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A Catalog of Solo Works for Marimba with Electronics and An Examination and Performance Guide of "Flux" for Marimba and Electronic Tape by Mei-Fang Lin

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011
Dissertation
Author: Yi-Chia Chen
Abstract:
The marimba has garnered increased attention in percussion performance over the past thirty years. Literature for beginners through professionals in a multitude of styles have been written. With the ever-growing number of marimbists since the 1980's there has been a high demand for new works. Numerous pieces were created through commissions: composers contracted to write music by individuals, institutions, and consortia. Three primary types of marimba solo music were written: unaccompanied solos, concerti, and marimba solos with electronic accompaniment. Since electronic music is relatively new in marimba performance, there is very little information published regarding this topic. Only a handful of well-known compositions in this genre have been widely performed, and a great number of existing works are unfamiliar to the percussion world. The goal of this study is to generate an overview of electronic music in marimba performance by compiling a chronological catalog of compositions written for solo marimba with electronics. In addition, this study wishes to promote this genre of solo marimba music through the commission, performance, examination, and recording of a new work for marimba and electronics. It is the author's wish to bring this topic to percussionists' attention, and to enrich the marimba solo literature by both exploring existing literature and encouraging the commissioning and performance of marimba music.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .... vi i

LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ . vii i

PREFACE...... ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ i x

CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................. 1

Marimba Solo Literature: Past, Present, and Future ................... 1

Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ .......... 5

Scope of Study ................................ ................................ ............. 6

Range and Limitations ................................ ........................... 6

Difinition of Terms ................................ ................................ 7

Major Sources ................................ ................................ ........ 8

2

SOLO LITERATURE FOR MARIMBA AND ELE CTRONICS ...... 9

A Chronological Catalog and Overview of Solo Literature for Marimba and Electronics ................................ ................................ ... 9

The Current

Status of Solo Works for Marimba and Electronics in the Marimba Literature ................................ ................................ 16

3

BIOGRAPHY OF DR . MEI - FANG LIN ................................ ............ 22

Educational Background ................................ ............................ 22

Awards and Accomplishments ................................ .................. 23

Major Influences and Philosophy ................................ .............. 24

Western Influences ................................ .............................. 24

v

CHAPTER

Page

Eastern Influences ................................ ................................ 26

Other Experiences ................................ ................................ 28

4

AN EXAMINATION OF "F LUX" ................................ ..................... 30

Compositional Technique: Electronic Part ................................ 30

Compositional Technique: Marimba Part ................................ . 31

Pitch Material and Subsections ................................ ............ 31

Compositional Ideas of “Flux” ................................ ............ 38

Rhy thmic Devices ................................ ................................ 40

Meter, Rhythm, and Pattern ................................ ........... 41

Polyrhythm ................................ ................................ ..... 44

Rhythmic Displacement ................................ ................ 44

Octave Displacement ................................ ..................... 4 6

5

PERFORMANCE GUIDE OF "FLUX" ................................ ............. 4 9

Potential Performance Issues ................................ ..................... 4 9

Playing Techniques and Difficulty ................................ ...... 4 9

Dynamics and Balance ................................ ........................ 4 9

Performance Sug gestions ................................ ........................... 5 1

Textural Changes ................................ ................................ . 5 1

Roll ................................ ................................ ....................... 5 2

Sticking ................................ ................................ ................ 5 4

6

CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ .................... 5 9

REFERENCES

................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 6 1

vi

APPENDIX

Page

APPENDIX

A

ALPHABELTICAL LIST OF COMPOSERS’ WEBSIT ES OR RELATED WEBPAGES OF WORKS IN THE CHORONOLOGICAL LIST OF COMPOSIT IONS

.................

6 7

B

LIST OF WORKS BY ME I - FANG LIN

................................ ........

7 4

C

DISCOGRAPHY OF MEI - FANG LIN

................................ ..........

7 7

D

LETTER OF PERMISSIO N ................................ ............................

