were myth. As a result Bruce places a tremendous amount of emphasis on the h istoricity of the gospel accounts. He writes in the introduction to the second edition, ― The Training of the Twelve

must, from the nature of the case, have some bearing on this conflict - hypothesis of Dr. Baur and his friends.‖ The last two lines of the boo k are a parting shot against their

position

as well , ―According to a well - known school of critics, they acquitted themselves very poorly indeed — in a manner utterly unworthy of their great Master. Which view is the more credible, that of the evangelist Luke , or that of Dr. Baur? ‖ 14

Finally, this model is designed for use as a template to enhance existing leadership training models ,

not to critique or criticize any existing church/ministry models. The goal is to strike a balance between the contem plative cloistered life of a deep

11

Dr. Roy B. Zuck, Bible 301 Class Notes on Hermeneutics, (Dall as Theological Seminary, Fall, 1980, Dallas, TX), 17. See also Graeme Goldsworthy, Gospel - Centered Hermeneutics: Foundations and Principles of Evangelical Biblical Interpretation

(Downers Grove, IVP Academic, 2006), 39 - 56.

12

The author was trained

at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS). See the doctrinal statement from DTS at http://www.dts.edu/about/doctrinalstatement/

(accessed 1/5/2011).

13

McKim, Dictionary of Major Biblical Interpreter s , 179.

14

Bruce, The Training of the Twelve ,

ix, 545.

7

thinker and mystic over against

the classic goal oriented programs which have a myriad of steps, processes, and goals.

Literature Review

In order to better understand the leadership style of Jesus and how H e trained H is disciples one needs to better understand the term

l eadership.

A review of the literature will show that Christian leadership differs significantly from other leadershi p styles and characteristics. There are many similarities between secular a nd sacred leaders but there are major

differences as well.

Leadership

Defined

To better understand the definition of leadership Bennis and Nanus has surveyed the literature and offered these insights:

Decades of academic analysis have given us more than 350 definitions of leadership.

Literally thousands of empirical investigations of leaders have been conducted in the last

seventy - five years alone, but no clear and unequivocal understanding exist as to what distinguishes leaders fr om non - leaders, and perhaps more important, what distinguishes effective leaders from ineffective leaders and effective organizations from ineffective organizations . 15

According to Gary Yuhl

l eadership is defined:

…in individual tra its, behavior, influence over people, interaction patterns, role relationships, occupation of an administrative position, and perception by others regarding legitimacy of influence…. 16

Yuhl continues with a sampling of definitions over the last

50

plus

years:

1. Leader s hip is ―the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a

group toward a shared goal.‖ (Hemphill & Coons, 1957, p. 7) .

15

Warren Bennis & Burt Nanus, Leaders: The Strategies For Taking Charge

(New York: Harper & Row, 1985), 4.

16

Gary Yuhl: Leadership in Organizations ,

3rd Edition ,

(Englewood Heights: Prentice Hall, 1994), 2.

8

2. Leadership is ―interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and

directed, throu gh the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals.‖ ( T annenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961, p. 24) .

3. Leadership is the ―initiation and maintenance of structure in

e x pectation

and

interaction.‖ (Stogdill, 1974 , p. 411) .

4. Leadership is the ―influential increment over and above mechanical

compliance with the routine directives of the organization.‖ (Katz & Kahn, 1978, p. 528) .

5. Leadership is ―the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward go al achievement.‖ (Rauch & Behling, 1984, p. 46) .

6. Leadership is a process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to

collective effort to be expended to achieve purpose. (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990,

p. 281) .

