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A grounded theory of supervision during pre-service level school-based consultation training

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009
Dissertation
Author: Daniel Seth Newman
Abstract:
The purpose of the current study was to explore a university-based supervision process for pre-service level school-based consultants engaged in a consultation course with practicum experience. The study was approached from a constructivist worldview, using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. A qualitative research software program, NVivo8, was employed to assist with data organization and analyses. Guiding research questions included: (a) how does the process of university-based supervision in pre-service level, school-based consultation training work?; (b) what content and process concerns arise for consultants-in-training (CITs) during their practicum experiences?; (c) how are these concerns considered through the supervision process?; and (d) what are the interactions between the CITs and me (the supervisor) as part of supervision? Supervision session transcripts, reflective logs, and my own notes as supervisor from one semester of ongoing supervision with the five participants (second-year school psychology doctoral students engaged in consultation training) composed the data. I acted in the dual roles of researcher and supervisor. The theory that emerged from the participants' experiences demonstrates that the supervision process included activities outside of and within supervision sessions. Within supervision sessions, the CITs and I engaged in strategic interactions focused on past experiences, the present moment, and future application; these interactions were differentiated in a manner responsive to CIT needs based on perceptions of CIT skill level, requests for assistance, and consultation case process and content concerns. The perceived effectiveness of the supervision process in addressing CIT concerns resulted in mixed feelings including confusion, worrying, frustration, and positive feelings. This theory has implications for school-based consultation training and practice, and makes a unique contribution to broader supervision literature by emphasizing supervision at the pre-service training level, and connecting developmental models of supervision to differentiated models of supervision and instruction.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements………………………………………………………….……….........ii Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………iii List of Tables………………………………………….…………………………………vi List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………vii

Chapter 1: Introduction…………...…………………………………………………...1 Defining School-based Consultation………………………………………...........2 Training of School-based Consultants…………………………………………….4 Frameworks of development…………….………………………………...5 The current state of consultation training in school psychology………….8

Chapter 2: Review of Supervision Literature………………………………………..11 Defining Supervision…………………………………………………………….11 Components of effective supervision……………………………….…...12 Supervisor-supervisee relationship…………………………………..…..13 Multicultural competency…………………………………………….….14 Self-reflection…………………………………………………………....14 Chronological phases of effective supervision…………………………..14 Outcomes of effective supervision……………………………………....16 Challenges in supervision research………………………………………17 Supervision of Psychological Services in the Schools…………………………..18 Supervision of Consultation……………………………………………………...21 Techniques……………………………………………………………….21 Audiotapes……………………………………………………….23 Reflection………………………………………………………...26 Pre-service consultation training…………………………………………28 The development of consultation skills……………………………….....30 Complex dynamics……………………………………………………….31 Summary…………………………………………………………………32 Statement of Purpose and Research Questions…………………………………..34

Chapter 3: Process of Inquiry………………………………………………………..35 Situating the Research and Methodology……………………………………..…35 Historical basis of grounded theory...……………………………………35 Constructivist grounded theory………..…………………………………37 Structure versus flexibility…………….…………………………………38 Use of computer software……………….……………………………….39 Self-Reflexivity…………………………………………………………………..43 Research Context………………………………………………………………...46 Overview…………………………………………………………………47 Instructional Consultation………………………………………………..47 Strategies used in training…………………………………………..……49 Sampling of Participants…………………………………………………………50 Data Collection…………………………………………………………………..52

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Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………….53 Open coding……………………………………………………………..55 Axial coding……………………………………………………………..56 Selective coding…………………………………………………………59 Trustworthiness…………………………………………………………………..60 Ethical Considerations………………………………………..………………….62