80

E

CONTACT INFORMATION OF MEI - FANG LIN

.......................

8 2

F

A RECORDING OF “FLU X”

FOR MARIMBA AND ELECTRONIC TAPE ................................ ................................ ...

8 4

G

PROGRAM NOTES OF “FLUX” ................................ ...................

8 6

vii

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

1.

Works for Solo Marimba and Electronics Composed in the 1980s

....

10

2.

Works for Solo Marimba and Electronics Composed in the 1990s .....

11

3.

Works for Solo Marimba and Electronics Composed i n the 2000s .....

13

4.

Number of Thr ee Types of Works in the Suggested Literature List From Selected University Curricul a ................................ .................

18

5.

Works Included in the Suggested Literature Lists and the Number of Appearance s ................................ ................................ ......................

19

6.

Three Sections of “Flux” ................................ ................................ ......

3 1

7.

Subsections of “Flux” ................................ ................................ ...........

33

8.

Scalar Figure s in mm. 37 to 46 ................................ .............................

4 7

9.

Synchronized Textural Changes in “Flux” ................................ ...........

5 1

A.1 .

List of Works by Mei - Fang Lin ................................ ............................

7 5

A.2 .

Discography of Mei - Fang Lin ................................ ..............................

7 8

A.3 .

List of Recordings with Mei - Fang Li n as Pianist ................................

7 9

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

1.

Harmonic Series Based on C2 as Fundamental

................................ .

32

2.

Flux, mm.15 - 16

................................ ................................ ..................

34

3.

Flux, mm. 23 - 24

................................ ................................ .................

35

4.

Flux,

mm. 29 - 32 ................................ ................................ ..................

35

5.

Flux,

mm. 54 - 55 ................................ ................................ ..................

36

6.

Flux,

mm. 66 - 75 ................................ ................................ ..................

37

7.

Flux,

mm. 1 - 9 ................................ ................................ ......................

39

8.

Flux,

mm. 37 - 45 ................................ ................................ ..................

42

9.

Flux,

mm. 131 - 136 ................................ ................................ ..............

43

10.

Flux,

mm. 57 - 59 ................................ ................................ ..................

4 5

11.

Flux,

mm. 127 - 128 ................................ ................................ ..............

45

12.

Flux,

mm. 10 - 14 ................................ ................................ ..................

5 3

13.

Flux,

mm. 118 - 125 ................................ ................................ ..............

5 3

14.

Flux,

mm. 75 - 80, Suggested Sticking ................................ .................

5 5

15.

Flu x,

mm. 107 - 112, Suggested Sticking ................................ .............

5 5

16.

Flux,

mm . 19 ................................ ................................ ........................

5 6

17.

Flux,

mm. 129 - 131, Suggested Sticking ................................ .............

5 7

ix

PREFACE

Being a percussionist, I am always amazed by the tremendous variety of percussion instruments and the incredible experience of play ing various types of percussion music. Out of all of the solo percussion instruments, I am especially attracted to the marimba and the great variety of solo literature written for it .

In 2009, I began to prepare material for a marimba recital that would be

used to fulfill one of my D.M.A. requirements. While preparing the music , I became very interested in the history of marimba literature.

I began by collecting information and documents that focused on marimba literature , such as world leading marimbist s ’

performance repertoire, research about marimba literature , program s from marimba recitals, and suggested literature lists from university curricula

and marimba artists . I noticed that very few works written for solo marimba and electronics were included . T his lack of information inspired

me to develop the first part of this project, which researches works composed for solo marimba and electronics that were published, composed, or documented in the United States.

While collecting information on solo marimba literature , a friend of mine, Lin - Yu Wang, invited me to her D . M . A . piano recital that was presented at Arizona State University

in February , 2010. I was deeply impressed by her performance of “Interaction” for Piano and Tape by Taiwanese composer Mei - Fan g Lin, and wondered if a notable composer such as Lin had written any compositions for the marimba.