7. Leaders are those who consistently make ef fective contributions to

social order,

and who are expected a n d perceived to do so. (Hosking, 1988, p. 153) . 17

T he best on e

can say regarding these definitions is that there is no one ‗right‘ definition. Yuhl‘s own definiti on is no different:

Leadership is defined broadly as influence processes affecting the interpretation of events for followers, the choice of objectives for the group or organization, the organization of work activities to accomplish the objecti ves, the motivation of followers to achieve the objectives, the maintenance of cooperative relationships and teamwork , and the enlistment of support and cooperation from people outside the group or organization. 18

Leadership has been defined differently throughout the years. The common element of all the definitions is influence in a relationship or group. There are different ways, manners, and means to exercise this influence depending on the particular situation. There is no general theory o f leadership that explains all aspects of the processes . Most theories of leadership focus on a narrow perspective and examine only one part of the entire process. This paper will discuss the various line of leadership theory

17

Ibid, 2 - 3.

18

Ibid, 5.

9

later in this section. Now, th is project will focus on the subject matter at hand; leadership in the Church.

Leadership and t he Church

There are

a tremendous amount of books and articles being written by pastors, missionaries, other church staff, and theologians with regard to l eadership as well. Here is a sampling of how believers define l eadership:

1. ―Spiritual leadership is moving people on to God‘s agenda.‖

Henry and Richard Blackaby, Spiritual Leadership . 19

2. ―Leadership is a dynamic process in which a man

or woman with God - given capacity influences a specific group of God‘s people toward his purposes for the

group . ‖

Dr. J. Robert Clinton . 20

3. Leadership ―begins with God himself as the ultimate model of leadership. The

underlying premise is that, throug hout the Bible, God

has demonstrated principles for leadership that can be used profitably by all people who are in a position to lead others – whether in business or ministry, in the school or in the home . ‖ Ken Boa . 21

4. ―Transforming leaders are those who

are able to divest themselves of their power and invest it in their followers in such a way that others are empowered, while the leaders themselves end with the greatest power of seeing themselves reproduced in

others . ‖

Leighton Ford . 22

5. ―What is Christian leadership? It is leadership motivated by love and given over to

service.‖ Ted Engstrom and

Ed Dayton. 23

6. ―A Christian leader is someone who is called by God to lead; Leads with and throug h Christlike character; and demonstrates the functional competencies that permit effective leadership to take place.‖ George Barna . 24

7. Quoting John Mott spiritual ,

leadership is: ―Leadership in the sense of rendering maximum service; leadership in the se nse of the largest unselfishness; in the sense of full - hearted absorption in the greatest work of the world: building up the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ.‖

Oswald Sanders . 25

19

Henry &

Richard Blackaby, Spiritual Leadership

(Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 2001), 20.

20

J. Robert Clinton, The Making of a Leader,

(Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1988), 14.

21

Kenneth Boa, The Perfect Leader,

(Colorado Springs, Victor, 2006), 9.

22

Leighton Ford,

Transforming Leadership: Jesus Way of Creating Vision, Shaping Values, & Empowering Change,

(Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1991), 15 - 16.

23

Ted W. Engstrom & Edward R. Dayton, The Art of Management for Chri stian L eaders

(Waco: Word, 1976), 27.

24

George Barna, Leaders On Leadership,

(Ventura: Regal, 1997), 25.

25

J. Oswald Sanders, Spiritual Leadership, 2 nd

ed.,

(Chicago: Moody Press, 1994), 32 . Many recent Christian authors such as Barna, Blackaby, and Clinton, quote Sand ers definition of leadership as simply

10

8. ―Leadership is influence --- nothing more, nothing less. ‖ John Maxwell. 26

9. ―Leadership is servanthood.‖ Calvin Miller . 27

10. Shepherd is a metaphor for Christian leadership. ―Shepherd is a

felicitous metaphor for human leadership because both occupations have a comparable variety of diverse task that are constantly negotiated.‖ Tim Laniak . 28

Christian leadership definitions are much more specific than their secular counterparts. Blackaby defines the spiritual leader‘s task as moving people away from their own plans toward God

and H is purposes , depending on the Holy Spirit while remaining accountable to God, and at the same time having a positive impact on the culture at large. Spiritual leaders seek God‘s will by modeling themselves after Jesus Christ

and Hi s relationship w ith the Father. 29

Robert Clinton focuses on the spiritual dynamics that shape the Christian leader. The Lord uses the patterns and processes in life to mold, shape, and form us to become better prepared as leaders. The end result is being spiri tually fit to do the specific job God has assigned to the leader. 30

Leighton Ford specifically identifies Christian leadership as ‗transformational.‘ He believes that a higher order of leadership is necessary today. It is not enough for

‗influence.‘ This writer disagrees. In the same chapter these authors cite Sanders as defining leadership as influence. Sanders continues, however, to define Christian leadership as confidence in God, seeking his will , being humble, loving others, depending and delighting in God.