Chapter 4: Results……………………………………………………………………63 Participants…………………………………………………………………….....63 Alice……………………………………………………………………...67 Anne……………………………………………………………………...67 Emma…………………………………………………………………….68 Jane………………………………………………………………....……68 Kathy……………………………………………………………………..69 Overview of the Emerging Theory………………………………………………69 Turning Supervision Inside Out………………………………………………….70 Consultation coursework………………………………………………...71 E-Mail……………………………………………………………………72 Reflection, work, and “I will think about it……………………………...73 Supervision: Moving from the Outside In………………………………………77 Consultation Content and Process Concerns…………………………….77 Strategic Interactions in Supervision………………………………….....79 The Pensieve Principal: Reflections about the Past, Audiotaping, and Logging……………………………………………….......................80 Communication skills……………………………………………86 IC skills…………………………………………………..87 Process communication and collaborative language.........91 The CIT-consultee relationship………....................……..............94 Frame of the problem…………………………………………….97 Drawing the blinds…………………………...…………………..99 Bridges in the Present…….............……………………….………........108 Making comparisons………..........................………………......109 Comparing cases.....................................................…….109 Peer comparisons.............................................................113 Comparing sessions.........................................................115 Asking questions……..................................................................117 Reflective questions………..................................……...117 Direct reflective questions...........................................…118 Talking about and modeling reflective Questions……………………………………………......121 Not answering for the CIT……………………………...123 Other strategies………....................……………………………127 Prioritizing……………………………………………...127 Supportive comments…………………………………...128 “Less is more”…………………………………………..128 Referring to research………………………..…………..129

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Personal experiences……………………………………130 “Thinking out loud……………………………………...131 Deferring………………………………………………..132 Challenging……………………………………………..134 Future Application........………………………………………………...138 Modeling and rehearsal…………………………………………138 Lessons learned…………………………………………………143 Planning for the upcoming case session………………………..145 Taking notes…………………..……….......................................145 Use of Strategies During the Semester………………………...............146 Beginning……………………………………………………….148 Middle…………………………………………………………..148 Middle to End…………………………………………………..150 End.……………………………………………………………..150 Feelings about the Process…….……………………………….............151 Confusion……………………………………………………….152 Worrying about the CIT-Consultee Relationship………………155 Frustration………………………………………………………159 Positive Feelings………………………………………………..165 A Grounded Theory of the Supervision Process in Pre-Service Level Consultation Training…………………………………………………..169

Chapter 5: Discussion………………………………………………………………177 Emerging Theory and Research Questions……………………………………..177 The Process of University-Based Supervision for CITs………………..177 Content and Process: Concerns and their Consideration in Supervision……………………………………………………………..179 Outcomes of Supervision……………………………………………….181 Supervisor and CIT Interactions………………………………………..183 Revisiting the Literature………………………………………………………..185 Developmental Approaches to Supervision…………………………….187 The Role of Differentiation……………………………………………..191 Differentiated Instruction……………………………………….192 Differentiated Supervision……………………………………...193 Differentiated Supervision in Practice……………………...…..196 Limitations……………………………………………………………………...200 Implications for Training and Practice………………………………........……203 Future Research……….......................................................................................207

Appendix A……………………………………………………………………………..211 Appendix B……………………………………………………………………………..214 References……………………………………………………………………………....215

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List of Tables

Table 3.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computer Software Programs in Qualitative Research…………………………………………………………40

Table 4.1 Description of Participants’ Cases…………………………………………….64

Table 4.2. Main Content and Process Concerns Faced by CITs in Pre-Service Training……………………………………………………………………….78

Table 4.3. Strategic Interactions in Supervision: Reflections About the Past, Bridges in the Present, and Future Application........................................................81

Table 4.4. Links between Supervisor Modeling and CIT Rehearsal in Response to Case Concerns……………………………………………………………………140

Table 4.5. Differences in Use of Supervision Session Strategies During the Semester…………………………………………………………………….147

Table 4.6. Individual Application of the Emerging Theory of Supervision in Pre-Service Level Consultation Training………………………………………………..173

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List of Figures

Figure 2.1. Adding Complexity of Interactions and Levels of Support to the Consultation Triad………………………………………………………………………...31

Figure 4.1. Maximizing the Potential Depth of CIT Reflection Through Logs and Tapes………………………………………………………………………105