In researching Mei - Fang Lin’s compositions , I realized that she had extensive experience s composing electronic music , but had

x

no t written anything for the m arimba, I contacted her in the summer of 2010 and commissioned her to write a work for solo marimba and electronics for my project .

The commissioned work “Flux” for M arimba an d Electronic T ape was completed in October 2011, and was premiered at Arizona St ate University on November 20, 2011. The second part of this project consists of an examination and a performance guide of “Flux,” as a result of my collaboration with the composer.

1

CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION

Marimba Solo Literature: Past, Present , and Future

The “Concertino for Marimba and Orchestra” (1940) by Paul Creston is considered the first serious work written for the concert marimba. 1

The marimba began a journey that lead to the creation of a new language . The marimba has a v aried past, both musicall y and culturally. Ancestors of the instrument go back centuries in distant locations such as Africa, China, and Indonesia. However, as a solo concert instrument, it has taken seventy years to establish its current position in the world of percussion . Only in the past three decades has the instrument been embraced by established composers. T he majority of compositions available to marimbist s between 1940 and 1980 were transcriptions or works written by percussionists . 2 Not until prominent composers and inspi red performers generated new works did marimba literature expand and capture the instrument’s potential.

Commissioning for the marimba by prominent composers has increased significantly since 1980. Two events in particular significantly impacted the devel opment of marimba

literature : The National Endowment of the Arts (NEA)

1

Sarah E. Smith, “The Development of the Marimba As a Solo Instrument and the Evolution of the Solo Literature for the Mar imba” (DMA diss., Ohio State University, 1995), 57 - 58.

2 I - Jen Fang, “ The 1986 National Endowment for the Arts Commission: An Introspective Analysis of Two Marimba Works, Reflections on the Nature of Water by Jacob Druckman and Velocities by Joseph Schwan tner, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Keiko Abe, Christopher Deane, Peter Klatzow, Wayne Siegel, Gitta Steiner, and Others” (DMA diss., University of North Texas, 2005), 1.

2

Consortium Commissioning Grant (1986) and the New Music Marimba Commissioning Project . The NEA Consortium Commissioning Grant issued to William Moersch, Gordon Stout , and Leigh Howard S tevens through the Percussive Arts Society (PAS) in 1986, resulted in three significant solo works

being written by P u litzer Prize - winning composers: “ Reflections on the Nature of Water ” by Jacob Druckman, “ Islands from Archipelago II: Autumn Island ” by Ro ger Reynold s , and “ Velocities ” by Joseph Schwantner . 3

The successful NEA Commissioning Grant was soon followed by another

commission project in the late 1980s, which was launched by the non - profit organization New Music Marimba . 4

Consequently, three marimb a concerti 5 by Richard Rodney Bennett, Andrew Thomas , and Libby Larsen were added to the marimba literature, and are recognized as the New Music Marimba’s first contribution to the marimba literature. 6

New Music Marimba, along with Percussive Arts S ociety,

marimbists

Nancy Zeltsman , and Robert Van Sice continue to commission works by prominent composers .

T hree major solo works were added to the marimba solo literature in the early 1990s , including “ See Ya Thursday ”

(1993) by Steven

3

William Moersch, “Commissioning Marimba Music,” Percussive Not es

37, no. 5 (October 1999): 62.

4 New Music Marimba , founded in 1986 by William Moersch, is dedicated to commission, perform, and promote new music for marimba.

5

Including “Concerto for Marimba and Chamber Orchestra” (1988) by Richard Rodney Bennett, “Loving Mad Tom: Concerto for Marimba and Orchestra” (1990) by Andrew Thomas , and “Marimba Concerto: After Hampton” (1992) by Libby Larsen .

6 William Moersch, “Commissioning Marimba Music,” 62 - 63.

3

Mackey, “ Rhyme and Reason ”

(1993) by Eugene O’Brien, and “ Marimbology ”

(1993) by Gunther Schuller. These two events clearly marked the beginning of consortium commissioning in the history of marimba literature , 7

and can be

considered the first significant contributions to the deve lopment of marimba literature by American composers .

