Fame came to [French philosopher and writer Jean-Jacques] Rousseau in the early 1750s, with the Discourse on Arts and Sciences and the Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, both of which rejected the central creed of the Enlightenment, its belief in progress fueled by reason, science and commerce. For Rousseau, men were naturally good, "noble savages," who were corrupted by civilization. As society and its institutions evolved, primitive innocence and natural honesty were replaced by artificiality and falseness. His assault on the ideals of philosophers alienated him from their company, most dramatically from Voltaire, who never forgave Rousseau for his criticisms....But it would be Rousseau's novel, Julie, known also as La Nouvelle Heloise, which, in 1761, brought him lasting fame as one of Europe's most celebrated writers. With this book, which seemed to herald the end of "the Age of Reason," he became a dominant figure in European culture, the focus of a cult of romantic sensibility.