Figure 4.2. Limiting the Potential Depth of CIT Reflection by Not Using a Tape……106

Figure 4.3. Limiting the Potential Depth of CIT Reflection by Not Using a Log……..106

Figure 4.4. The Most Limited Potential Depth of CIT Reflection: Not Using Log or Tape………………………………………………………………………..107

Figure 4.5. Grounded Theory of the Supervision Process in Pre-Service Level Consultation Training……………………………………………………..171

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Chapter 1: Introduction The paradigm shift in the field of school psychology in the last several years has moved practitioners away from their traditional assessment focus and toward a focus on prevention and problem solving (Reschly, 2008). Accordingly, school psychologists more frequently find themselves in the role of consultant working with individuals such as teachers, as well as within larger systems, such as schools, in the promotion of positive outcomes for students. School-based consultation involves the formation of collaborative and reciprocal relationships between consultants and consultees within a systematic problem-solving process (Zins & Erchul, 2002) and is recognized as an essential element in the repertoire of a school psychologist (Ysseldyke et al., 2006). Despite the increased prevalence of applied consultation work in the schools, at many university sites training for novice consultants is not sufficiently prioritized. In particular, even if a school psychology training program provides consultation coursework and/or practicum experiences, the important role of providing supervision as part of training for novice consultants is largely neglected or ignored (Anton-LaHart & Rosenfield, 2004). This is problematic given the importance of supervision in facilitating the maintenance, development, and expansion of skills as well as in monitoring the progress of a consultant-in-training (CIT) (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009; Harvey & Struzziero, 2008). Moreover, the provision of consultation supervision is theorized to reduce CIT stress, protect consultees (e.g., teachers) and clients (e.g., students) by adding a layer of accountability, aid in teaching about values and ethics in the field, and in regulating the profession according to the standards of the American Psychological

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Association and the National Association of School Psychologists (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009; Harvey & Struzziero, 2008). Although there is a research base that explores the process of supervision of multiple types of skills in applied psychology in general, supervision has been neglected as an area of research in school psychology training and practice (Romans, Boswell, Carlozzi, & Ferguson, 1995; Welsh, Stanley, & Wilmoth, 2003), perhaps nowhere so much as in consultation. Research on the supervision of novice consultants in school psychology, as in other specialties areas of applied psychology, is nearly non-existent. Only a handful of articles even describe the supervision process for school-based CITs (e.g., Cramer & Rosenfield, 2003). Initiating research in the area of the process of school-based consultation supervision has important implications for both the development of theory and its application to the practice of training. The purpose of the current study is to explore the university-based supervision process for pre-service level school-based consultants engaged in a consultation course with practicum experience. Defining School-based Consultation Prior to exploring the processes of training and supervision for novice consultants, it makes sense to first develop an understanding of the role of consultation in the schools. Historical roots of school-based consultation can be traced to Caplan’s work with adolescent immigrants in Israel in the late 1940’s. Caplan (1970) reasoned that a traditional one-to-one (therapist to client) service delivery model was not an effective use of resources with a large population in need of assistance. Instead, he felt it made more sense to improve the capacity of caregivers to effectively support these youth.

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Although this indirect service delivery model was not originally developed to use in the schools, Caplan’s mental health consultation laid the groundwork for many of the key features that shape the current practice of school-based consultation. The components include: (a) the presence of a triadic relationship (with a consultant [e.g., school-psychologist], consultee [e.g., a teacher], and client [e.g., a student]); (b) the establishment of a non-hierarchical working relationship; (c) a focus on work-related (i.e., not personal) problems, (d) the lack of a supervisory hierarchy inherent in the relationship; (e) a voluntary relationship; (f) and instilling the consultee with new skills that empower his or her future practice (Erchul & Martens, 1997). With the increasing popularity of consultation service delivery in the schools, early definitions of school-based consultation have been expanded over the last several decades. In addition, several models of consultation have been developed during this time including mental health consultation (Caplan, 1970; Caplan & Caplan, 1993) and the subcategory of consultee-centered consultation (described in detail by J. Meyers, 2002); behavioral/problem solving consultation (Kratochwill & Bergan, 1978; Kratochwill, Sheridan, Carrington-Rotto, & Salmon, 1992, Sheridan, 1997), instructional consultation (Rosefield, 1987), and organizational consultation (Schmuck & Miles, 1971; Schmuck & Runkel, 1994) as among the most frequently cited. Consultation models can be differentiated from one another based on the focus of the problem (e.g., mental health, behavioral, academic), the level of the intervention (e.g., individual student, group of students, a system), and the consultative approach (e.g.,expert or collaborative) (Scholten, 2003). Although the development of a variety of models of consultation may