Indeed, through the efforts of the se pioneers, a respected re pertoire was established in twenty - five years. However, v arious leading figures in the field feel

the current literature for four - mallet mari mba solo s is still insufficient, and agree that the marimba repertoire has space to grow . Mark Ford, coordinator of percussion studies at The University of North Texas and a Past - President of the Percussive Arts Society, sees the next thirty years as a per iod for the public to gain a greater awareness of the marimba through continued solo and chamber music settings, 8 which would inspire more composers to compose

serious works for the marimba . Ford’s observation shows not only th e necessity of continued

comm issioning for the marimba, but also the direction of the music for commissioners to consider.

7

I - Jen Fang, “ The 1986 National Endowment for the Arts C ommission, ” 2.

8

Kristopher Keeton, “Perspectives: An Interview with Mark Ford,” Percussive Notes 45, no. 3 (June 2007): 44 - 45.

4

Along with Mark Ford, Nancy Zeltsman has taken action to contribute a series of compositions to the repertoire. In 2006, Zeltsman initiated a project , ZMF Ne w Music,

where seven marimbists premiered and recorded

twenty - four

new works . 9

T wo volumes of Intermediate Masterworks for Marimba ,

that include the twenty - four new works, were published in July 2009, hoping to fill the gap of marimba repertoire between “ i diomatic etudes and virtuosic ‘warhorses , ’

thereby meeting important needs of both students and concert performers. ” 10

Professionals in the field, such as Ford and Zeltsman, are awar e of the necessity of continued commissioning activities that focus on mult iple styles and levels. However, the existing literature and commission projects reveal a problem: unaccompanied solo work s and concerti obtain much greater attention than the third type of marimba solo music: solo works for marimba and electronics. For ex ample, works that commissioned from the activities mentioned above, including NEA, New Music Marimba, and ZMF New Music, are unacc ompanied solo works and concerti . While many dissertations and scholarly publications that document information about marimba literature and its development

were written

9 Twenty - four works were premiered and recorded by eight marimbists, including Ivana Bilic, Thomas Burritt, Jean Geoffroy, Be verley Johnston, William Moersch, Gordon Stout, Jack Van Geem , and Nancy Zeltsman in June and July

2009 , during the Zeltsman Marimba Festival (ZMF).

10

Nancy Zeltsman, “Intermediate Masterworks for Marimba,” ZMF New Music, http://newmusic.zmf.us/intermedia te - masterworks.cfm (accessed June 27, 2011).

5

during the past two decades , 11

very few documents focus on solo works f or marimba and electronics . In order to understand the current status of electronic music in the marimba repertoire, a study of compositions w ritten for marimba and electronics is essential. A chronological catalog of compositions written for solo marimba and electronics compiled by the author aims to establish a list of the existing literature . Furthermore, to understand the current standpoint of electronic music in the field of marimba performance, a survey of the three types of compositions within the suggested marimba literature from selected university curricula is also included in this study.

Purpose of the Study

The goal of t his study aim s to offer an overview of the existing literature written for solo marimba and electronics and its status in university curricula.

In addition, the author has documented the process by which a new work, “ Flux” (2011) for marimba and electronic tape 12 by Mei - Fang Lin,

was added to the marimba repertoire .

11

D issertations that discussed marimba repertoire includes:

“ The Development of the Marimba as a Solo Instrument and the Evolution of the Solo Literature for the Marimba ” (1995) by Sarah Smith, “ An Annotated C atalog of Published Marimba Concertos in the United States From 1940 - 2000 ” (2004) by Christine Conklin, “ An Annotated Bibliography of Solo Marimba Music by Canadian Composers, 1981 - 2006 ” (2007) by Jeffery Jerry Donkersgoed , and “ A Catalog of Works for Mari mba Soloist with Percussion Ensemble Composed Between 1959 and 2008 with Analysis of Selected Works ” (2008) by David Kissinger , along with many dissertations and thesis that focus on an examination of individual works.