26

John C. Maxwell, The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and People Will Follow You, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1998), 17.

27

Calvin Miller, The Empowered Leader: 10 Keys to Servant Leadership

(Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1995), x.

28

Timothy S. Laniak, Shepherds After My Own Heart: Pastoral Traditions and Leadership in the Bible

(Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2006), 40.

29

Blackaby, Spiritual Leadership , 20 - 24.

30

Clinton, The Making of a Leader , 13 - 16.

11

leaders to promise rewards in exchange for performance. Transformational leaders motivate by raising values, transcending self - interest, and taking great risks. 31

Engstrom and Dayton believe Christian leadership is different than secular leadership in i ts motivation. Being controlled by Christ raises the standard for leadership.

The best leaders are those who model attributes of selfless dedication, courage, decisiveness, compassion, and persuasiveness. These traits reflect Jesus‘ role as a

servant (Mark 10:45). 32

George Barna combines the Christlike character of a leader with core competencies that all leaders must possess. He is convinced that leaders must have a call by God to servanthood and possess the characteristics of Chr ist inwardly and outwardly. One must have core competencies that include casting vision, directing energy and resources, building teams, developing strategy, and being responsible for outcomes. Barna goes on to say that the focus must be on God‘s call as a

leader not the competencies that leaders possess. Without a true calling from God a leader‘s skill set h as no spiritual value or meaning. The end result is people are merely following a person instead of God.

Barna also removes

much of the subjective nat ure of ―God‘s call‖ of a leader by providing eight traits that a Christian leader mu st possess in order to lead God‘s people. 33

Oswald Sanders in his classic work on l eadership ,

draws a contrast between natural and spiritual leadership. He compares and contrasts military and political

31

Ford, Transforming Leadership , 22 - 27.

32

Engstrom & Dayton, 27 - 28.

33

Barna, Leaders on Leadership,

The eight signs of God‘s call are; sensing the call, a natural inclination to lead, having a vision focused on the

future, being an influencer, being comfortable around other leaders, people validate your leadership skills by following your lead, have the internal strength to stand up for the ‗right‘, and enjoying being a leader in spite of the hardships and controver sy that come. 23 - 27.

12

leadership with spiritual leadership. There are many similarities but spiritual leadership is unique. A spiritual leader must exercise the gifts an d qualities of the Holy Spirit. One must have an overwhelming conviction that God is calling the believer

to a task that is greater than self . Sanders goes on to say that, ―spiritual goals can be achieved only by spiritual people who use spiritual methods. 34

John Maxwell‘s definition that leadership is simply ‗influence‘ misses the mark. Generally speaking he is correct but spiritual leadership is so much more.

Banks and Ledbetter draw a distinction between

secular and sacred leadership :

Full document contains 130 pages
Abstract: Christian leadership training for pastors, missionaries, and lay leaders is mostly patterned after academic, business, military, and government models. This leads to a pragmatic, secular, and American approach to building Churches and advancing the Kingdom of God. Secular models of leadership training can inform and supplement but never usurp scriptural principles and values. The best Christian leadership training pattern is the one Jesus created to train the twelve Apostles. This model is found predominately in the gospels. The template this writer will follow is based on A. B. Bruce's 19th century seminal work, The Training of the Twelve . This training model is built on Christ's instruction to the twelve in four stages; the calling of the spiritual leader, the character of a spiritual leader, the competence of a spiritual leader, and the commission of a spiritual leader.