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appear to indicate an increased knowledge base in the field, this trend may actually lead to confusion in training and practice. In an ethnographic study aimed at developing a better understanding of the meaning of consultation in practice, Scholten (2003) interviewed 20 experienced practitioners to learn about their consultation experiences. The author found that consultation had different meanings to different practitioners and that it served different roles based on the practitioner’s orientation to practice. For example, while some school psychologists did not utilize consultation at all (preferring to conduct traditional assessments), others found it critical in all areas of their practice. These data have two main inferences: the definition of consultation is not uniform in the field, and personal orientation determines one’s application of consultation in practice. Confusion over the definition of consultation is not new. J. Meyers, Alpert, and Fleisher (1983) stated that while there is consensus that consultation involves a mutual process of providing assistance to a third party via indirect service, “models differ with respect to such issues as the role of the consultant, the problems to be addressed in consultation, and the means to go about helping” (p. 7) due to inherent differences in theoretical framework and assumptions. Given the lack of consensus in the field as to a singular definition of consultation and which model to use, it seems clear that individual practitioners need to be conscious of their overall orientation towards practice, the model of consultation they will use, and the reciprocal nature of these choices. Training of School-based Consultants Despite the apparent complexity for practitioners in choosing among many models and applications of consultation in the schools, a misconception that consultation

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training is not essential has permeated both literature and practice for decades (Conoley, 1981; Rosenfield, Levinsohn-Klyap, Cramer, in press). In reality, to function as an effective consultant requires more than intuition and content knowledge. Competent consultants are distinguished from novice consultants based on the purposeful use of skills in practice. Without appropriate training, school-based consultants risk causing harm to consultees (e.g., teachers) and clients (e.g., students) based on their actions (or lack thereof) in a given case (O’Roark, 2002). Consultation skills, like all practice skills, should not be learned on the job, but rather through a strategic training process. Frameworks of development. The learning process for trainees can be regarded as developmental in nature; trainees’ knowledge and skills grow over the course of training. Two stage-based models – a model of adult learning principles (Joyce & Showers, 1980) and a developmental approach to supervision (Stoltenberg, 2005; Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987; Stoltenberg, McNeill, & Delworth, 1998) – provide broad frameworks to conceptualize training. Stage-based approaches to learning and supervision described within this paper are summarized in Appendix A. Although the work of Joyce and Showers (1980) was initially constructed specifically with regard to inservice training for teachers, it has been cited numerous times in the literature due to its overall applicability to adult learning processes. According to the authors, with appropriate guidance learners move through the stages of (a) awareness, (b) conceptual and organized knowledge, (c) principles and skills, and eventually to (d) application and problem solving. At the awareness stage, trainees realize the importance of particular content and hone in on that information to learn more. Next, learners organize the content they have begun to learn into larger concepts. At the