12

The complete title provided by th e composer. The “tape” refers to the pre - recorded electronic part generated by a computer.

6

New marimba music pioneer William Moersch states

“the commissioning of new music has been the primary source o f marimba repertoire since 1940. ” 13

The new work “Flux” and an examination of this work are the r esult of a collaboration between Mei - Fang Lin and the author, who hopes to continue the tradition of “commission ing and collaborating ” between composer and performer

and to draw

greater at tention to this specific format of composition for the marimba.

Scop e of the Study

Range and Limitations

For the scope of this study , I have divided marimba solo repertoire into three major types: unaccompanied solo work , solo work with electronics , and concerto. Works for “solo with piano accompanimen t” are excluded, sinc e this type of work is not a commo n setting in marimba literature. 14 In addition, m usic for marimba with an y accompanying instrument would fit into a fourth category, chamber music , which is not considered in this study .

The chronological catalog of compos itions written for marimba and e lectronics inc luded in this study

are limited to the original four - mallet solo works written for marimba and electronics. While compiling the list of existing compositions, works that are transcription s , works that require s ix - mallet technique s , and works written for marimba and percussion instruments are

13 William Moersch, “C ommissioning Marimba Music,” 62.

14

Since that four - mallet techniques enable performers to play more than one independent voice at the same ti me; a majority of marimba solo literature is composed for marimba alone.

7

excluded. However, works written for marimba with secondary or incidental use of additional percussion instrument s are included in the catalog of compositions .

Definition of Terms

Electronic Music “sought to expand compositional resources beyond the sounds available from instruments and voices, to explore new sound shapes and timbres both by transforming recorded sources and by synthesizing new sounds, and to break the confin es of fixed pitch and metrically based approaches to rhythm .” 15 Therefore, a tape of recorded acoustic instrument accompanying live performance is not included as

a type of electronic music in this study.

Solo w ork for marimba and electronics is defined as a work for one performer on the marimba, along wit h one of the following three types of electronic part s : fixed elect ronic part , electronic effects, or live

electronics.

A f ixed electronic part is often referred as a tape part, wherein the electronic part is pre - recorded and played during the performance , serving as an acco mpaniment or other musical role as desired by the composer . Electronic effects is a technique “where the computer amplifies and modifies the sound of the percussion instruments without ne cessarily adding additional unique sounds.” 16 For example, amplification and reverberation are the widely used technique of electronic effects. The last type, live electronics , is the mos t

15

Simon Emmerson, Denis Smalley, “Elctro - acoustic music,” Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/subscribe

r /article/grove/music/08695 (accessed J une 29, 2011).

16 Charles Martin , “Percussion and Computer in Live Performance” (Master’s thesis, Australian National University, 2009), 19.

8

complicated setting among the three types of electronic part. In liv e electronic music, technology and devices are used to generate, transform, modify or trigger sounds produced by the performer. 17 Thus, it is also referred as “interactive electro nics.” In the chronological catalog of compositions for marimba and electronic s (table 1, 2, and 3 in chapter two), a column “type” indicates the specific type of electronic under which that work falls.

Major Source s

The chronological catalog of compositions

for solo marimba and electronics is based on information available

in th e United States yet is not limited to works written by composers of the United States. As a result, this catalog of compositions includes w orks written by American composers , works that are published in the United States, works widely known and performed i n the United States , and works that are documented in online archives of professional musical associations and academic institutions 18

in the United States , in order to cover a broad range of repertoire that is currently documented and available in the Unit ed States.

17 Simon Emmerson, Denis Smalley, “Elctro - acoustic music. ”

18 Including the online archive s of Percussive Arts Soc iety (PAS), American Music Center (AMC), American Composers Alliance (ACA), American Composers Forum (ACF), WorldCat, ProQwest, The ASU School of Music Percussion Library Database, Boston Conservatory Percussion Database , and online catalog of major publis hers of percussion music .

9

CHAPTER

2

SOLO LITERATURE FOR MARIMBA AND ELECTRON ICS

A Chronological Catalog and Overview of Solo Literature for Marimba and Electronics

The chronological catalog of compositions for solo marimba and electronics is shown in three tables ( se e table 1, 2, and 3), and each table contains works written within approximately a decade. The earliest work dates back to 1978, and the most recent work was written in 2010.

A result of 90 works written between 1978 and 2010 is included, with 21 works co mposed in the first decade (1978 - 1989, see table 1), 25 works composed in the second decade (1990 - 1999, see table 2) , and 44 works composed in the last decade (2000 - 2 010, see table 3). Within the 90 works written for marimba and electronics, 56 works were written for marimba and fixed electronics, 19 works were composed for marimba and live electronics, 2 works utilized amplification and reverberation as electronic effects, and 13 works are not categorized due to a lack of information regarding the electron ic part. 19

Rather than attempting to compile an all - inclusive list, the author hopes that this catalog of compositions will serve as a source of information for percussionists and marimbists who wish to explore the repertoire for solo marimba and electroni cs.

19

In table 1, 2, and 3, the abbreviation under the column “type” refers to the three types of electronic parts mentioned previously: tape part (T), electronic effect (E), and live electronics (L).

10

Type

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

Composer

Iván Patachich

Dary John Mizelle

Maurice Wright

Martin Wesley - Smith

Barry Traux

Gary Kulesha

John Celona

Gerard Geay

Guy Reibel

Eve Beglarian

Martin Wesley - Smith

Christopher Stowens

Nigel Westlake

Mark Waldrep

Claude Schryer

Stephen Bull

Caleb Morgan

Vic Hoyland

Teppo Hauta - aho

Brian McCue

François Rossé

Title

Metamorfosi I:

per marimbafono e nastro

Polytempus II for Marimba and Computer

Marimba Music

For Marimba and Tape

Nightwatch:

per marimba e nastro magnetico

Angels

Instrument flying for Marimba and Computer Tape

Puzzle for Marimba and Tape

Miroirs for Marimba and Tape

Spherical Music for S olo M arimba and 11 P re - recorded M arimbas

White Knight and Beaver for Soloist(s) and Tape

Atamasco and the Wooden Shelter

Fabian Theory for Percussion Solo and Digital Delay

Morphism IV:

for Marimba, MIDI Mallet Controller and Computer

Percussion of the Air for Marimba and Tape

Ball the Jack for Marimba and Tape

Pay No Attention To That Man Behind The Curtain

Work - Out for Marimba and KAT (computer activator)