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principle and skills level, trainees become “aware of the [content]…, can think effectively about it, and possess the skills to act” (Joyce & Showers, p. 380). In the end, trainees are able to integrate concepts, principles, and skills into practice during their work. Based on an analysis of over 200 studies, Joyce and Showers (1980) described several components of training that are most effective in order for adult learners to move through these stages. These include an initial presentation of information (including skills or strategies), the modeling of skills, simulated practice, feedback (both structured and open-ended), and coaching for application. Joyce and Showers concluded that it is most effective to incorporate several or all of these components to maximize the effectiveness of training; excluding any of the components will weaken the impact of training. Another model, the Integrated Developmental Model of supervision (IDM) (Stoltenberg, 2005; Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987; Stoltenberg, McNeill, & Delworth, 1998) illustrates the developmental progression of psychology supervisees as they move through training. According to the IDM, supervisees experience a developmental progression through three stages (labeled 1, 2, and 3, plus 3i [integrated]) as they advance through training, and encounter three structures (useful as developmental markers) – motivation, autonomy, and self/other awareness (Stoltenberg, 2005, 2008). Similar to the Joyce and Showers (1980) model, as the learner progresses through these developmental stages, he or she experiences increased autonomy and global awareness; the motivation process is not explored by Joyce and Showers. Also like the Joyce and Showers model, specific components of training or training strategies are more or less applicable at particular developmental stages.

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Harvey and Struzziero (2008) adapted the IDM model to the training of school psychologists by way of supervision, expanding Stoltenberg’s (2005) three levels to five – novice, advanced beginner, competence, proficiency, and expertise. At Stoltenberg’s Level 1, or the novice level (Harvey & Struzziero, 2008), supervisees do not have prior training or experience in the field and tend to focus on their own behavior such as acquiring and implementing skills, and their heightened emotions such as anxiety, frustration and hopefulness (Stoltenberg, 2005). Beginner supervisees tend to be highly motivated due to their excitement about their professional growth, and desire to get past their initial apprehensions toward practice (Stoltenberg, 2005). At this stage, having close, structured supervision is recommended (Harvey & Struzziero, 2008). By developmental Level 2, the advanced beginner supervisees shift their focus from self toward the client (or, in the case of consultation supervision, the consultee) (Stoltenberg, 2005, 2009). At this stage, supervisees practice with more independence and less anxiety then novices, but still have limited conceptual understanding, and need continued support. In general, school psychology interns and those early in their professional careers often fit into the advanced beginner stage (Harvey & Struzziero, 2008), however one might hypothesize that the advanced beginner level could be reached earlier depending on the intensity of training provided at the pre-service level. Focus on the client (again, the consultee in the case of consultation supervision), and awareness of self are both enhanced as the supervisee progresses on to developmental Level 3 in IDM (Stoltenberg, 2005, 2009). Reflection on process and content increases, as does supervisee confidence (evidenced by increasingly autonomous practice). Level 3 in IDM is called competence by Harvey and Struzziero (2008); to

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reach this level, a school psychologist will likely have been engaged in professional practice for a few years. This may be the final stage of development for some practitioners. Others go on to achieve the proficiency stage, generally after having practiced for three to five years. However, practice alone does not result in skill proficiency – both reflection and integration of skills are critical to achieve this stage of development (Harvey & Struzziero, 2008). According to Harvey and Struzziero, proficient practitioners recognize nuances and patterns of situations, and can think with long term consequences in mind. Proficiency is followed by the fifth and final level of development, the expert level. “The expert is at home in complex and rapidly changing situations and no longer relies on analytical principles or rules, guidelines, or maxims” (Harvey & Struzziero, p. 40). Experts practice with intuitive automaticity, and attend to the big picture. Supervisors should be aware of the developmental level of their supervisee because each stage should be accorded a unique approach to supervision (Harvey & Struzziero; Stoltenberg, 2005, 2009). The current state of consultation training in school psychology. The training of consultation skills in the field of school psychology does not seem to follow a demonstrated effective framework for consultation training. At the School Psychology Futures Conference in 2002, the restructuring of training programs was discussed by leaders in the field (Wizda, 2004). Several threats to the practice of school psychology were identified, and many were directly related to issues around consultation, including outdated training of practitioners, a need for improved consultation skills, and resistance to the changing role of school psychologist (from traditional assessor to collaborative