Ode to Whales for Marimba Improvisation and Tape

Premonitions I for Marimba and Tape

Pour un Végétal qui Sonne for Marimba and Tape

Table 1. Works for Solo Marimba and Electronics Composed in the 1980s

Year

1978

1979

1981

1982

1982

1983

1983

1984

1985

1985

1985

1986

1987

1987

1987

1988

1988

1988

1989

1989

1989

Total: 21 Works

11

Type

T

T

T

T

T

L

T

L

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

Composer

Keiko Abe

Keiko Abe

David Clark Little

Tristram Cary

Charles Argersinger

Philippe Boesmans

Philip Armstrong

Peter Smith

Carl Stone

Stephen Rush

Daniel McCarthy

Yves Meylan

James Hegarty

Udo Diegelmann

Alian Thibault

Donald Chamberlian

Garry Eister

Christos Hatzis

Udo Diegelmann

Title

In Praise of Nature for Marimba and Tape

From the Far Side of Earth for Marimba and Tape

Modi - fications for Marimba and Tape

Black, W hite & Rose: Music for Marimba with Gongs, Woodblocks and

Prer ecorded Tape

Celestial Dances for Marimba and Tape

Daydreams for Marimba and Electronics

Gaian Pulse for Marimba and Pre - recorded Tape

Mare

- a' 440'' for mMarimba and Live Electronics

Rezukuja for Bass Marimba and MIDI Based Electronics

Nature’s Course for Marimba and Prerecorded Tape

Rimbasly

Musique 2 Duo Marimba Bande Magnétique

Metallic Groove for Marimba and Tape

Anagramm 1 für Marimbaphon und Tonband

Le Chuchemar Climatisé

Pixelation for Marimba and Tape

Sonatina for Marimba, Electronic Reverb, a nd Soundtrack

Fertility Rites for Marimba and Tape

Pentaphase :

für Marimbaphon und Tonband

Table 2. Works for Solo Marimba and Electronics Composed in the 1990s

Year

1990

1990

1990

1991

1991

1991

1991

1991

1991

1992

1992

1993

1993

1994

1995

1995

1995

1997

1997

12

Type

T

T

E

T

L

T

Comp oser

Jacques Demierre

Paul Bissell

Chris Paul Harman

Emma Lou Diemer

Steven Everett

Daniel McCarthy

Title

W. J. (Take Three ) pour Marimba et Haut - parleurs

Hangar 84 for Marimba and Tape

Verve (Reverberation)

Ice Rhythm for Solo Marimba or Marimba with Electronics

Quiet Silence

WarHammer

Table. 2 Continued

Year

1997

1998

1998

1999

1999

1999

Total: 25 Works

13

Type

T

L

L

T

T

T

T

E

L

L

L

T

L

T

L

T

T

Composer

Stephen Vitiello

Paul Bissell

Joseph Harchanko

Timo thy Place

Alfred Zimmerlin

Lars Indrek Hansson

Ken Ueno

Alexandra Gardner

Ben Wahlund

João Pedro Oliveira

Jérôme Blais

Rodrigo Sigal

Brett Masteller

Cort Lippe

Christien Ledroit

Pedro Amaral

Moto Osada

Paul Wilson

Allan Schindler

Petra Bachrata

Title

Scratchy Marimba Meets the Low Pass Shrew

The Alabados Song

Chaco Skies for Marimba and Computer

Dark Forest for Marimba and Interactive Electronics

Horizont

Serendipity for Marimba and Tape

Theater in Music for Marimba and Electronics

Ayehli

Cr ystal Butterfly for Solo Marimba and Recording

Liquid Bars

Plugged 1.1 for Solo Amplified Marimba

Rimbarimba

Mia - graik - mabta:

for marimba and Live Computer

Music for Marimba and Computer

Night Chill for Marimba and Recorded Sound

Script

Take the Six for Marimba and Electronics

Without Words for Marimba and Live Electronics

Precipice for Marimba and Computer Generated Sounds

Reflections for Marimba and Tape

Full document contains 99 pages
Abstract: The marimba has garnered increased attention in percussion performance over the past thirty years. Literature for beginners through professionals in a multitude of styles have been written. With the ever-growing number of marimbists since the 1980's there has been a high demand for new works. Numerous pieces were created through commissions: composers contracted to write music by individuals, institutions, and consortia. Three primary types of marimba solo music were written: unaccompanied solos, concerti, and marimba solos with electronic accompaniment. Since electronic music is relatively new in marimba performance, there is very little information published regarding this topic. Only a handful of well-known compositions in this genre have been widely performed, and a great number of existing works are unfamiliar to the percussion world. The goal of this study is to generate an overview of electronic music in marimba performance by compiling a chronological catalog of compositions written for solo marimba with electronics. In addition, this study wishes to promote this genre of solo marimba music through the commission, performance, examination, and recording of a new work for marimba and electronics. It is the author's wish to bring this topic to percussionists' attention, and to enrich the marimba solo literature by both exploring existing literature and encouraging the commissioning and performance of marimba music.