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problem-solver). Further, it was recommended that “consultation skills such as problem solving and collaborative communication skills…should be integral parts of the training curriculum for school psychologists” (Wizda, p. 289). To assess the status of consultation training, Anton-LaHart and Rosenfield (2004) surveyed school psychology training programs and found that 87 percent of non-doctoral training programs and 100 percent of doctoral training programs responding to their survey (48 percent overall return rate) offered at least one course in consultation. However, the provision of coursework alone does not signify the development of competence in practice. Despite having courses with consultation-based content, training programs often do not offer CITs practicum experiences in consultation, and when they do, supervision is not usually provided (Anton-LaHart & Rosenfield; Harvey & Struzziero, 2008). The lack of appropriate training is reflected in the fact that school psychologists often do not feel ready to practice as school-based consultants (Costenbader, Schwartz, & Petrix, 1992) or members of consultation-based problem- solving teams (Doll et al., 2005; McDougal, Clonan, & Martens, 2000). According to Anton-LaHart and Rosenfield (2004), some important questions require attention in the consideration of consultation training: Which consultation model is prioritized in the training program? Are both content and process incorporated in training? What role does supervision play in the training process? Alpert and Taufique (2002) raised three additional questions: What criteria should be used in selecting a consultation placement, selecting a field supervisor, and evaluating the work of CITs? In a review of 30 years of training, J. Meyers (2002) also presented a multitude of questions,

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perhaps the most overarching and unique being how do we know whether consultation training has been effective? After almost 40 years of incorporating consultation into the practice of school psychologists, many questions about the training of consultants still linger. In spite of the surplus of unanswered questions, a shortage of research in consultation training and supervision remains. In 1983, Alpert and J. Meyers raised issue with the lack of research in a volume based on the National Conference on Consultation Training; the concern has subsequently reemerged several times (Alpert & Taufique, 2002; Anton-LaHart & Rosenfield, 2004; J. Meyers, 2002; Rosenfield, 2002). As stated by J. Meyers (2002), perhaps one way to begin to answer some of these questions is “ to determine the impact of training on trainee’s knowledge and…skills” which results “in written, audiovisual, and oral research reports produced by trainees to contribute to the knowledge base in the field” (p. 51). The beginning steps for such an investigative task may reasonably begin with an exploration of the supervision process for CITs during their university-based training – the focus of the current study. In sum, despite the clear importance of consultation as part of a school psychologist’s role, intensive consultation training practices (including university-based supervision) are not generally in place. The lack of training practices relate to the dearth of research in the area of consultation training, and the number of questions about consultation training that remain unanswered. In chapter two, literature on supervision is explored beginning with an overview of components and outcomes of effective supervision, followed by a consideration of supervision processes in the schools, and ending with a discussion about supervision as part of consultation training.

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Chapter 2: Review of Supervision Literature Supervision

Supervision is different from related processes such as training, teaching, counseling, and consultation. Making these distinctions is important in thinking about how to provide supervision as part of training for CITs. To clarify what makes this process unique, Bernard and Goodyear (2009) defined supervision of psychological services as: An intervention provided by a more senior member of a profession to a more junior member or members of that same profession. This relationship is evaluative and hierarchical, extends over time, and has the simultaneous purposes of enhancing the professional functioning of the more junior person(s); monitoring the quality of professional services offered to the clients that she, he, or they see; and serving as a gatekeeper for those who are to enter the particular profession. (p. 7) This definition speaks to supervision as a general psychological practice subsuming supervision in specialties such as counseling psychology and clinical psychology within it. Supervision in school psychology also fits beneath this large umbrella definition, although there are some subtle distinctions that will be explored later. The specific role of clinical or professional supervision of psychological services in the schools was described by Harvey and Struzziero (2008). Although their intended focus was on school-based practice, their synopsis was based on broad supervision literature within the fields of psychology and education. Their work is therefore relevant for the purposes of further defining supervision in general terms and in considering the

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role of supervision as applied to schools. According to Harvey and Struzziero, supervision involves (a) demonstrating and teaching techniques and skills; (b) collaborating on case conceptualization, strategy and intervention development, and the interpretation of case data; (c) debriefing after challenges such as crises; (d) providing evaluation on professional competence and growth; and (e) increasing supervisee self- awareness and reflection on their own personal strengths and challenges. Components of Effective Supervision A large literature base, mostly from the fields of clinical psychology and counseling psychology, specifies several of the elements that are vital to successful supervision outcomes (although as will be described, evidence of these outcomes – especially with regard to clients – is limited). To review every research study on the components of effective supervision would be beyond the scope of the current study. However, there does seem to be some agreement about the most important features of supervision including a positive supervisor-supervisee relationship, multicultural competence, and reflection, both from the supervisor and supervisee. When these components are in place, there are ideally positive results for supervisees (Harvey & Struzziero, 2008; Wheeler & Richards, 2007; Worthen & McNeill, 1996) and their client/consultees. Evidence of the latter, client change resulting from supervision, can currently be considered inconclusive due to research challenges such as controlling the numerous variables involved in supervision such as supervisor, supervisee, client, and external factors (Holloway & Neufeldt, 1995; Buser, 2008). However, one recent study of professional therapists by Bambling, King, Raue, Schweitzer, and Lambert (2006)

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reported that clients of supervised therapists experienced better outcomes than unsupervised therapists, providing initial data to support the impact of supervision on client outcomes. Supervisor-supervisee relationship. Barnett, Cornish, Goodyear, and Lichtenberg (2007) summarized the literature on effective supervision practices in professional supervision, and each author provided a commentary on the current state of knowledge in this area. One important condition for successful supervision identified by the authors is a good supervisor-supervisee relationship (Barnett et al.). This includes a supervisor’s commitment to the professional growth and emotional support of the supervisee, a collaborative working dynamic, and the establishment of mutual trust. According to Harvey and Struzziero (2008), “A positive supervisory relationship is critical for effective supervision,” (p. 29) while conflictual relationships can be detrimental for supervisee development. It is important for supervisors to have strong interpersonal skills to enhance the supervisor-supervisee working relationship. The ability to do this is affected by the context for supervision, supervisor characteristics, supervisee characteristics, and the relationship dynamics (Harvey & Struzziero). Characteristics of the supervisor and supervisee that are relevant include each individual’s personal characteristics as well as their level of experience, development, and motivation. Given these factors, attention should be given to building a working alliance that includes explicit and clear expectations (Harvey & Struzziero, 2008). In order to develop and enhance positive relationships, effective supervisors provide constructive feedback in a non-judgmental, supportive manner. They create a

Full document contains 242 pages
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to explore a university-based supervision process for pre-service level school-based consultants engaged in a consultation course with practicum experience. The study was approached from a constructivist worldview, using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. A qualitative research software program, NVivo8, was employed to assist with data organization and analyses. Guiding research questions included: (a) how does the process of university-based supervision in pre-service level, school-based consultation training work?; (b) what content and process concerns arise for consultants-in-training (CITs) during their practicum experiences?; (c) how are these concerns considered through the supervision process?; and (d) what are the interactions between the CITs and me (the supervisor) as part of supervision? Supervision session transcripts, reflective logs, and my own notes as supervisor from one semester of ongoing supervision with the five participants (second-year school psychology doctoral students engaged in consultation training) composed the data. I acted in the dual roles of researcher and supervisor. The theory that emerged from the participants' experiences demonstrates that the supervision process included activities outside of and within supervision sessions. Within supervision sessions, the CITs and I engaged in strategic interactions focused on past experiences, the present moment, and future application; these interactions were differentiated in a manner responsive to CIT needs based on perceptions of CIT skill level, requests for assistance, and consultation case process and content concerns. The perceived effectiveness of the supervision process in addressing CIT concerns resulted in mixed feelings including confusion, worrying, frustration, and positive feelings. This theory has implications for school-based consultation training and practice, and makes a unique contribution to broader supervision literature by emphasizing supervision at the pre-service training level, and connecting developmental models of supervision to differentiated models of supervision and instruction.